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Protestant Episcopal Church 


1785— 1885 



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Copyright, 1886, 


By a Resolution of the New York Diocesan Convention 
of 1885, a Committee on Historical Publications, consisting of 

The Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL.D., 

The Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., D.C.L., Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson, 

The Rev. Francis Lobdell, D.D., Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, 

The Rev. William H. Benjamin, D.D., 

was appointed for the purpose of preparing and publishing 
an account of the Proceedings of the Centenary Celebration 
of the Diocese, together with such other historical matter as 
might be deemed appropriate. In accordance with this 
Resolution, the volume now offered to the public by the 
persons appointed by the One Hundredth Convention of 
the Diocese has been prepared for the press by a member 
of the Committee, under its direction. 

The Committee desire to return their sincere thanks to 
Bishops Coxe and Doane, and to the Rev. Drs. De Costa, 
Seabury, Smith, and Spencer, for valuable contributions to 
the Centennial History. To Mr. Benjamin Moore, who 
kindly supplied the steel engraving of his grandfather, 
Bishop Moore, used in this work, and to Miss Potter, who 
procured for the same purpose the admirable portrait of 
her father, the venerable Bishop of the Diocese, the Com- 
mittee also desire to express their grateful acknowledgments. 

New York, A/a}', 1886. 



Proceedings at Trinity Church, New York, September, 1885 3 

Centennial Sermon by the Rev. William J. Seabury, D.D 8 

Proceedings at St. Thomas' Church, New York, September, 1885 45 

Historical Address by the Rev. B. F. De Costa, D.U 87 

Address by the Bishop of Western New York 105 

Address by the Bishop of Albany 113 

Address by the Bishop of Long Island Iig 

Sketches of the Bishops : 

The First Bishop of New York 127 

The Second Bishop of New York 142 

The Third Bishop of New York 148 

The Fourth Bishop of New York 171 

The Fifth Bishop of New York 176 

The Sixth Bishop of New York 187 

The Assistant Bishop of New York 199 

Hi.storical notices of the Parishes 203 

Sketches of Institutions of Learning^ and Charity 369 

Church Literature of the Century 431 

Index 447 




Samuel Provoost West Buttre Frontispiece 

Benjamin MooIre Sharpless Ifall. Face 142 

John Henry Hobart Paradise Buttre 

Benjamin T. Onderdonk Brady ... Ormsby... 

Jonathan M. Wainwright Unknown Rogers . . . 

Henry C. Potter Rockwood Williams. 

Old Trinity Church, New York . . Davis Eddy 



Present Trinity Church, New York " 3 

Bishop Provoost's Book-plate 129 

Horatio Potter Huntington Johnson Face 187 

Twenty-seven Autograph Fac-similes : Bishops Coxe, Doane, Hobart, Madi- 
son, Moore, Onderdonk, Horatio Potter, Henry C Potter, Provoost, Seabury, 
Wainwright, White; General Wilson; Rev. Drs. De Costa, Dix, Hawks, 
Seabury, Smith, Spencer, and the Rev. Daniel Burhans. 

The rise and growth of a Church in a Nation, or any portion of a Nation, 
which has expanded like the United Stales, is perhaps the most important 
theme in the history of the Nation itself. — Chaplain-General Gleig. 



y' OF THE ^^ 



The opening services of the One Hundred and Second 
Convention of the Diocese of New York were held in Trinity- 
Church on Wednesday, September 30, 1885, and were designed 
to constitute a commemoration of the Centenary of the 
Diocese. Arrangements had been made by a committee 
appointed for that purpose by the Convention. 

The Bishops of the other dioceses contained within the 
State of New York were invited to be present and to send 
representatives of the clergy and laity, and invitations were 
also sent to the bishops of dioceses contiguous to that of 
New York or in its neighborhood. 

The Bishops of Central New York and Pennsylvania sent 
apologies for their absence in the following letters, the former 
of which was addressed to the Chairman of the Committee of 
Arrangements, the latter to the Assistant Bishop of New 

Hadley, September 21, 1885. 
My Dear Brother: 

Your favor of the ninth instant, requesting me to inform 
you whether it is my intention to be present at the approach- 
ing Centenary services of the Diocese of New York, came 
here while I was away from home. The Assistant Bishop 
whose personal courtesy I wish to acknowledge, has been 
aware for some weeks that I am obliged to forego the bene 
fits and enjoyments of that occasion. The Diocese of Central 
New York will be represented, I hope, by clerical and lay 
Delegates, duly appointed in accordance with the invitation 
with which we were honored. In many of the chief blessings 
which you will commemorate we are, with you, grateful 
partakers. Our common inheritance ought to preserve you 
and us in perpetual fellowship — the fellowship of the ever- 


lasting Faith. Whatever measures of fruit, or accessions of 
power, are granted to you yield manifold benefits to us. 
We are quickened by your activities. We are enriched by 
your wisdom. We are enlarged by your liberality. We try 
to emulate your zeal. We rejoice in your abounding gifts of 
grace. If it seems to older nations than ours to be a rather 
youthful antiquity and a somewhat brief history that you are 
about to celebrate, the short record is not without some 
signal points of interest. Among these may be well reckoned, 
it appears to me, a manifest increase of toleration, an abate- 
ment of party spirit, and an advance in mutual sympathy 
and service among all classes of people, as both the duty and 
privilege of churchmen. New York has certainly done its 
part well towards the furtherance of church-life and the de- 
velopment of church-principles. Should the coming observ- 
ance and your ample resources prompt some fresh move- 
ment of general advantage to our whole Communion through- 
out the country, like the erection of a worthy Church-House, 
or the establishment of a great Theological Library in 
the national metropolis, or a generous Centennial missionary 
endowment, how beneficent its practical result would be, and 
how universal the thankfulness and joy. 

With the highest esteem, I am, 

Faithfully and affectionately yours, 

F. D. Huntington. 

To the Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D. 

Philadelphia, September 28, 1885. 
My Dear Bishop Potter : 

I regret to find that I shall not be able to be present at the 
interesting services on Wednesday. Though my health has 
greatly improved yet my strength has not fully returned, and 
I must economize it in every way, in order to discharge the 
duties required of me here. 

Our respective Dioceses have long been yoke-fellows in the 
great work of planting the Church, and fostering the Church in 
these Western lands. Their first Bishops were consecrated 
together, in the Chapel of Lambeth Palace, in London, by 


the same Prelates of the Church of England. The first 
Bishop of Pennsylvania consecrated three of the six Bishops 
of New York. 

Your eminent Bishop Hobart was a native of Philadelphia, 
and began his ministry in this Diocese; and your own minis- 
try was commenced in what was then the Diocese of Penn- 
sylvania. Twice have the Dioceses of New York and Penn- 
sylvania had brothers as Bishops ; and now again, has the 
Diocese of New York taken the son of my ever venerated and 
noble predecessor, and committed to him the jurisdiction of 
the largest Diocese in the United States. 

We thus seem mortised into each other in various ways, 
and interlinked by many tender remembrances. 

It is just one hundred years to-day since the first General 
Convention of the Middle and Southern States, seven in 
number, met in Christ Church in this city for organization, 
and for securing the Episcopacy, and for the revision of the 
Liturgy. The representatives were few, the churches were 
feeble, and the cause itself seemed hopeless. Yet, " the little 
one has become a thousand, and the small one a strong nation," 
because it was the Church of the Living God and the Living 
Christ has gone forth with His Church, conquering and to 

I could not forbear writing you, my beloved brother, 
these few lines, and sending them to you as " the right hand 
of fellowship," from your father's diocese and your father's 
successor, to the cherished son who so well wears his father's 
honors, and on whose person and work I invoke God's most 
gracious blessing. 

I remain. 

Very truly yours, 

Wm. Bacon Stevens. 

Rt. Rev. H. C. Potter, D.D., LL.D. 

Morning Prayer was said at nine o'clock by the Rev. 
George W. Douglas, S.T.D., assisted by the Rev. Joseph W. 
Hill and the Rev. Henry Bedinger, Rector of St. Luke's 
Church, Matteawan, who read the first lesson for the day. 


After a brief intermission the order for the Administra- 
tion of the Holy Communion was begun by the Right Rev. 
Henry C Potter, D.D,, Assistant Bishop of the Diocese, as 
Celebrant, assisted by the Right Rev. A. N. Littlejohn, D.D,, 
Bishop of Long Island, who read the Epistle, and the Right 
Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D.D., who read the Holy 
Gospel. The Bishops of Albany, Tennessee, and New 
Jersey were also present, and aided in communicating the 
clergy and laity. 

The musical portion of the services was under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Arthur Messiter, Organist of Trinity Church. 
Morning Prayer was sung by a small but efficient choir; the 
full choir of the church, reinforced by additional singers, 
took part in the solemn celebration of the Holy Communion, 
the order being as follows : 

Processional Hymn, No. 202. "The Church's one foundation." 

Introit, Psalm cxxv. i. ^' All they that trust in the Lord, shall be even as the 

Mount Zion, which may not be retnoved, but standeth fast forever.". . .Hiller. 

Responses to Commandments Cherubini. 

Nicene Creed (Monotone with organ harmonies). 

Offertory: Psalm cxxv. 2, 3, 4, 5. ^'' Round Jerusalem stand the mountains 

. . . but peace shall be upon Israel Hiller. 

Sanctus Cherubini. 

Eucharistic Hymn, No. 205 : 2, 3. ^^ Hail, sacred feast." 

Gloria in Excelsis Old Chant. 

Recessional Hymn, No. 1S9. "Hark, the sound of holy voices." 

Among the delegates present, and representing the other 
dioceses in the State of New York, were : 

From the Diocese of Western New York : 

The Rev. Lloyd Windsor, D.D. Mr. William B. Douglas. 

The Rev. E. N. Potter, D.D. Prof. Hamilton Smith. 

The Rev. L. B. Van Dyck. Mr. Alfred Ely. 

From the Diocese of Long Island : 

The Rev. Charles H. Hall, D.D. The Hon. John A. King. 

The Rev. William H. Moore, D.D. The Hon. Seth Low. 

From the Diocese of Albany: 
The Rev. William Payne, D.D. Chancellor Henry R. Pierson. 

The Rev. John I. Tucker, D.D. The Hon. James Forsyth. 


From the Diocese of Central New York : 

The Rev. Theodore Babcock, D.D. Mr. William H. Bogart. 

The Rev. Charles F. Olmsted. Mr. George J. Gardner. 

The sermon was preached by the Rev. William J. Sea- 
bury, D.D., Rector of the Church of the Annunciation, New 
York, Professor of Ecclesiastical Polity and Law in the Gen- 
eral Theological Seminary. 



Mark well her bulwarks, set up her houses : that ye may tell them that come 
after. — Psalm, xlviii. 12. 

The psalmist sings the glory of God as manifested in His 
Holy City. The burning words of praise which flow from his 
heart appear to commemorate some recent demonstration of 
the Divine power and providence ; but they are general as 
well, and regard this particular instance as only one of a con- 
tinuous and unbroken succession of God's mercies, by reason 
whereof the stronghold of the chosen people was glorious and 

The hill of Sion is a fair place and the joy of the whole 
earth. The enemies of the Lord have compassed sea and 
land to work the ruin of the holy place. The kings of the 
earth are gathered against Jerusalem, but no sooner gathered 
than dispersed ; and the ships of the sea are broken. The 
deliverances wrought for Sion excited, indeed, the wonder of 
the nations, but to the people themselves there was no marvel. 
Astonishment and perplexity reigned without the city, but 
within, the calmness and joy of an assured faith ; for God is 
well known in her palaces as a sure refuge. So for general 
and continued mercies, as well as for recent deliverances, the 
citizens were incited to a thankful praise. And while with 
gladdened hearts they were to render their grateful adoration 
to the Object of all worship, they were to look with admiring 
and watchful love upon the site which that Divine Being had 
chosen to place His Name there — a love which was to lead 
not only to praise, but also to careful attention to the Holy 
City, which was to be scanned within and without, and held 
evermore in such reverend estimation as might tend to 
preserve it for a perpetual memorial of God to successive 
generations. Fortified against attacks from without, strength- 
ened and beautified in its several parts within, it was to en- 
dure as a standing monument to the honor and glory of the 


God of Israel. " Let the Mount Sion rejoice, and the daughter 
of Judah be glad, because of Thy judgments. Walk about 
Sion ; go round about her, and tell the towers thereof. Mark 
well her bulwarks, set up her houses, that ye may tell them 
that come after. For this God is our God for ever and ever. 
He shall be our guide unto death." 

And these words, spoken first with reference to the Holy 
City of the Jews, have ever been echoed by the faithful mem- 
bers of Christ, as the due expression of their grateful love to 
God for His mercies toward them in their earthly warfare, 
and of their heartfelt solicitude for the welfare of the Church, 
the true Sion, the new Jerusalem which came down from 
Heaven. Thankful adoration of God as our Creator and pre- 
server; joyful contentment with the blessed privileges of our 
heavenly citizenship ; watchful attention to the earthly needs 
of the heavenly city while it affords us shelter and refuge 
against the assaults of our enemies; and an earnest solicitude 
to hand down to succeeding generations the blessings which 
we have found within it, and thus to perpetuate through all 
time the memorial of human redemption through Christ — 
these are the thoughts suggested by this fragment of holy 
writing to the devout understanding of a Christian's faith. 
Let these thoughts suggest, in their turn, the direction which 
our meditations are to take to-day : and as we keep the feast 
of the memorial of God's good benediction for the century 
past, may our heart and mind be quickened by His Holy 
Spirit, to a grateful remembrance of His mercies toward us, 
and to such an observation of our Holy City as may both en- 
hance our thankfulness, and stimulate our watchfulness ; and 
thus aid us in our endeavor to realize the better both the na- 
ture of the trust which we hold for them that come after, and 
our duty in the discharge of that trust. 

I know not how I can better serve the purpose for which 
a preacher was to be appointed for the present year than by 
drawing your attention to certain grounds of thankfulness and 
of watchfulness connected with the principles upon which our 
ecclesiastical system is based, as these may be inferred from 
the course pursued by the Church in New York in the work 


of organization, which we seem now particularly to commemo- 
rate ; and then, with such brief allusion as occasion may re- 
quire and time may permit, noting something of the process 
of that growth, through which we have, by God's mercy, at- 
tained our present stature. And I bespeak your attention to 
these reflections, in the same spirit of candor and thankfulness 
in which I am disposed to present them, believing that those 
institutions by which the administration of our spiritual life in 
the Church is guarded, are as worthy of our observation and 
care as were the material defenses of the Holy City of such 
regard on the part of the chosen people of old ; and believing, 
too, that we cannot rightly provide for them that come after, 
unless we have first heartily appreciated the example and in- 
fluence of them that went before. 

We look back to the Convention of 1785, as fixing the date 
of the organization of the Diocese of New York. That the 
Diocese came then first into being, is more than can with 
strict propriety be said, unless we regard the Convention as 
the Diocese. In effect, the Church in New York existed as a 
! distinct Diocese when the jurisdiction over it of its tradition- 
j ary >Diocesan, the Bishop of London, was abandoned as a 
* consequence of the recognition, by Great Britain, of the Col- 
ony of New York as an independent State. Formally com- 
plete the Diocese did not become until Bishop Provoost, 
having been consecrated at Lambeth in 1787, began the exer- 
cise of his Episcopal jurisdiction within the State. But, look- 
ing to the first step taken in the conscious possession of an 
independent corporate life, we may properly enough regard 
the present occasion as the Centennial of the Diocese of New 

How far, when that first step was taken, the distinction 
may have been realized between the Church in a State, con- 
sidered as the Clergy and Laity grouped within an inde- 
pendent civil jurisdiction, and the Church in a Diocese, 
considered as the Clergy and Laity occupying a territory 
constituting the field for the jurisdiction of a single Bishop, 
it is not necessary to consider. In fact, the distinction 
could hardly have been noted, further than that the Church 


in a State being organized, it would be regarded as forming, 
as a matter of course, the jurisdiction of a single Bishop. 
Neither the number of the faithful, nor the facility of pro- 
curing Bishops, was then such as to point to the probability 
of having more Bishops than one in a single State. The 
Churchmen of New York in 1785 held the position of the 
Church in a State incomplete for want of a Bishop ; and, as 
in the supplying of that want they attained the position of a 
complete Diocese, so it is but reasonable to regard them as 
having held, before that, the position of a Diocese tempo- 
rarily deprived of a Diocesan. In short, they held, practically, 
at the time of their first organization, the position of the 
Church in a State, and of the Church in a Diocese, according 
as we regard their relations to political or to ecclesiastical 
divisions ; incomplete, indeed, in either aspect, but capable of 
completion, and actually in due time proceeding to comple- 
tion in both aspects — and in both at once. 

Two conditions characterized their position. In the first 
place they were members of the Church of Christ in com- 
munion with the Church of England, under whose rightful 
jurisdiction they had received their baptisms and ordinations. 
In the second place they were so situated as to be able to act 
in the matter of organization without being responsible to any 
external authority whatever. One of these conditions was, 
no doubt, an offset to the other. There were many courses 
which, under the first, it would have been morally impossible 
for them to adopt, which, under the second, it might be said 
that they were quite at liberty to take. As members of the 
Church of England, they could not, without forfeiting their 
unity with that Church, depart from the substance either of 
her doctrine, discipline, or worship. But as an independent 
body, they might in fact have shaped their course as they 
pleased. Do I state this independence too strongly? Not 
at all. The civil power made no claim upon their allegiance 
in matters of religion. The Episcopate under which their 
membership in the Church had been established had of neces- 
sity left them to themselves, and they had no Bishops of their 
own. Nor was there any power amongst the members of 


their Communion scattered throughout the newly constituted 
States to which the churchmen of New York were responsible. 
The churchmen of every State were in like position. It could 
not be pretended that the churchmen of one State were re- 
sponsible to those of another; nor that those of one State 
were responsible to those of all the rest considered as a whole, 
nor to any body representing that multitude. There was in 
fact no such body. The General Convention, considered as a 
representative body of supreme legislative powers, came first 
into being in 1789 ; and then claimed the obedience only of 
such churches in States as acceded to its Constitution. Be- 
fore our Convention of 1785 there had been a meeting of a 
body which may be said to have formed the nucleus of the 
subsequent General Convention ; but the meeting was tenta- 
tive, and its acts stood on recommendation only, having no 
sort of authority. So that the churchmen of New York could 
not have been more independent than they were. 

In calling attention to the independent position of these 
men I emphasize the mercies shown to this spiritual house in 
the course which they adopted. Their very freedom from 
accountability — their power to go wrong in laying foundations 
upon which future generations were to build — enhances not 
only our admiration of their wisdom, but also our thankful- 
ness for the Divine guidance vouchsafed to them. And we 
must remember that many things which, in the hallowed use 
of a century, have become matters of course to us, v/ere to a 
great extent matters of experiment with them. Everything 
seemed open and unsettled ; and, amid the anxieties and un- 
certainties of such a situation, they were to choose a course 
of action which would determine the position of the Church 
in New York ; and which might unchurch it altogether, or 
hamper it with such impediments as would have made it hard 
to be proved, by and by, whether it had a name to live at all. 
But the course which they did pursue was remarkable, both 
for its conservatism of the essentials of their rightful inheri- 
tance of faith and order and for its progressiveness in the 
adaptation of new ideas to the welfare of the Church. Con- 
servative in respect to the necessity of the Episcopate, and 


the preservation of that form of sound words, both of faith 
and worship, which was contained in the Book of Common 
Prayer, the Church in New York yet availed itself of its inde- 
pendent position to give its influence in support of ideas 
which, if not altogether new in the Church, were certainly 
new in the systematized form which they were now assuming. 

Conservative and traditional ideas pointed to the necessity 
of the completion of the Church by the Episcopate, and an 
Episcopate, too, of the purely primitive pattern ; that is to 
say, without that temporal power and dignity which the ene- 
mies of Episcopacy were fond of assuming to be essential to 
it. But conservatism stopped here, and was desirous that 
the Bishop, when obtained, should be, also according to the 
primitive pattern, the Governor of that portion of Christ's 
kingdom on earth which was committed to him. Where con- 
servatism rested, however, the new ideas began to form, and 
the claim was made that Bishops, however supreme in the 
exercise of purely spiritual authority, were not the only ones 
concerned in the government of the Church, but that the 
other Clergy and the Laity were to be admitted into some 
share of that government. 

There was indeed nothing new in the thought that arbi- 
trary, unchecked power was not characteristic of the Episcopal 
office, although it sometimes might have been of single Bish- 
ops. In the best ages of the Church, not only were the 
Bishops, as the co-equal administrators of a common office, 
a check upon each other, but also each one, in his own juris- 
diction, was presumed to regulate his government with due 
regard to the judgment and feeling of his people. The 
maxim that they should do nothing without the Bishop was 
hardly more fully recognized than its converse, that the 
Bishop should do nothing without them. Yet this by no 
means rested on the principle of a common authority. On the 
contrary, the authority belonged to the Bishop. But then, 
his was a power which worked by love and not by fear ; not 
like that of the Civil Ruler, by coercion, but by the free con- 
sent of those whose obedience was for conscience' sake. Now, 
however, that which in the previous history of the Church 


had been permitted on a principle of love, seems to have been 
assumed as a matter of right, needing only to be declared and 
acted upon. Among the principles of Ecclesiastical Union, 
proposed by the voluntary gathering of 1784 in New York, 
was that which declared that the concurrence of both Clergy 
and Laity should be necessary to give validity to every meas- 
ure adopted by the General Convention, which was to con- 
sist of clerical and lay deputies from the Church in each State. 
And this principle retained its place throughout the process 
of organization, and was imbedded in the General and Dioce- 
san Constitutions. 

And the origin of this idea is traceable, not to the infer- 
ences which some have been fain to draw from the fifteenth 
chapter of the Book of the Acts of the Apostles ; nor to 
arguments based upon the exercise of an exterior jurisdiction 
by the civil authority in England over the Ministers of the 
Word and Sacraments, in which the Sovereign is assumed to 
represent the inherent right of the people ; but rather to the 
peculiar training and position of those who were called upon 
to organize the Church in the American States as a body 
distinct from the Church of England. 

I do not now argue for civil analogies in our American 
Church system — though I take leave to remark that it will be 
an evil day for the Church which claims a Divine mission to 
be the Church of the Nation, when its members either forget 
or erase the lineaments which the God of Nations and of 
Churches has, in His providence, stamped alike upon the 
face of Church and Republic — but I do affirm that the train- 
ing which the founders of our American Conventional sys- 
tem had received during the Constitutional controversies of 
the period of the Revolution, was such as to have profoundly 
impressed upon them the conviction that it was indispensable 
to a good government that it should be a government by 
chosen representatives of the whole body governed. Those 
who were not of this conviction were in that minority whose 
conservatism did not willingly ally itself, as did that of the 
majority, with the spirit which was fain to take what modern 
experience seemed to approve, and graft it in with that which 


had the warrant of an authority of more ancient recogni- 

And, apart from their training, the position of those to 
whom our Conventional system is traceable was such as in a 
manner to drive them to its adoption. Had the Church been 
provided with Bishops to whom the faithful had all along 
been accustomed to defer, there would have been no more 
need of these gatherings in the Church of that day and place, 
than there had been in the Church of any other age and 
country. The Episcopal government, qualified by the Dio- 
cesan Synod, and checked by the Provincial Council, would 
have come as naturally into operation as it had ever come 
when the Church had existed in its entirety and autonomy 
in any Nation. But the Church in this country, however au- 
tonomous, was not entire. Its Clergy and Laity were thrown 
together in the various States, upon their own resources. 
They were constrained to provide for themselves, and to 
arrange their own polity, as supposing indeed that Bish- 
ops would be supplied to them, but as conscious, also, 
that in point of fact Bishops had not been supplied to them. 
And so in the system which they adopted, while with true 
conservatism they held fast the necessary and essential prin- 
ciples of faith and order which were their rightful inheritance, 
they thought themselves at liberty to combine them with 
others, which, if they had not the sanction of Divine author- 
ity and immemorial tradition, they regarded as having at 
least the warrant of a sound reason and a just expediency. 

We cannot indeed look to the Church in New York as the 
inaugurator of that system, which, combining the principles 
of Episcopal authority and of government by chosen repre- 
sentatives, was ultimately incorporated into the constitution 
of the general Ecclesiastical Union. But certainly the example 
and influence of this Church was such as to further the estab- 
lishment of that system. That it cordially adopted the system, 
and made it its own, is apparent from the fact that laymen 
as well as clergymen composed its first Convention ; and that 
it was, from the beginning, of that number which sought to 
organize a union between the Churches in the States, founded 


on the principle of the joint representation of Clergy and Laity, 
even before they sought their completion in the Episcopate, 
And the position of New York was such as to make its ex- 
ample and influence of essential importance to the accomplish- 
ment of that Union. This position was intermediate in more 
ways than one — I will not say between extremes, but — be- 
tween those who were seeking the same general objects of the 
settlement and unity of Christ's kingdom from quite different 
standpoints. On one side of it was Connecticut, the cradle 
of the American Episcopate; on the other, Pennsylvania, the 
birth-place of the American system of representative Church 
Government. And as, in 1783, New York was ready to yield 
one of her own Presbyters to the quest of Connecticut for its 
first Bishop,* so, within New York, in 1784, were assembled 

* Bishop Seabury's name is always, and rightly, associated with Connecticut ; 
yet all of his ministry, as distinguished from his Episcopate (except a very short 
interval of service in New Jersey immediately after his ordination in 1753), was in 
New York. The first fourteen years of his life, and the last eleven as Bishop, 
were spent in Connecticut; during the rest, nearly two-thirds of the whole, he be- 
longed to New York. Any one who is curious in such matters may trace the 
proportion somewhat further in the ministerial work of this family ; a work 
which was indebted for its first planting, and part of its subsequent increase, to 
Connecticut, but which has for the most part been performed in New York. 
The Bishop's father. Rev. Samuel Seabury, A.M., ordained in 1730, was Rector 
of St. George's Church in Hempstead, Long Island, in the Colony of New York, 
for the twenty-one years preceding his death in 1764. The Bishop's ministry in 
New York from the time of his father's death until he embarked for consecration 
in 1783, was nineteen years. His son. Rev. Charles Seabury, ordained in 1793, 
was rector of Caroline Church, Setauket, Long Island, from 1814 until his death 
'n 1844, thirty years. The son of Charles, the Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., 
ordained in 1826, was, at the time of his father's death, a Presbyter of the Diocese 
of New York, and so continued twenty-eight years after until his death, in 1872, 
from which date up to this time, his son, the present writer, has also been serving 
in New York, thirteen years. Thus, of a period of one hundred and fifty-five 
consecutive years, during which the Ministry has, by the singular blessing of God, 
been handed down through these five successive generations, one hundred and 
eleven years, or nearly three-fourths, have been spent in New York; nearly half 
of this one hundred and eleven having been in that part of New York which now 
constitutes the Diocese of Long Island. The proportion of service both in New 
York and Long Island would be larger if those years were counted during which 
the ministry of father and son was carried on contemporaneously. This note is, 
indeed, a digression from the subject of this part of the present paper, but may 
not be considered out of-place in its relation to the whole. So remarkable an 


the Clergy and Laity, from whom issued the first call to the 
Churches in the several States, recommending the Union, 
afterwards represented by the General Convention.* And al- 
though for a short time, under the influence apparently of po- 
litical antagonisms not yet expired, New York seemed to be- 
grudge the use which Connecticut had made of the gift which 
it had received in trust for the establishment of the Epis- 
copate, yet that feeling, short-lived as it was, was not of a 
nature to hinder its promotion of the Ecclesiastical Union as 
designed to further the best interests of the Church in all the 
States, f 

In the course thus pursued by the Church in New York, 
there is plain evidence of its recognition of these principles 
as fundamental in the Ecclesiastical system — the necessity of 
the Episcopate in order to the perpetuation of the lawful 
Ministry of the Word and Sacraments ; tfie substantial unity 
in doctrine, discipline, and worship of this Church with the 
Church of England, whence it was derived; the right of the 
Clergy and Laity to share representatively in such powers of 
government as are distinguishable from the power to exercise 
the spiritual functions of the Ministry; and the right of the 
Church in this State to a co-equal representation with the 
Church in every other State, in an Ecclesiastical Union con- 
stituted for the regulation of matters of common interest to 
the Church in all the States represented in it. 

Of the last of these principles, however, there has been an 

association with the Church in New York seems not unworthy of notice in a paper 
illustrative of the history of that Church. 

* Bishop White's preface to Bioren's edition of reprint of early Journals of 
General Convention. 

It is merely an incident, but surely not uninteresting, that also in New York, 
took place that first consecration in this country through which every one of our 
Bishops traces his succession, and in which were united not merely the Episcopates 
of Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, but, through them, the 
lines of the Scottish and English Churches, involving the reunion also of the some- 
time divergent lines of Sancroft and Tillotson. The Rev. Dr. Claggett was con- 
secrated for Maryland in Trinity Church, New York, September 17, 1792, by 
Bishops Provoost, White, Madison, and Seabury. 

\ New York Journal, 1786. See also Bishop White's Memoirs, 2d edition, 
page 161. 



important modification, which, resulting as it has from the 
history of the Church in New York, is of pecuHar, though not 
exclusive interest to us. 

As the Church increased, there came up first in this State 
the problem of the division of Dioceses, involving some ques- 
tions gravely affecting the Ecclesiastical system. Hitherto, 
not alone in New York, but in the other States as well, the 
Church in the State and the Church in the Diocese had been 
identical. For although there had been instances of tem- 
porary union of Churches in different States under one 
Episcopal jurisdiction, yet the Churches in those States were 
related to the Union not in groups, but individually, each 
acceding as such to the general Constitution ; which, while it 
provided for the admission of the Church in any State, made 
no provision for the recognition as a constituent member of 
the Union, of any Church that was not the Church in a State. 
If the Church in a State should be divided into two or more 
Dioceses, each of these would be as much a Church as the 
whole body within the State had hitherto been. Which of 
these Churches would occupy the position of a constituent 
member of the Union ? How could that position be held by 
them all except on the theory that the Union was one of 
Dioceses, rather than of the Church in States? Yet the Union 
was not professedly a union of Dioceses, and only practically 
so because the Dioceses were conterminous with the States. 
The precedent made in the division of New York, however, 
settled the principle that every Diocese within the Union, 
whether new or old, and spreading over the whole State or 
not, stands on the same footing with every other Diocese ; 
each one being an integral part of the whole: and following 
the lead of this principle, the Union has become both nom- 
inally and actually a union of the Church in Dioceses, instead 
of a union of the Church in States.* 

Yet the fact that the Church within a State, although ex- 

* In the wording of the Constitution Diocese was substituted for State, as a 
part of the amendment of 1838, under which the Church in the State of New 
York was divided into two Dioceses, Journal Gen. Conv., 1838, pp. 24-26, 90, 
and pp. 70-106. 


isting in several Dioceses, has a community of interest differ- 
ent from that of the Churches existing in distinct States, has 
not been ignored ; and while the principle has not been form- 
ally expressed in the written Constitution, it has none the less 
been constantly recognized in the tradition and practice of 
the Church, that Dioceses are to be kept within State lines, 
and are not permanently to infringe upon or disregard them, 
upon any plea of proximity, or other ground of convenience. 
In no respect is this community more important than in its 
relation to the law-making power of the several States ; and 
never has it been of more solemn consequence than now in the 
State of New York, if we are to continue in the enjoyment of 
that freedom which depends upon the principle that the civil 
authority shall make no law respecting the establishment of 
religion. If the Canon on Federate Councils — also growing 
out of the position of the Church in New York — has done no 
other good than this, it has at least emphasized, with the 
concurrence of the whole Church, the principle of the com- 
munity of the work and interest of several Dioceses constitut- 
ing the Church within a State. Whether these two principles 
— that the Diocese is the unit in the Ecclesiastical system, and 
that the grouping of Dioceses, so far as may be consistent 
with their relations to the National Church, is to be within 
the limits of the States which compose the Nation — do not 
indicate the true solution of that other problem of the re- 
adjustment of the representation in the General Convention, 
which must bye-and-bye, for good or evil, be settled, remains 
to be seen. But standing as we do to-day, on the border line 
between the two centuries, it may perhaps be permitted one 
to remark that the abandonment of the original principle of 
the representation in the General or National Council, of the 
Church in the several States, has been unwittingly the cause 
not only of an increase of that Council, but of an indefinite 
and illimitable increase ; and that a return to that principle, 
coupled with the recognition of the right of the several Dio- 
ceses within a State, both individually and as a province, to 
govern themselves, within Constitutional limits, while it might 
be made the occasion of all needful reduction in the numbers 


of the General Convention, and would involve no more in- 
equality than now exists, would also lead to the establishment 
of such a Patriarchate as the world has never yet witnessed. 

But to refrain from speculation, and to return to the prin- 
ciples upon which our fathers have set up the houses of our 
Holy City, have we not a just right to regard them as a part 
of our inheritance of which the test of time has proved the 
value? There is room indeed for the varying of individual 
judgments as to abstract questions involved in them ; but the 
process by which they were settled seems plainly to disclose 
the hand of Providence; and he will be a rash man, whatever 
may be his private judgment, who will venture to withhold 
his thankful acknowledgments. Particularly may we be grate- 
ful for the moderation which has marked the application of 
these principles. Some tendencies to the forgetfulness of 
what was due to the principle of an authority existing in the 
Church, irrespective of human constitutions, undoubtedly there 
were. But these were in part checked in the beginning, and 
in part have been so overruled that looking back through 
the century, we cannot point to any serious conflict which has 
arisen in the administration of a government whose powers 
are derived partly from the Episcopate, and partly from the 
Clergy and people. It has been considered by some to be the 
weak point in our system that it permits the Laity to legislate 
in regard to doctrine. If you take into account, however, the 
absolute negative of the House of Bishops, and the even bal- 
ance of clerical and lay representation, you can hardly fear 
that the Laity can ever usurp the right which by the Divine 
commission belongs to the Apostolic Ministry. In fact we 
have the Catholic Faith ; and we can never lose it except on the 
extravagant supposition that the Bishops and Clergy should 
combine to throw it away. The very utmost that can be 
alleged against us here, is that the teaching body cannot legis- 
latively formulate doctrine without the concurrence of the lay 
representation ; and whether this amounts to anything more 
than the salutary check of the practical upon the intellectual, 
the spiritual, and the professional, is at least a fair question 
for the judgment of reasonable men. Certainly it is but sim- 


pie justice to our Laity to say that their active part in our 
system has generally been, of their own free will, confined to 
the care of such temporal matters of administration in the 
Church, as must concern even a spiritual society of men. 
And in regard to this power in the Church, while in strictness 
it is as much inherent in the Episcopal office as is the power 
purely spiritual, yet it is not so exclusively tied to it as, like 
the other, to be incapable of cession or of waiver. And, apart 
from the most primitive times, it has commonly been ceded 
or waived in a greater or less degree under one form or an- 
other. And, for the rest, is it not certain that the very pecu- 
liarities of our system have enlisted in it the most active in- 
terest of all classes of its members ; have procured for it the 
growing respect of foreign branches of the same Communion, 
and even the attention of thoughtful men out of that Commun- 
ion ; and have thus not only increased beyond all precedent 
its strength and usefulness in its own immediate work, but 
have also greatly enhanced its influence in the community 
wherein it dwells, and have given it a singular fitness for the 
furtherance of that Divine mission of Christian unity which 
it should be the prime object of all Ecclesiastical systems to 

It is easy, I know, on an occasion of this sort, to confuse 
thankfulness with mere self-congratulation. I have no wish 
however to fall into this strain. Let me then remind you 
that the great advantage of these occasions lies in the oppor- 
tunity which they naturally afford, not only for thankful com- 
memoration of the past, but also for careful consideration of 
the lessons which it teaches, and for watchful observance of 
the tendencies likely to affect the future. If we are to mark 
well our bulwarks, this is not merely to note how admirably 
fitted for usefulness they have hitherto been ; but also to ob- 
serve their aptitude to sustain such attacks as may hereafter 
be made upon them. If we are to set up our houses, it is not 
merely that they may remind us of the comfort and shelter 
which they have afforded to our fathers and ourselves ; but 
also that we may leave them in such condition that our 
children may with advantage occupy them. That is but a 


selfish doctrine which teaches that the world in every age 
belongs to the passing generation, and that those who inherit 
the treasures and the wisdom of the past have no responsi- 
bility for the happiness of them that come after ; for the chil- 
dren ought not to lay up for the parents, but the parents for 
the children. And we are to take heed to the bearing of our 
influence in the transmission of those principles which we 
have inherited. 

I say to the bearing of our influence; for surely the in- 
fluence of the Church in New York is not a power which has 
been felt once for all a hundred years ago, but rather one 
which has been steadily in operation, and which to-day is, and 
hereafter will be felt throughout the Union, unless it be un- 
true to itself. And although we now commemorate in form 
the Centennial of the Diocese of New York, yet, after all is it 
not in substance, the Centennial of the Church in New York; 
since throughout the century that Church has been in effect 
one ; and since for more than half the century it was one in 
form also? And what just influence cannot be predicated of 
the substantial unity of that Church with its five Bishoprics, 
and as many Conventions of men who, from their very posi- 
tion, may be presumed to possess capabilities of influence in- 
ferior to none? May the Church in New York never forget 
to cherish and cement, not merely as a sentiment, but practi- 
cally, that unity in which it has always lived, and in which it 
possesses a power which is in itself a sacred trust, and vast 

God forbid that thus speaking I should seem to be stimu- 
lating the spirit of local pride and jealousy ! When we urge 
men individually or in families to be mindful of the high 
privilege of their vocation, and to devote their energies to the 
extension of their influence in the community wherein they 
dwell, this is not for rivalry, but for the good of all. And so 
we look upon the Church in the Diocese as an individual in 
the Commonwealth of Dioceses; and upon the Church in the 
State, as it were upon a family in the same Commonwealth ; 
and we urge the devotion of its common and united power to 
the best interests of that Commonwealth ; and bid it, in God's 


name, increase both its power of influence, and the influence 
itself, not for the attainment or exhibition of a superiority- 
over the other members of the Commonwealth, but in aid of 
those members, and for their good as well as its own. 

It would not come within the privilege of my present 
commission to propose measures for the adoption of the 
Church either within the Diocese or the State. But I am 
sure it will be allowed to fall far short of such presumption, 
if, keeping still to the line of observation which we have been 
pursuing, I press upon your attention not only the privilege 
of entering on the work of another century on the basis of 
principles which have been found to work successfully in the 
past, but also the duty of bearing in mind in our application 
and transmission of those principles, the tendencies likely to 
affect them, and particularly the qualifying influence which 
the public opinion of the Church seems to have been exert- 
ing upon them. 

When I speak of the public opinion of the Church, I do 
not mean the volatile fancy which is veered about by every 
passing wind of words, but rather that deliberate judgment 
which an intelligent community is capable of forming, and 
which, in the long run, is sure to settle down upon the con- 
clusions which legitimately follow from those premises upon 
which, whether right or wrong, it has been taught to reason. 
In a system like ours, in which not only the authority of 
office, but also the power of the popular will is represented, it 
is manifest that the tendencies of such an influence cannot be 
too carefully watched ; and the change which has taken place 
in the common understanding of some of the principles to 
which I have referred is certainly worthy of our notice. 

How very much more, for example, seems now to be 
involved in the principle of our substantial unity with the 
Church of England in doctrine, discipline, and worship, than 
was generally realized in the beginning. Membership in the 
Church of England was, of course, the birthright of an 
English colonist ; and when English colonists became citi- 
zens of independent States their ecclesiastical birthright was 
by no means lost, although it came under different condi- 


tions. That the Church here was the same Church after, as 
before the Revolution, was a never to be doubted or forgot- 
ten truth ; and while the members of this Church, in their 
new organization, were free from obedience to such laws and 
judgments as might, by the Church of England, be afterward 
imposed, yet they could not be deprived of that inheritance 
of Catholic faith and order to which that Church itself had 
been born. And among those who asserted the substantial 
unity of the Church which they were organizing, with the 
Church of England, there were some who had light clearly to 
discern, and who held high amid the surrounding darkness 
the lamp of their testimony to the fact and the value of this 
inheritance. But for the most part, no doubt, those who 
made this claim were capable of no retrospect into the 
Catholic inheritance of the past. The change which has 
come about is that those who realize what is involved in 
this principle are no longer the few, but the many. The 
danger is that the solidity and strength of that appreciation 
may be thinned and weakened in its diffusion, and that men 
may learn to be in love with that which they do not rightly 
understand. It were well to remember that there are two 
parts in the privilege of this principle, of which one is the 
share in the Catholic inheritance, and the other is the means 
by which we have attained that share. The Catholic inher- 
itance has not, indeed, been limited to the line of English 
descent. It has gone out through the world, and come down 
through the generations, with more or less of accretion or 
diminution. But it is our right and duty to remember that 
it has come to us in the same line as that from which we 
have derived our Anglo-Saxon race, and language, and habit 
of thought ; and to have our horizon enlarged by such a 
regard to the world-power and mission of that race and 
language, that we may be narrowed by no slavish adherence 
either to insular prejudices or to Continental notions, whether 
the offspring of German inquisitiveness or of Italian effusive- 
ness. So may we use and hand down a doctrine wherein 
faith is neither transformed into reason nor deformed into 
superstition, but is cherished as the Divine light and guide of 


the human understanding — a discipline which both honors 
God in the preservation of authority and cultivates a true 
manhood by the recognition of the rights and duties of the 
conscience ; a worship pure in its sole devotion to the 
Triune God, and beautiful with all the beauty of holiness— 
neither the fevered officiousness of an unenlightened enthu- 
siasm nor the cold tribute of an overweening self-sufficiency. 

If, again, we look to the principle of the necessity of the 
Episcopate, we find, also, a great change. It would not be 
an unjust criticism of the first steps in our organization to 
say that the Churchmen of that period were disposed to lay 
somewhat too much stress on the rule that the Bishops 
should do nothing without them, and somewhat too little 
stress upon the converse that they should do nothing without 
the Bishop. But certainly in the past century there has been 
a steady tendency towards the recognition and statement of 
the fact that there are powers of government, distinct from 
mere functions, inherent in the Episcopal office, and not 
derived to the Bishops as the mere executives of Conven- 
tional will. From the very day in which the General Con- 
stitution, in the year of its adoption, was so amended as to 
fix the position of the House of Bishops as a co-ordinate 
branch of the supreme legislature, this tendency began to be 
felt.* It has worked slowly, but surely, and unless our 
growth is to come to an end, must continue to work, until 
that Constitution has been made quite consistent with itself 
by the removal of every trace of the fact that, in its forma- 
tion, the Bishops, except as Spiritual functionaries and Con- 
ventional executives, were an afterthought. 

But with regard to the last of these principles, which 
asserts the right of the Church in each State or Diocese to a 
co-equal representation with the Church in every other State 
or Diocese in the Ecclesiastical Union, there has been a 
change more notable than in regard to the others. And 
while this change, too, is a change in the common under- 
standing of the principle, and not in any Constitutional 

* Compare Art. 3 of the Constitution before and after the second session of 
General Convention in 1789. 


expression of it, yet it is a change of different character and 
import from the others, and one which indicates a tendency 
which, if not checked, will be apt to lead to results quite 
subversive of the principle which it affects. Other changes 
have been in the nature of legitimate inference from the full 
and fair meaning of the principle itself. This change in- 
volves a flat contradiction of the principle. And the infer- 
ence from that contradiction is, that instead of being a 
constituent and co-equal member of an Ecclesiastical Union, 
the Church in the State or Diocese is the mere creature and 
vassal of the body which represents that Union. Nothing 
can be more marked, or more remarkable, than the change in 
the common estimate of the relation of the Church in the 
State or Diocese to the Ecclesiastical Union, which has 
taken place in less than a century since that Union was 
completed. This is not to question in any way the suprem- 
acy of General Convention, which is Constitutionally beyond 
question, but it is to warn against a theory which will not 
stand the test of history, which totally inverts the legitimate 
process of the construction of the Constitution and laws of 
General Convention, and which not only requires obedience 
to law, but also leads to the denial of the liberty to act 
without permission, which is a different, and an intolerable 

Two forces in nature have been, by the God of nature, 
ordained in order to the preservation of the due relation of 
the several parts of the universe within a common system — 
the power which draws perpetually toward the centre, and 
the power which retires perpetually from it. Upon the bal- 
ance of these powers depends the continuance of the system. 
Without the one, the several parts would be indistinguishably 
commingled ; without the other, they would be irrecoverably 
dispersed. In the political economy, as in the natural, the 
same forces, by the same Divine law of order, must work in 
the like balance, or there is no good nor stable government. 
There must be the cohesive power of the common centre, or 
there will be anarchy ; there must be the liberty of a lawful 
self-government, or there will be tyranny. We may depend 


Upon it that these principles cannot safely be disregarded in 
the working of such a system as ours, the history of whose 
origin unmistakably shows it to have been based upon them. 
And in mitigation of the apprehension of danger from the 
centrifugal tendency of the rights of Dioceses, let it be remem- 
bered that in the recognition of the authority of the Episco- 
pate there is a power of cohesion, which is a quite sufficient 
balance to that tendency. In the cohesive power of the 
Episcopate, indeed, lies its supreme usefulness. It is itself 
the Divinely appointed centre of unity in the Church of Christ. 
And yet, in the Divine constitution of that Church, the abso- 
lute unity which it presupposes, is not inconsistent with the 
equally absolute right of the self-government of the several 
Dioceses in all matters which solely concern themselves. 
Warned by the tendencies in the community about us to the 
worst forms of centralization in the domineering power of 
corporate bodies, and in the gradual subjection of such bodies 
to the individual will of their most powerful members ; 
warned by the tendencies of human nature which make the 
Church always liable to the dangers which affect the com- 
munity wherein it dwells, let us never forget, or suffer it to 
be forgotten, that the salvation of our system depends upon 
the preservation of its equilibrium. 

Thus, my brethren, not as I would, but as I could, I have 
drawn your attention to some particulars of thankfulness and 
of watchfulness connected with the principles upon which our 
Ecclesiastical system is based. How much more might have 
been noted in this one line of observation ; how many other 
paths, too, as we walk about Sion, open before us, disclosing 
many more such particulars in regard to other subjects, I am 
but too well aware. In truth the prospect is bewildering. No 
power, of mine at least, could gather into one train of con- 
nected thought anything like a general view of all that crowds 
in to claim a place in our present remembrances. Some se- 
lection must needs be made, and many points of interest 
passed by. But there are some which must be noted, what- 
ever else be overlooked. As we mark the bulwarks by which 
we have been surrounded, we may not forget the example and 


influence of those who, during the progress of the century, 
have labored to set up the houses of the heavenly city, in all 
the good works of wise administration, sound teaching, and 
tender mercy, into whose labors we are entered. The increase 
in the number and efficiency of our parishes and missions ; 
the multiplication of aids to the development of the spiritual 
life ; the amazing extension of all kinds of associate work, and 
particularly the introduction and practical recognition of re- 
ligious orders; the remarkable character of our Episcopate; 
the conspicuous ability and devotion of our Clergy; the pow- 
erful support furnished by the lavish devotion, not only of the 
means, but also of the time, learning, and wisdom of our Laity 
— I may hardly even allude to these points, but there are some 
things in connection with them which will not remain unsaid. 

No one can contemplate the history of these manifold 
labors without realizing that our life has been one of steady 
and of healthful growth ; a growth, as it were, from infancy 
to manhood ; a growth, indeed, which has just now brought 
us into that condition in which we begin to be strong to 
grapple with those great problems which must ever face the 
Church of God in the pursuit of the regenerating work of its 
Divine Master. 

It was no more than meet, surely, that this growth should 
include its own trials and discipline. Nowhere have there 
been more trying and perilous issues to be met, and more 
serious anxieties with respect to them, than in New York ; 
and if the example and influence to which I have referred 
have been laudable and honorable in action, so also have 
they been in suffering. In one phase of our corporate life, in- 
deed, the troubles needful for our discipline seemed to reach 
their climax, when, under the dispensation of an inscrutable 
Providence, the Diocese of New York was for a weary period 
of years thrown back in effect to that state of incompleteness 
in which it had begun its organized work. Orphan in the 
Church of God, yet with its Father still living ! What trials 
and anxieties, heart-rending, mind-bewildering, did it not 
experience ! Yet nowhere in its history has it afforded a 
more memorable and honorable example, if patience in 


tribulation, submission to lawfully constituted authority, 
wisdom and courage in the endurance of responsibilities 
wholly without precedent, be worthy of remembrance and of 
honor. And nowhere in its own history, or in that of other 
Dioceses, has there been furnished a better test of the practi- 
cal value of our representative system than was afforded 
here. Without touching at all upon personal feelings one 
way or the other — which, if my own heart may witness, lie 
not far below the surface — it is surely not too much to say, 
that but for the cool and enlightened judgment, and the 
firm and strong hand with which the representative Diocese 
assumed and discharged during that astounding interval the 
duties of government properly within the sphere of Diocesan 
action, not the Church in New York only, but that of the 
entire Union, had been thrown into confusion ; and I think I 
shall be upheld in adding that for the wise counsel which, 
under God, placed the Diocese on the right ground in that 
trial, it was indebted to three laymen, who for that and many 
another service too, deserve to be had in unfailing remem- 
brance — Samuel Jones, Gulian C. Verplanck, and Murray 

•If we would rightly mark the several steps in the 
growth of our Church life to its present maturity, we should 
remember that in the completion of its organization, and 
the settlement of its relation to the Church in other States, 
the Church in New York had done little more than recog- 
nize and act upon the fact of its own independent life. The 
question of what that life was it had hardly considered. 
Chiefly engrossed with what may be called the political as- 
pect, it had but faintly realized its spiritual capacity and 
mission. The services of religion, after the somewhat cold 
fashion of the time, were of course duly performed. The 
Sacraments of the Church were advocated, but still kept 
rather in the background. The Ministry of the Church was 
respected for the piety and labors of individual members of 
it, rather than for its Divine authority. The Mission work 
of the Church can hardly be said to have been begun. How 
much all that was changed in less than thirty years, you well 


know ; and you know too that for the labor and the conflict, 
the eloquence and the energy that under God changed it, we 
are indebted to Bishop Hobart. To no one man, perhaps, is 
the Church in New York so much indebted for the realization 
of its own spiritual position and responsibility. It was he 
who asserted in all fulness the Divine Mission and authority 
of the Church; the succession of the Bishops to the order, as 
well as to the faith of the Apostles ; and the efficacy of the 
Sacraments in the conveyance of the Divine Grace: thus sow- 
ing in the Church in New York, years before it was scattered 
from Oxford, the seed which within the latter half of this 
century has borne such wondrous fruit of devotion to the 
love of Christ, and to the love of man for Christ's sake. 
Not that it can be said that these truths had been un- 
known here, more than they were in England, before his 
time; but that he brought these truths home to the con- 
sciousness of his Diocese. So that when, afterward, the great 
wave of reaction to the true and primitive principles of the 
Reformation which had been started in England began to be 
felt here, it came as an impetus to a movement already in 
operation, rather than as a new power. 

And what Bishop Hobart had gained in the establishment 
of right principles in regard to the Church and Ministry and 
Sacraments, was faithfully preserved by Bishop Onderdonk, 
who with wise care and unwearied diligence applied the same 
teaching to the succeeding generation. Particularly, too, 
was the attention of his Diocese directed by Bishop Onder- 
donk to the right principles of Liturgical Worship, and to the 
proper arrangement of Churches, in order that they might be 
better fitted for the sacred purposes for which they were 
designed ; so that from his Episcopate may be fairly dated, 
if not the beginning, at least the first general practice of those 
orderly and reverent habits of conducting the services of the 
Sanctuary in accordance with the principles and authority of 
the Rubrics, which have made the traditions of the Diocese 
of New York in that behalf the example of the whole Church. 
Upon him devolved not only the inherited unpopularity of 
Bishop Hobart's principles but also that special odium which 


these principles acquired from their association in the public 
mind with the Oxford movement. By him, too, was dis- 
creetly discharged the duty of discriminating between these 
principles which came from abroad, and of recognizing the 
Catholic character of some, and the dangerous tendency of 
others. By him also was settled, in the case of Arthur 
Carey, that principle of the liberty of belief and teaching 
within the limits of the law of the Church, rather than of 
either Episcopal or popular opinion, which indeed is capable 
of abuse, which perhaps has been abused, but which never- 
theless must be forever dear to every Christian who feels 
himself to be a man and not a machine. 

Certainly under the Episcopate of these two men the 
Church in New York learned something of its true position 
in respect to spiritual privilege and duty ; and as certainly 
the impress of their influence has been perpetuated in every 
Diocese in the State. 

How tenderly and judiciously cherished these traditions 
have been in our own particular Diocese, by the venerable 
father, whose absence from our councils it is our sad lot to 
deplore, but whose prayerful and loving solicitude for his 
spiritual children we are sure remains still unabated, we well 
know. Always unequivocal in his attachment to those prin- 
ciples of Evangelic faith and Apostolic order, and of reverent 
and churchly worship, which his predecessors had inculcated ; 
always firm and strong in his maintenance of them when 
occasion required ; yet always mindful of the help and confi- 
dence due to those who could not feel their force as he felt 
it, and who either failed to rise to them, or were fain to soar 
somewhat beyond them ; how tenderly and judiciously, I 
say again, has he cherished those traditions, neither loosely 
holding, nor yet harshly imposing them. I presume not to 
seek for words for all that is in my heart, and I know also in 
yours, when I refer to the rich gift of this precious example 
of wisdom and gentleness. But, speaking of the Diocese, it 
must be said that it has gained from this Episcopate an addi- 
tion to the traditions of the past which was a fitting sequel 
to them, in the direction of its energies away from contro- 


versy, and away from mere rectitude of principle, to the 
fulfillment of every good work of Christain love. The con- 
straint of the love of Christ in the life of mercy and charity, 
the duty of teaching by example rather than by precept, and 
of bringing men to the faith, and love, and worship of Christ 
by the sincerity and steadfastness of our own devotion to them 
— these are lessons for which I think no feelings of delicacy 
need preclude the expression of our gratitude to that vener- 
able man, whom, in spite of our separation from him, and not 
inconsistently with our loving allegiance to one, who, while 
he takes his place in the Church, stands side by side with him 
in our hearts, we still revere as our Bishop. The God most 
merciful, whose benediction he was wont to invoke on us, 
be merciful to him ! " Blessed be the man that provideth 
for the sick and needy, the Lord shall deliver him in the time 
of trouble." The Lord comfort him when he lieth sick upon 
his bed. Make Thou all his bed in his sickness. 

These three Episcopates are so representative of distinct 
stages in the development of our corporate life as to excuse 
this particular reference to them. I would not be thought 
unmindful of the honor due to Provoost, to Moore, or to 
Wainwright, or, indeed, to De Lancey, if our measure might 
reach even so far as to him also, who began the work in West- 
ern New York, which has been faithfully continued by his 
brilliant and beloved successor. How many honored and 
honorable names does that New York name suggest to us, 
as those of Duane, Jay, King, De Peyster, Duer, Bleecker, 
Jones, Spencer, Harison, Ogden, Moore, Hoffman, and Betts ; 
of Floyd Smith, M'Donald, Bell, and Rowland ; of Bradish, 
Ruggles, Dix, Minturn, Norrie, Tracy, Curtiss, Emott, 
Meads, and Winston, and many others eminent among our 
Laity . What loving and edifying memories could I revive 
(many of them from my own recollection) of venerable clergy 
who have led the way into the rest that remaineth for the 
people of God — of Milner, Duffie, Lyell and Feltus ; of Sher- 
wood and Creighton ; of Berrian and McVickar; of Hawks, 
Higbee, Haight,and Walton; of Bayard, Schroeder, and Mead; 
of Anthon and Tyng ; of the brothers Ogilby, Johnson, and 


Vinton ; of the Sheltons ; of Geer, Twing, Montgomery, and 
Muhlenberg ; and, if filial piety may overbear modesty, of 
Samuel Seabury.* What could not be said of those who 
have gone out from us, not because they were not of us, but 
because the Bishoprics of other churches needed them — as 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Connecticut, Ohio, Western New 
York, Maine, Long Island, Iowa, and Springfield ; f not to 
speak of the good gifts bestowed upon us by others in Al- 
bany and Central New York?;]: How much ought to be said 
of the influence of the Church in New York upon the whole 
field of Missions, and in the department of Christian and 
Theological Education, and particularly of its devotion to the 
welfare of the General Theological Seminary, and of the char- 
acter which, notably under the three Episcopates to which I 
have referred, it has impressed upon that institution. These 
are thoughts which would lead me far beyond the limits of 
your patience, already too largely taxed. 

But I should be wholly wanting in the sense of what is 
due to this occasion, if I should fail to refer, at least in few 
words, to one influence which has had its centre in the me- 
tropolis, but which from thence has radiated, not alone 
through the Church in this State, but more or less directly 
throughout the Union. 

How beautiful is the spectacle of a gentle, wise, and faith- 

*These names, both of Clergy and Laity, are cited merely as instances, and their 
number, of course, might be greatly increased. I have given them, with two or 
three exceptions afterward suggested to me, only from memory, as they occurred 
to me while writing ; and I trust it is not necessary to say that the omission of 
many others which will, no doubt, occur to the reader, does not indicate that 
they were regarded as less worthy of respectful remembrance. In Appendix A 
is to be found a somewhat more precise designation of the persons referred to in 
the order observed in the text. 

f A list of New York Clergy consecrated for other Dioceses than the Diocese 
of New York, taken from the Letters of Consecration printed in the Journals 
of General Convention, may be found in Appendix B. 

X This reference was made under the impression that the Bishop of Albany, 
at the time of his election, was a Presbyter of Connecticut. The error is corrected 
in the list contained in Appendix B. 

The Rev. Frederic Dan Huntington, D.D., was, at the time of his election 
to Central New York, Rector of Emmanuel Church, Boston. 


ful motherhood ! How lovely, I say, is the vision of the 
Christian Mother, who, like the Good Shepherd, gathers the 
lambs of the flock into her arms and carries them in her bosom ; 
who guides the feeble steps of childhood and shares the la- 
bors and the troubles of maturer years, and who, in the over- 
flowing of her love, will extend her care even to those whom 
she herself brought not forth, but in whom need and desert 
supply the place of a closer relation. 

And have we not a right to view in this aspect, in its re- 
lation to the Diocese, the Church at whose Chief Altar we 
present to-day our thankful sacrifice ? Apart from mere pri- 
ority in time, what better claim could there be to the title of 
Mother Church than that which grows out of the nursing care 
which has been shown by Trinity for the members of the same 
household of faith, and that by, no means only in the Dio- 
cese ? From her has come the gift of Bishops, and of means 
to sustain them; from her, judicious and munificent provision 
for the promotion of sound learning; from her, the birth and 
enrichment of daughter Churches, most rich in good works — 
Grace, St. Mark's, and St. George's ; from her, the helpful co- 
operation by which others were enabled to prevail in the 
doubtful battle for life ; from her, the timely encouragement 
of every good work. Few of us there are, I fancy, who have 
not, directly or indirectly, in our education, in our ministry, 
in our parochial life, in our charitable and mission work, aye, 
and in our hunger and thirst after some strong meat in the way 
of positive teaching, and some pureness and sweetness in the 
streams of soul-refreshing worship, experienced the benefit of 
the life and work of Trinity Church. Do these Avords need 
confirmation ? The lives of the first five of our seven Bishops ; 
the journals of our Convention ; the records of our parishes; 
the history of Columbia College, of Trinity School, of Hobart 
College, of the Society for Promoting Religion and Learning, 
on which fell the mantle of the venerable society of colonial 
memory, as well as our own experience, attest them. And so 
does that Divine Service which from within these walls con- 
tinually shows forth the beauty of holiness, and bears us in 
spirit to one of those grand old Churches, Cathedrals which are. 


in the words of Hooker, " as glasses wherein the face and very- 
countenance of Apostolical antiquity remaineth even as yet to 
be seen, notwithstanding the alterations which tract of time 
and the course of this world hath brought." 

The Cathedral of the Diocese of New York, although long 
since projected, is yet to come. It is the special trust and 
work, I venture to believe, of that Episcopate upon which we 
have entered, almost together with the entrance on our second 
century. God set up that House within our Holy City for a 
special memorial of both ! Quickly may it come, and forever 
last ! But never may it obscure the memory of that Church, 
which, without either the name or the honor, has done the 
work and supplied the example of a Cathedral to the century 
past ! 

Very solemn, my brethren, amidst all our thankfulness, 
are the feelings which vibrate within us as the passing bell 
tolls the departure of another period of time into the meas- 
ureless expanse of eternity. We recall the plans and the la- 
bors, the joys and the sorrows, the triumphs and tribulations 
of the generations past. We stand, as it were, among them 
that have passed out from that part of the Holy City which is 
visible, and have entered within the secret chambers, which 
are hidden places indeed to us, but which for them open out 
towards the light eternal which proceeds from that heavenly 
place to which the uprising towers of our Holy City point us. 
They tell us what they have wrought for our sakes, and how 
they rejoice in what they were able to do for those abodes 
wherein we have now succeeded them. They remind us that 
this Holy City is the porch and outer entrance to the still 
more glorious Capital, into which they pray that we with 
them may enter when time shall be fulfilled, and the purpose 
of the earthly tabernacle of the Kingdom of God shall have 
been accomplished. They bid us rejoice in the comfort and 
protection which, in the grace and mercy of God, that Holy 
City is able to afford us in our earthly warfare. They charge 
us so to build, as those who know that the Holy City must be 
fashioned more and more unto the likeness of that to which it 
leads; and so to war, as those who know that upon them de- 


pends the preservation of that stronghold for the shelter of 
them that come after. And as we heed and follow them that 
have borne the burden and heat of the day, let us so cherish 
the works that they have left behind for our help and strength, 
that we may hand them down for the blessing of those to 
whom we, in our turn, must soon give place. 

In grateful remembrance of the past, in hopeful anticipa- 
tion of the future, in sole dependence upon Him by whose 
sacred name and presence the Holy City is consecrated, let 
us walk about Sion, and go round about her, and tell the tow- 
ers thereof. •' Mark well her bulwarks, set up her houses, that 
ye may tell them that come after. For this God is our God 
for ever and ever. He shall be our guide unto death." 



Hon. James Duane ; Hon. John Jay, Peter Augustus Jay, 
Esq., Hon. William Jay; Hon. Rufus King, Hon. John A. 
King, Charles King, L.L.D. ; Hon. David S. Jones, brother 
of Chancellor Jones above mentioned, and, of another family, 
Edward R. Jones, Esq. ; James F. and Frederic de Peyster, 
Esqs. ; Hon. John Duer ; Anthony J. Bleecker, Esq.; Hon. 
John C. Spencer; William H. Harison, Esq.; Hon. David 
B. Ogden ; Nathaniel Moore, LL.D., Clement C. Moore, 
LL.D., William Moore, Esq. ; Hon. Ogden Hoffman and 
Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, Esq., kinsmen of Judge Hoff- 
man before mentioned ; William Betts, L.L.D. ; Floyd 
Smith, Esq. ; Pierre E. F. M'Donald and Anthony Bleecker 
M'Donald, Esqs.; Hon. William H. Bell; Charles Nova 
Scotia Rowland, Esq. ; Hon. Luther Bradish ; Hon. Samuel B. 
Ruggles ; Hon. John A. Dix ; Robert B. Minturn, Esq. ; Adam 
Norrie, Esq.; Charles Tracy, Esq.; Cyrus Curtiss, Esq.; Hon. 
James Emott ; Orlando H. Meads, Esq.; Frederick T. Win- 
ston, Esq. 

The Rev. James Milnor, D.D., Rector of St. George's, N. 
Y. ; Rev. Cornelius R. Duffie, Rector of St. Thomas* Church, 
N. Y. ; Rev. Thomas Lyell, D.D., Rector Christ Church, N.Y. ; 
Rev. Henry J. Feltus, D.D., Rector St. Stephen's, N. Y. ; Rev. 
Reuben Sherwood, D.D,, Rector St. James', Hyde Park, and 
(less generally known, but with whom the writer has a special 
association as having been baptized by him in St. John's 
Church, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island) the Rev. Isaac 
Sherwood, Missionary; Rev. William Creighton, D.D., some- 
time Rector of St. Mark's, N. Y., and the first Provisional 
Bishop E/ect of New York ; Rev. William Berrian, D.D., Rec- 
tor of Trinity, N.Y.; Rev. John McVickar, D.D., Prof, of Moral 
Philosophy in Columbia College; Rev. Francis Lister Hawks, 
D.D., sometime Rector of St. Thomas' and Calvary, N. Y.; 
Historiographer, etc. — the Chrysostom of the American 


Church ; Rev. Edward Y. Higbee, D.D., and Rev. Benjamin 
I. Haight, D.D., Assistant Ministers of Trinity, N. Y. ; Rev. 
William Walton, D.D., Clement C. Moore Prof, of Hebrew 
in the General Theological Seminary; Rev. Lewis P. Bayard, 
D.D., Rector St. Clement's, N. Y. ; Rev. John F. Schroeder, 
D.D., sometime Assistant Minister in Trinity, N. Y.; Rev. E. 
N. Mead, D.D., sometime Rector St. Clement's, N. Y. ; Rev. 
Henry Anthon, D.D., Rector St. Mark's, N. Y. ; Rev. 
Stephen H. Tyng, D.D., Rector St. George's, N. Y. ; Rev. 
John D. Ogilby, D.D., St. Mark's in the Bowery, Prof, of 
Eccl. Hist, in the General Theological Seminary, and Rev. 
Frederick Ogilby, D.D., Assistant Minister Trinity, N. Y. ; 
Rev. William L. Johnson, D.D., Rector Grace Church, Ja- 
maica, L. I., and Rev. Samuel Roosevelt Johnson, D.D., Prof. 
Systematic Divinity, General Theological Seminary; Rev, 
Alex. H. Vinton, D.D., sometime Rector St. Mark's, N. Y., 
and Rev. Francis Vinton, D.D., Assistant Minister Trinity, 
N. Y., and Charles and Elizabeth Ludlow Prof. Eccl. Polity 
and Law in General Theo. Seminary; Rev. William Shelton, 
D.D., Rector St. Paul's, Buffalo, and Rev. Frederick A. Shel- 
ton, LL.D. Rev. George Jarvis Geer, D.D., Rector St. Tim- 
othy's, N. Y., Rev. A. T. Twing, D.D., Secretary Domestic 
Missions ; Rev. Henry E. Montgomery, D.D., Rector of the 
Church of the Incarnation, N. Y.; Rev. Wm. A. Muhlenberg, 
D.D., founder of the Flushing Institute, St. Paul's College, 
Church of the Holy Communion, N. Y., St. Luke's Hospital 
and St. Johnland ; and Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., asso- 
ciated with him in the educational works just mentioned, 
Rector of the Church of the Annunciation, N. Y., Prof. Bib- 
lical Learning Gen. Theological Seminary, and Editor of The 
Churchman from 1833 to 1849. 



Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D,, Oxon, Rector of St. Peter's 
Church, Westchester, N. Y., at the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary War (and, during the war, Chaplain of the 
King's American Regiment in the city of New York) — for 

Rev. Richard Channing Moore, D.D., Rector of St. 
Stephen's Church, N. Y. — for Virginia. * 

Rev. Henry Ustick Onderdonk, D.D., Rector of St. Ann's 
Church, Brooklyn, L. I. — for Pennsylvania. 

Rev. Levi Silliman Ives, D.D., Rector of St. Luke's 
Church, N. Y. — for North Carolina. 

Rev. Chas. Pettit Mcllvaine, D.D., Rector of St. Ann's 
Church, Brooklyn L. I. — for Ohio. 

Rev. Thomas Church Brownell, D.D., LL.D., Assistant 
Minister Trinity Church, N. Y. — for Connecticut. 

Rev. Wm. R. Whittingham, D.D., St. Mark's in the 
Bowery, Prof. Eccl. Hist. Gen. Theological Seminary, N. Y. — 
for Maryland. 

Rev. Manton Eastburn, D.D., Rector of the Church of the 
Ascension, N. Y. — for Massachusetts. 

Rev. Horatio Southgate, D.D., Presbyter Diocese of New 
York — Missionary Bishop for Turkey. 

Rev. Alonzo Potter, D.D., L.L.D., Prof. Moral Philoso- 
phy and Belles-Lettresin Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. — 
for Pennsylvania. 

Rev. Henry John Whitehouse, D.D., Rector St. Thomas' 
Church, N. Y. — for Illinois. 

Rev. Wm. Ingraham Kip, D.D., Rector St. Paul's Church, 
Albany, N. Y. — for California. 

* The Rev. Nathaniel Bowen, D.D., consecrated for South Carolina, Octo- 
ber 8, i8r8, is described in his letter of consecration (Journal Gen, Conv., 1853, 
p. 383) as Rector of St. Michael's, Charleston. He appears however to have 
been at the time of his election Rector of Grace Church, N. Y. See Berrian's 
Hist. Trinity Church, pp. 225, 226. 


Rev. Henry Washington Lee, D.D., Rector St. Luke's 
Church, Rochester, N. Y. — for Iowa. 

Rev. Gregory Thurston Bedell, D.D., Rector Church of 
the Ascension, N. Y. — for Ohio. 

Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D.D. (sometime Rector 
Calvary Church, N. Y.), Presbyter Diocese of New York — 
for Western New York. 

Rev. Henry Adams Neely, D.D., Assistant Minister of 
Trinity Church, N. Y. — for Maine. 

Rev. John Freeman Young, D.D., Assistant Minister of 
Trinity Church, N. Y. — for Florida. 

Rev. Wm. Henry Augustus Bissell, D.D., Rector Trinity 
Church, Geneva, N, Y. — for Vermont. 

Rev. Charles Franklin Robertson, D.D., Rector St. James* 
Church, Batavia, N. Y. — for Missouri. 

Rev. Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, D.D., Rector Zion Church, 
N. Y. — Missionary Bishop for Montana Territory, etc. 

Rev. Abram Newkirk Littlejohn, D.D., Rector of Holy 
Trinity Church, Brooklyn, L. L (Presbyter of the Diocese 
of New York when the Diocese of Long Island was estab- 
lished) — for Long Island. 

Rev. Wm. Croswell Doane, D.D., Rector of St. Peter's 
Church, Albany (Presbyter of New York when Albany be- 
came a distinct Diocese) — for Albany. 

Rev. Benjamin Henry Paddock, D.D., Rector Grace 
Church, Brooklyn, L. I. — for Massachusetts. 

Rev. John Henry Hobart Brown, D.D., Rector St. John's 
Church, Cohoes, N. Y. — for Fond du Lac. 

Rev. Wm. Stevens Perry, D.D., President Hobart College 
and Rector Trinity Church, Geneva, N. Y. — for Iowa. 

Rev. George Franklin Seymour, D.D., Dean Gen. Theo. 
Seminary, and St. Mark's in the Bowery Prof, of Eccl. Hist. 
— for Springfield. 

Rev. John Nicholas Galleher, D.D. (sometime Rector 
Zion Church, N. Y.), Presbyter Diocese of New York — for 

Rev. Leigh Richmond Brewer, Rector of Trinity Church, 
Watertown, N. Y. — Missionary Bishop for Montana. 


Rev. John Adams Paddock, D.D,, Rector St. Peter's 
Church, Brooklyn, L. I. — Missionary Bishop of Washington 

Rev. William David Walker, in charge of Calvary Chapel, 
N. Y. — Missionary Bishop for North Dakota. 

The Bishops of the Diocese of New York have been 
chosen from that Diocese. 

Rev. Samuel Provoost, D.D., Rector of Trinity Church, 
N. Y. 

Rev. Benjamin Moore, D.D., Rector of Trinity Church, 
N. Y. 

Rev. John Henry Hobart, D.D., Assistant Minister Trin- 
ity Church, N. Y. 

Rev. Benjamin Tredwell Onderdonk, D.D., Assistant Min- 
ister Trinity Church, N. Y. 

Rev. Jonathan Mayhew Wainvvright, D.D,, D.C.L. (Oxon), 
Assistant Minister Trinity Church, N. Y. 

Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., Rector St. Peter's Church, 
Albany (prior to the setting off of Albany as a Diocese). 

Rev. Henry Codman Potter, D.D., Rector Grace Church, 
N. Y. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon the bishops, clergy, and 
lay delegates, to the number of several hundred, were enter- 
tained at luncheon at the Assembly Rooms on Broadway and 
Thirty-ninth Street, by the Assistant Bishop, who was aided in 
receiving his numerous guests by Generals Webb and Wilson, 
and by Messrs. Vanderbilt, Morgan, Gibbs, Camp, and Whit- 
taker, who acted as stewards. Two hours were agreeably 
spent at the tables in the spacious hall, and in listening to a 
number of delightful after-dinner speeches from the host, 
from Bishops Coxe and Doane, and from several prominent 
clergymen and laymen. 



At eight o'clock in the evening of the same day, Divine 
Service was held in St. Thomas' Church, when a very large 
congregation was present. The order of service was as fol- 
lows : 

1. Hymn 4. " Hosanna to the living Lord." 

2. Lord's Prayer and Versicles. 

3. Psalm cxxxii. " Memento Domine." 

4. Lesson, Isaiah, xii. 

5. Deus Misereatur. 

6. Apostles' Creed. 

7. Collects for the Day, for Peace, and for aid against perils. " The 
Grace," etc. 

8. Hymn 190. " Glorious things of Thee are spoken." 

9. Historical Sketch, by Dr. DeCosta. 

10. Anthem. " How beautiful upon the Mountains " 

11. Address by the Bishop of Western New York, 

12. Hymn No. 176. " The Son of God goes forth to war." 

13. Addresses by the Bishops of Albany and Long Island. 

14. Hymn 202. "■ The ChurcKs one foundation." 

15. Benediction. 

16. Hymn 430. ^^ Alleluia ! Song of Sweetness." 

We are here this evening, dear brethren, said the Rt. 
Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL.D., in accordance with 
the order taken by the Convention of the Diocese of New 
York at its session in the year 1883, by which action it was 
provided that the centennial anniversary of the Diocese of 
New York should be commemorated on this, the first day of 
the Convention of this year, by Divine Service and a sermon 
in Trinity Church in the morning, and by an assemblage in 
the evening with addresses appropriate to the occasion, and 
with the reading also of an historical essay. In accordance 
with this order, the historical essay will now be read by the 
Rev. B. F. DeCosta, D.D., the Rector of the Church of St. 
John the Evangelist in this city. 



One hundred years have passed away since the organiza- 
tion of the Diocese of New York, and now, standing upon the 
threshold of a second century, we pause to glance at the suc- 
cession of memorable events forming the body of our eccle- 
siastical history. 

To understand the real character of an ecclesiastical or- 
ganization, it is needful to know something of the religious 
condition of society during the period out of which it grew ; 
since a Church, like a plant, is governed in its special develop- 
ment by the soil and atmosphere. At the outset, therefore, 
attention must be directed to the Colonial period. 

The Church in New York was founded during a period 
that has received very inadequate treatment. Valuable 
studies have been made, but the Colonial period still awaits 
its historian, and we must content ourselves for the present 
with such approaches to the subject as the specialist may from 
time to time offer. 

The circumstances that attended the founding of the 
Church in New York are not thoroughly well known. 
The origin of this Diocese bears little resemblance to that of 
any other. Indeed, we should hardly expect to find the 
beginnings of any two dioceses alike. The old Eastern Dio- 
ceses, like those of the Middle and Southern States, each had 
a peculiar origin. In New England the Church grew up 
amidst persecution, while in Virginia, for instance, the weight 
of the government was on her side. In Pennsylvania, 
under the Charter, the Church was barely tolerated. In New 
York, however, while religious liberty was enjoyed after the 
Dutch submission, the progress of the Church was obstructed. 
The issue, at the outset, was with a somewhat moderate 
Reformed religion, more or less friendly. It was with a later 
and openly hostile political ecclesiasticism that Churchmen 
were called to strive. 

Coming to the Colonial period we find to our deep regret 
that many valuable manuscript records have passed out of 


sight. Besides, many important publications of that period 
were of a fugitive character, and are difficult to collect. Still, 
notwithstanding the loss of much material, some points are 
clearer than is often supposed. 

Prior to the English occupation of New York, the Book of 
Common Prayer was probably used in English families, but 
the Church Services first appear in 1663. 

The first English Governor was Colonel Nicolls, one of 
the Commissioners sent over to take possession of New Neth- 
erlands. King Charles had given the Commissioners special 
Instructions with respect to Massachusetts, granting liberty 
to all, whatever religion they might profess,* and those for 
Connecticut took a similar ground. These applied equally 
to New York. But in some " Private Instructions," which 
made it optional with the Commissioners to go to New 
York and deal with the people there first, the King enters 
quite fully into the subject of toleration, warning them against 
using any oppression in seeking to advance the Church, cau- 
tioning them with respect to those who might have no more 
than 2. pretended zeal for Common Prayer and the discipline of 
the Church of England, and advising them that they might 
dispense with "wearing the surplesse," which *' may conven- 
iently be foreborne att this tyme."f No one can affirm that 

* The language was, " Such who desire to use ye Book of Common Prayer 
may be permitted soe to doe wf>out incurring any penalty, reproach or disad- 
vantage in his interest, it being very scandalous that any man should be debarred 
ye exercise of his religion," etc. — N. V. Col. Docs., III., 54. 

•f-For their guidance in New York, the King says : "And that you may not 
give any umbrage or jealousy to them in matters of religion, as if you were at 
least Enimyes to formes observed amongst them, you shall do well to frequent 
their Churches and be present at their devotions, though wee doe suppose and 
thinke fitt that you carry with you some learned and discreet Chaplaine, orthodox 
in his judgment and practice, who in your own familyes will reade the Booke of 
Common Prayer and perform your devotion according to ye forme established in 
the Church of England, excepting only in wearing the surplesse which having 
never bin seen in those countryes may conveniently be forborne att this tyme, 
when the principal busynesse is, by all good expedients, to unite and reconcile 
persons of very different judgments and practice in all things, at least which con- 
cern the peace and prosperity of those people, and their joint submission and 
obedience to us and our government." — N'. Y. Col. Dues., III., 58. 


the English were not in this respect considerate of the feel- 
ings of the people. 

With the English garrison came a chaplain, and, as the 
few Churchmen then in the city had no place of worship, it 
was arranged that after the Dutch had finished their morning 
worship the chapel should be used for the services of the 
Church. So far as we learn at present, these were the first 
public services of the kind known to have been performed on 
this island. The name of the chaplain is not given. In 1664 
Nicolls framed what are known as the Duke's Laws, which 
were approved by an extemporized convention of the people 
of Long Lsland, held at Hempstead, there being no Assem- 
bly. New York was held by the Duke in feudal style. 
These laws sought to provide for public worship, for which 
all inhabitants were to be taxed, while nothing is said about 
Episcopacy or Common Prayer, the right of non-Episcopal 
ordination being recognized. 

Nicolls continued Governor until 1668, when he left with 
the good wishes of the people. Colonel Francis Lovelace be- 
came his successor, by favor of the King, winning the appoint- 
ment from the Diike of York. He is described as of a gen- 
erous, upright and noble mind, while, in his Proclamation of 
November 28, ordering a day of humiliation and prayer, he 
expressly condemns the prevailing sins of profanity, impiety 
and intemperence. The King had given the Duke of York 
power to make the laws, and though Nicolls accepted help in 
forming a code, Lovelace ruled without regard to the people. 
He expressed the Duke's approval of the Lutherans, who sent 
to Germany for a minister. Lovelace carried out the Duke's 
well-known policy of toleration. He continued Governor until 
the war broke out between England and Holland. 

In 1673 the colony changed hands, Colve gaining the au- 
thority ; but when the war was over the English again took 
possession. A new patent was issued to the Duke of York, 
July I, 1674. Edmund Andros, a stiff Churchman, was com- 
missioned by the Duke as Governor. Andros brought no 
new instructions of a radical character, being simply enjoined 
to permit all persons, of whatsoever religion, to live in 


peace.* The Duke himself was disabled by the Test Act 
and was averse to distinctions. 

With Andros came the Rev. Charles Wolley, fresh from 
the University of Cambridge, having been appointed Chap- 
Iain to the forces by the Duke of York. This individual 
does not appear to have met with much success, and the ex- 
tent of his ministrations is not known. At London, in 1701, 
he published a Journal of American experiences.! In 1702 he 
was made a freeman of New York. The Labadist Brothers, 
who visited New York in 1679, heard him preach on the Fif- 
teenth Sunday after Trinity, and described him as a young 
man who read his sermon out of a book, and *' who thought 
he was performing wonders." :j: Governor Andros, testified 
that he was " unblamable in his Life and Conversation." His 
disposition was genial and he was fond of society. It is said 
that he gave the Dutch valuable help in building their new 
church, in which course he had the encouragement of Andros 
himself. Indeed, the English and Dutch lived on the best 
of terms, while Chaplain Wolley was dependent upon his 
Dutch brethren for the accommodation which he enjoyed for 
his own services. 

In 1680 Govenor Andros was called home, leaving Anthony 
Brockhalls commander-in-chief, being followed eventually by 

Prior to 1683, there seems to have been a vacancy of two 
years in the Chaplaincy, but when, on August 25, 1683, Don- 

* " You shall permit all persons of what Religion soever, quietly to inhabitt 
w'^in y^ precincts of yo"^ Jurisdiccon, w'^'out giveing y™ any disturbance or disquiet 
whatsoever, for or by reason of their differing in matters of Religion : Provided 
they give noe disturbance to y^ publique peace, nor doe molest or disquiet others 
in ye free exercise of their religion." — Documents relating to the Colonial History 
of New York, Vol. III., p. 218. 

f A T1U0 Years Journal in New York, and parts of its Territories in 
America. Reprinted by Cowers, New York, i860. The Rev. Nicholaus Van 
Renselaer, ordained deacon and priest by the Bishop of Salisbury, came over with 
Andros, intending to serve the Dutch Communion, which would not receive hira. 
He was of a bad character and died soon after. 

X See their Journal in the Memoirs of the L. I. Hist. Soc, Vol. I., p. 148. 
This volume also contains a sketch showing the appearance of the chapel at that 



gan came over as Governor, he brought out Dr. John Gordon 
to serve in that office, and for his own convenience he took 
with him an English Jesuit priest named Harvey, the Gov- 
ernor being a Roman CathoHc. Gordon does not appear to 
have served for any considerable time, and was succeeded in 
June, 1684, by the Rev. Josias Clarke ; who, in turn, received 
his discharge October, 1686. 

On coming to New York, Governor Dongan did not receive 
any special Instructions concerning religious liberty, those 
given to Andros in 1674 being sufficient.* Yet during his 
administration, and before the reception of his second Instruc- 
tions, the use of Common Prayer obtained in some parts of 
Long Island at least. In 1685, the opposition became so 
very strong that Mr. Eburne agreed to modify his course. At 
a town meeting held at Setauket about this time, the subject 
was discussed, resulting in an agreement, which dispensed 
with the book, except in certain cases. The feeling ran so 
high that Mr. Eburne's salary seems to have been withheld, 
when he made an appeal to the Governor f though it does 
not appear how the case was settled. ^ 

In 1686, the Duke of York being in the second year of his 
reign as James 11. , sent out a new and full set of Instructions, 

* See Instructions, AT. Y. Col. Docs., III., 331. 

t N. V. Doc: Hist., Vol. III., p. 218. 

I For his knowledge of this important and interesting issue, the writer is in- 
debted to a paper preserved in the records of Brookhaven, which were searched 
for him by Mr. Richard M. Bayles, of Middle Island. The following is a copy of 
the Document : 

" Mr. Samuell Eburne the minister of this Toune, being at a toune meeting 
held by Mr. Justice WoodhuU his Warrant Elected by a vote to be minister of 
this toune and Parrish & it being proposed unto him by the Toun in Regard 
of some tender consciences that he would omitt the ceremonies in the booke of 
Common Prayer in the publick worshipe, the sd mr. Samuell Eburne hath pro- 
mised & by the presents covenant and promise to and with the Inhabitants and 
Parrishoners of this Toune, that according to their desire with regard of their ten- 
der consciences to Omitt and not use the aforesd ceremonies neither in his Publick 
worshipe or administracon of the Sacraments excepting to such persons as shall 
desire the same. In Wittness whereof the sd Samuell Eburne hereunto set his 

" Witness my hand 

" Samuell Eburne, Minister." 


dated May 29, 1686, in which Instructions he gave particular 
directions concerning ecclesiastical affairs, recognizing the 
Church as an Establishment. 

In these Instructions the Archbishop of Canterbury, in- 
stead of the Bishop of London, is invested with the ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction, the King having had a misunderstanding 
with the latter. Sanscroft himself was displaced, and the 
supervision was then exercised by the Bishops of Durham, 
Rochester and Peterborough, until it returned to the See of 

Speaking of ecclesiastical affairs, Dongan, the Roman 
Catholic Governor, says: " Every town ought to have a Min- 
ister. New York has, first, a Chaplain belonging to the Fort 
of the Church of England ; secondly a Dutch Calvinist ; 
thirdly a French Calvinist ; fourthly a Dutch Lutheran — 
there bee not many of the Church of England ; few Roman 
Catholic ; abundance of Quakers — Ranting Quakers ; preach- 
ers, men and Women especially ; singing Quakers ; Sabbata- 
rians ; Anti-Sabbatarians ; some Anabaptists, some Inde- 
pendents, some Jews ; in short of all sorts of opinions there 
are some, and the most part of none at all."* While ** The 
Great Church, which serves both the English & the Dutch, 
is within the Fort which is found to be very inconvenient 
therefore I desire that there may bee an order for their build- 
ing an other, ground already being layed out for that purpose, 
and they wanting not money in store where with all to build it." 
He also says : " As for the King's natural-born-subjects that 
live on Long Island & other parts of Government I find it 
a hard task to make them pay their ministers." t At this 

* Cadillac, in his Memoir on Acadia, 1692, says of New York: "There may 
be in the toun five hundred men capable of bearing arms, but they could [mus- 
ter] three thousand men in a short time. Here it must be remarked that there 
are a great many Quakers or Tumblers who are non-combatants. The Dutch 
Church is in the fort. The garrison consists of 60 men. The population is 
composed of Calvinists, Lutherans, Anabaptists, Jews, Quakers, Abadiens, French 
Protestants and some Catholics. Each sect has its Church and freedom of relig- 
ion." He adds, "there are about forty English families." — N. Y. Col. Docs., 
IX., 548. 

f New York Documents relating to the Colonial History, III., p. 415. 


time the Common Prayer was being pressed upon the peo- 

The Rev. Alexander Jones succeeded Mr. Clarke as chap- 
lain to the garrison, April 20, 1686. There was now a popu- 
lation estimated by some as high as fifteen or eighteen thou- 
sand, and yet, according to the Governor, the number of 
Churchmen was small. In the same paper from which we 
have already quoted, the Governor says : " I believe for 
these seven years last past, there has not come over into this 
province twenty English, Scotch or Irish Familys, while of 
French there have since my coming here several familys 
come both from St Christopher's and England, and a great 
many more are expected."* The Edict of Nantes was revoked 
October 22, 1685, which sent thousands of Protestants out of 

Dongan's term ended in 1688, and on April 7 of that year 
the King issued a Commission to Andros, then Governor of 
New England,f constituting him Governor-General of New 
York, New Jersey and New England. The time had now 
come for a stronger man than Dongan, and Andros was se- 
lected, not only on account of his known firmness, but also on 
account of his large knowledge and experience. 

The new Instructions of Andros did not repeat those of 
Dongan respecting public worship, and the King simply says : 
** You are to permitt a liberty of conscience in matters of re- 
ligion to all persons, so they be contented with a quiet and 
peaceable enjoyen* of it.":]: The King was here saying a 
word for himself. 

The change was hailed with satisfaction, as complaint had 

* N. Y. Col. Docs., III., 399. 

f His instructions as Governor of New England have not been published, but 
a synopsis is given in Chalmer's Annals, I., 420, 421, 463. See note in Brodhead's 
New York, II., 450. 

X N, Y. Col. Docs., III., 546. It has been maintained that James informed 
Pope Innocent XI. that "it was his full purpose to have set up Roman Catholic 
Religion in the English Plantations of America." James, it is said, alarmed the 
Cardinals by his zeal, and they are reported as saying, "We must excommunicate 
this King, who will destroy the little of Catholicism which remains in England." — 
Brodhead's New York, II., 532. 


been made that, under Dongan, the Roman Catholics had 
enjoyed too much favor, Andros established himself in 
Boston, while Francis Nicholson served as his deputy in New 
York. He protected the rights of Dongan's co-religionists, 
as in duty bound, and gave the minister in charge of the 
Roman service a better room for his accommodation. But 
while progress was being peacefully made, the news of the 
fall of James was received, and then followed the usurpation 
o£ Leisler, when Chaplain Innis was charged with being out- 
wardly a Protestant, but at heart " a meere Papist." The 
Leisler controversy is one that we are not called to consider 
here, and we pass it by, simply observing that, when the 
usurpation was over, the new Governor, Colonel Sloughter, 
took his place at the head of affairs. His Instructions bore 
the date January 31, 1690, and, in substance, are the same as 
Dongan's, though the King orders, "You are to permitt liberty 
of Conscience to all Persons (except Papists) so that they be 
contented with a quiet and peaceable enjoyment of it, not 
giving offence or scandall to Government." * Sloughter 
came to New York at once, and proceeded to carry out his 
instructions. In the meanwhile. May 13, 1691, the Assembly 
of New York passed an act similar to the Charter of Liber- 
ties received from the Duke of York, and accepted October 
30, 1683. Unlike the Duke's Charter, however, this act main- 
tained the Test Act hated by the Duke, declaring that it 
was not " to give liberty for any persons of the Romish religion 
to exercise their manner of worship contrary to the laws 
and statutes of their majesties Kingdom of England." f The 
clauses of the Duke's Charter relating to privileged churches 
were omitted. Nevertheless, on April 18, 1691, Governor 
Sloughter reopened the subject of Public Worship, and a bill 
was introduced into the Assembly, not with reference to 
establishing the Church, which was already established, but 
with reference to " settling the Ministry." :J: This bill was 

* N. Y. Col. Docs. III., 689. 

f Brodhead's Zr/j/. New York, II., 645. 

4: " A Bill for settling the Ministry, and allotting a Maintenance for them, in 
each respective city and toun within this Province, that consists of forty families 
and upwards." — Hisi. Mag., 1867, p. 326. 


rejected, and, August 23, 1692, another was presented, pro- 
viding for a Minister or Reader of Divine Service. 

Governor Sloughter, however, soon died,* and Benjamin 
Fletcher was appointed March 18, 1692. His instructions 
were like those of his predecessors, and he understood that 
he was to use all proper means to put the Church on the 
footing of an establishment. To this end he directed his 
efforts. In October, 1692, he recommended the passage of a 
Ministry Act. April 3, 1693, the committee having the matter 
in charge, begged for more time, when they were ordered to 
report in three days. The Governor declared that the law of 
Magna Charta provided " for the religion of the Church of 
England, against Sabbath breaking. Swearing, and all other 
profanity." Finally, September 19, 1693, a bill was brought 
in, and, September 21, it was sent up to the Governor 
and Council, passing a second reading, but not proving satis- 
factory. With an amendment to the effect that the clergy 
appointed should be " approved and collated " by the Gov- 
ernor, it was sent back, but the Assembly failed to concur in 
the amendment, when the Governor administered a sharp re- 
buke, but declared the bill passed and prorogued the body. 
The bill was not what the Governor wanted, but he said, " I 
have gott them to Settle a fund for a Ministry in the City of 
New York and three more counties, which could never be 
obtained before." f 

January 6, 1694, in accordance with the Act of Assembly, 
the freeholders of New York City elected two Wardens and 
ten Vestrymen. February 5, following, the latter body met 
and voted to raise one hundred pounds for the support of a 
minister. Six days later they held another meeting, and the 
record states: "By a majority of votes itt is the opinion of 
y' board that a Dissenting minister be called to have the 
Care of Souls for this Citty." How large the majority was 
we are not informed, but there was a minority of the contrary 
opinion, in which minority we may place Mr, Crooke, who, in 

* N. Y. Col. Docs., IV., 117. 
t N. Y. Col. Docs., IV., 57. 


1796 and 1797 was a member of the Board which took definite 
ground in favor of the Church of England. Nothing, how- 
ever, was done to fill the office of Minister of New York. 

February 15, of the same month, the Governor took the 
position that the office was already provided for, and he in- 
formed the Council that the Rev. John Miller, chaplain to 
the forces, was virtually entitled to the living. This inter- 
pretation, however, must be regarded as illogical. At least 
the Governor's Council thought so, and denied Mr. Miller's 
right. Consequently the matter was dropped, and finally the 
Wardens and Vestry went out of office without taking any 

January 8, 1695, there was a second election, when the 
result was more favorable, though still unsatisfactory. Only 
four of the old Board were returned, yet its attitude was hos- 
tile. The Council therefore voted that those parties offending 
ought to be prosecuted at the public expense. Becoming 
alarmed, the Board now proceeded, and, as the record states, 
voted " Nemine Contra Dicente " to call Mr. William Vesey as 
Minister of New York. The objectors, of whom there seems 
to have been five, acquiesced in a sullen spirit to the wishes 
of their associates and the Governor. It was a compromise. 

There is nothing whatever to prove that a majority of the 
Board really wished Mr. Vesey's election, nor is there any- 
thing to prove that he was even notified of the election. The 
action of the hostile members of the Board may be regarded 
as designed to avoid prosecution. Thus the movement came 
to nothing, the youth of Mr. Vesey, with not a few, no doubt, 
being an objection to placing him in so responsible a position. 

April 12, no arrangements had been made, and the 
obstructionists in the Board, to the number of five, petitioned 
the Assembly,* which decided that they had a right to elect 
a dissenting minister. Whereupon Governor Fletcher pro- 
rogued the Assembly, which lived in his breath, telling the 

* This is stated by Smith in History of New York. The revised edition 
also makes the number " five," which is doubtless correct. The writer uses Dr. 
Moore's transcript of records bearing on this subject {Hist. Mag., 1867), but re- 
jects interpretations formerly allowed. 


members that they could not interpret an Act which they did 
not frame. This was the last of the opposition raised by the 
dissenting party. 

January 14, 1696, there was another election, which proved 
altogether favorable to the Church. This Board, including 
several members of the Board of " Managers of the Affairs of 
the Church of England in the Citty of New York," elected 
** Mr. William Veasey " to " have y' care of souls in this Citty 
of New York." He now accepted, and agreed to go to Eng- 
land for Orders, though it must be observed that this body is 
not to be confounded with the Wardens and Vestry of Trinity 
Church, which was not yet in existence. 

Mr. Vesey went to England and was ordained. In the 
meanwhile, May 6, 1697, Trinity Church was chartered, with 
the Bishop of London as nominal rector, and having the 
position of an Established Church. Mr. Vesey was elected 
minister December 24, 1697, and was inducted the next day, 
being Christmas Day. Two of the Dutch clergy served as 
the legal witnesses, thereby substantially accepting the situa- 
tion, being accustomed to the idea of a State Church, which 
was the actual position of the Dutch organization prior to 
the occupation of New York by the English. Humphreys 
states that Mr. Vesey was favored for the office of minis- 
ter of Trinity church by Colonel Caleb Heathcote, while 
Fletcher preferred a Mr. Smith, who had served some time as 
minister in charge of King's Chapel, Boston. Governor 
Fletcher does not seem to have approved the first election of 
Mr. Vesey by the city Board, but the explanation is found in 
the fact that he desired the service of Mr. Vesey as his private 

It remains to be added here, however, that instead of 
being a Dissenter, Mr. Vesey was of a Church of England 
family in Braintree, Massachusetts, being a communicant of 
the Church in his fifteenth year. Graduating from Harvard 
college at an age when he could not receive Orders from the 
Church of England, he was advised to employ his gifts, which 

* See Heathcote's Letter of June 13, 1714, in Archives of the Propagation 
Society, London, Vol. IX., No. 19. Also The Church Press, April 27, 1886. 


were admired, wherever, for the time being, he could be use- 
ful. With this understanding he preached first at Sag and 
afterwards at Hempstead, on Long Island, where, as we have 
seen, the Prayer Book was employed among the mixed assem- 
blies, including Churchmen, Congregationalists and Presbyte- 
rians. Very likely he used it in his ministrations. There is 
no proof that he ever contemplated permanent service any- 
where but in the Church; and when the time came he took 
Orders, devoting himself loyally to the ministry.* 

While Trinity church was being finished, Mr. Vesey con- 
ducted services in the new Dutch church, Domine Selyns say- 
ing that the " Episcopal Clergy" " live with us in all friend- 
ship." f 

Trinity church was opened, for the first time, March 13, 
1698, when Mr. Vesey publicly accepted whatever was con- 
tained in or prescribed by the Book of Common Prayer, and 
read the certificate of the Bishop of London, attesting his 
declaration of Conformity. Among those in New York who 
really had the interests of religion at heart, there was at this 
time an excellent feeling, and it appears that Trinity church 
was not finished without "a contribution by several, even of 

* The statements to be found in Briggs' American Presbyterianism, pp. 144, 
145, 146, 147, form a tissue of gross misrepresentation. The statement (p. 144) 
that Mr. Vesey was " the fourth Puritan minister known to have been con- 
nected with New York," is an unfounded assertion. It cannot be proved that 
Mr. Vesey ever preached in any dissenting assembly of this city. On page 147 he 
is stigmatized as " the unfaithful Vesey," who " betrayed the Presbyterians who 
had chosen him as their leader," This is all grossly erroneous. He came to 
Long Island a boy of nineteen, and preached for the mixed congregation at Hemp- 
stead, in the building where his successor, the Rev. Mr. Thomas, a Missionary of 
the Propagation Society, was inducted in 1704. The .writer will treat this subject 
elsewhere, and he now refers to a lecture read before the New York Historical 
Society, found in the New York Evening Post, of February 3, 1886. 

f This worthy man says, in 1696 : " For the two English Churches in this city 
which have been formed since our new Church was built, — one of our churches being 
in the fort and the other in the city, and both of them very neat, curious and all 
of stone, — there are two Episcopal Clergymen who by arrangement preach in our 
church after my morning and evening service, and live with us in all friendship." — 
Ilistotical Magazine, 1867, p. 12. The reference here may be to Mr. Vesey, then 
in New York, where he may have preached without orders as he did at Kings* 
Chapel, Boston, for a period of three months, or to a Mr. Smith, or to both. 


the French and Dutch Churches as well as the English." * For 
the completion of the "Steeple" in 1711, the Jews made a 
special contribution, and about thirty French names are found 
in the list of subscribers. 

The Spirit of Toleration, however, was marred in the year 
1700 by the action of the Assembly, in passing a Bill against 
Jesuits and all Roman Catholic Ecclesiastics, and all who har- 
bored them, though the Roman Catholic laity were entitled 
to the private enjoyment of their opinions. Their public ser- 
vices were not legalized until the period of the Revolution.f 

The years 1701 must ever be held memorable, as at that 
time '* The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in For- 
eign Parts" was organized, receiving its Charter from William 
III. With the commencement of operations by the Venerable 
Society, the Church in America began to grow. Missionaries 
soon found their way into all the principal colonies. 

The Church Services were commenced in the colony of Vir- 
ginia in 1607, and in due time gained the footing of a legal 
establishment. In 1642 the first church in New England was 
organized at Portsmouth, then known as " Strawberry Bank." 
In 1664 the Church Services were held without molestation in 
Boston, and in 1686 the foundations of King's Chapel were 
laid. At the time the Venerable Society was organized be- 
ginnings had already been made in Pennsylvania, North Car- 
olina and New Jersey ; but afterwards work was commenced 
in earnest in Connecticut, Rhode Island and elsewhere. In 
1702, Keith, Talbot and Gordon were sent over, and Keith 
preached in Hempstead to a favorable congregation. By re- 
quest of Mr. Vesey, he also preached in New York on Sep- 
tember 30.:}: Gordon went to Jamaica, but died before actu- 
ally entering upon work. In 1704 Mr. Thomas was inducted 
at Hempstead. Keith also preached at New London, Con- 
necticut. Mr. Muirson, in 1705, settled in the town of Rye, 
then a part of Connecticut. About the year 1704 services 
were commenced at St. Andrews, Richmond, Staten Island, 

* Doc. Rel. to the Col. Hist., IV., 463. 

f See Bradford's edition'of the Laws of New York, 1710, p. 37. 

X YiQii\i's Journal of Travels, London, 1706, p. 50. 


and a church was built in 1713. In 1709 the Huguenot Church 
at New Rochelle conformed to the Church of England.* In 
1702 the Rev. Mr. Bartow began his work at Westchester. At 
Albany the Rev. Thomas Barclay officiated in 1708 as chaplain 
of Fort Anne, and at Schenectady in the Dutch Church. In 
1704 there was also a distinct effort to encourage the forma- 
tion of a French church in New York with Episcopal minis- 
trations, f 

These were some of the beginnings, but for a considerable 
time Trinity Church, New York, formed the principal ex- 
pression of Church life and activity. Around this now grow- 
ing corporation, the most of the ecclestiastical events were 
grouped. For about fifty years Mr. Vesey continued at the 
head of the Parish, meeting more or less opposition, it is true, 
but at the same time winning the highest approval for char- 
acter and worth. 

His principal support was provided by the Act of 1693, 
though on one occasion there was a delay in raising his salary, 
owing to opposition from men outside the Church. ;{: A Royal 
Mandate, however, reduced the refractory parties to submis- 
sion, showing that Trinity occupied the position of an Estab- 
lished Church. 

Lord Bellomont was appointed to succeed Fletcher, June 
8, iipp7, but the latter, as we have seen, continued to exercise 
his functions, and it was not until April of the following year 
that Bellomont arrived at New York. § His Instructions re- 
specting the maintenance of the Church of England were 
similar to those given to Dongan, || and Bellomont did not 
hesitate in carrying them out, even going beyond them, and, 
in some cases, resorting to oppression. 

* Bolton's Westchester, p 394. 

f Doc. Hist, of N. F., III., 75, 8vo, Ed. August 10, 1708, Mr. Vesey ad- 
dressed the Venerable Society, asking for "Some Common Prayer Books in 
English, Dutch and French." — Society's MSS., Vol. III., No. 71. At least one 
copy of the Dutch Book is now in existence. The Dutch Common Prayer seems 
to have been used by Mr. Barclay at Albany. 

X Berrian's History of Trinity Church, p. 328. 

§ Commission in N. Y. Col. Docs., IV., 266. 

I Ibid. 287. 


The death of Lord Bellomont created a vacancy, and, June 
13, 1701, Lord Cornbury was appointed his successor. The 
Commission of the latter is not given in the collection of 
printed Colonial Documents, nor is any copy to be found in 
the country, but the original Commission, with the two sets 
of Instructions, is still in existence. The Instructions give 
Cornbury the same ecclesiastical power vested in his prede- 
cessors, but no more,* notwithstanding a claim to this 
effect was made on his behalf in connection with the trial, of 
the Presbyterian, the Rev. Francis Mackamie. Under this 
Governor, Trinity Church, in 1704, received a new Charter 
from the Assembly, which fully remedied any defects in the 
instrument granted by Fletcher and rendered the legal position 
of the parish secure beyond question.f Of Cornbury himself 
little need to be said. The impartial student of this period will 
not care to attempt any vindication of his course towards the 
Presbyterians, whatever may have been the want of judgment 
exhibited by their representative. The Governor, however, 
was no more arbitrary in his treatment of Mr. Mackamie than 
in his conduct towards Churchmen.;}: In 1707 the Rev. Mr. 

* They are in the hands of private parties, and form an important historical 

fiV: Y. Col. Docs., IV., 1 1 14. 

X See Smith's History of New Jersey, Ed. 1765, p. 333, and Hill's History 
of the Church in Burlington, pp. 66-73. O" Mackamie, see his Narrative, in 
Force's Archives, Vol. IV. At Mackamie's trial, false representations appear 
to have been made respecting the scope of Cornbury's Instructions, but the writer 
must do the Governor the justice to say that these representations may have been 
made ultimately by the Governor's friends, rather than by the Governor himself. 
Cornbury claimed the right to license ministers of all denominations, which power 
was not given either by his Instructions or his Commission, though he had this 
power with respect to school-masters. The Instructions have never been printed, 
but the original document, with the signature of the Queen, has been examined 
by the writer. The Instructions with respect to the debated clause stands as 
follows : " You are to inquire whether there be any Minister within your Govern- 
ment, who preaches and administers the Sacraments in any Orthodox Church or 
Chapell without being in due orders, and to give an account thereof to the Said 
Bishop of London." On the same subject the Commission says : " We do by these 
presents authorise and impower you to collate any pron or prons to any Clmrches 
or Chappells or other ecclesiastical benefices within our said province or depend- 
encies aforesaid as often as that any of them shall happen to be void." With 


Moore, Missionary of the Venerable Society, was dragged from 
Burlington to Amboy, and thence taken a prisoner to New 
York, where he was confined in the fort, the entire proceedings 
being of the most arbitrary and unjustifiable character. 

On the other hand, Logan, the friend of William Penn, 
wrote of Cornbury as the "Savior" of the Quakers at New 
York, who were " well satisfied to be under him, for they 
believe that they could never have one more excellent." 

Eventually it became necessary to remove Cornbury from 
power, and thereupon his creditors threw him into jail, whence, 
after satisfying their claims, he found his way back to Eng- 

Lord John Lovelace was appointed to succeed Cornbury, 
jn New York and New Jersey, early in 1708,* though he did 
not arrive in New York until December. He was warmly 
welcomed by the people ; but suffered from ill-health during 
the winter, and died May 6, following. His funeral sermon 
was preached by Mr, Vesey, in Trinity Church, May 12, 1709, 
when a glowing eulogy was pronounced. f 

June 14, 1710, Robert Hunter was commissioned by Queen 
Anne to succeed Cornbury, his Instructions following the old 
pattern. Under him Mr. Vesey's position was more or less 
unpleasant, and he was the subject of sharp attacks, based on 
political ground, it being insinuated that he was a Jacobin. 
Hunter used all his power to annoy him, but with little avail.;}: 

respect to school-masters it is ordered : " We do farther direct that no School- 
master be lienceforth permitted to come from England and Keep Schools within 
Our Province of New York, without the Lycense of the Said Bishop of London, 
and that no other person now there, or that shall come from other parts, be 
admitted to Keep School without your license first obtained." See on this contro- 
versy an article by Mr. Brodhead in the Hist. Mag., Nov. 1863, p. 329. On 
Cornbury's New Jersey Instructions, see Smith's New Jersey, p. 230. 

* N. Y. Col. Docs., v., 39, 40, additional Instructions are found in this volume, 
also fragments of Instructions; yet the Church was now recognized by Law. Love- 
lace was recommended to give a glebe to a poor German minister of the Palati- 
nate, but this was not to be construed as forcing a precedent. 

f See Sermon reprinted in N. Y. Colls., 1880. 

X See Governor Hunter's Letters, N. J. Archives, S. I., Vol. IV., pp. 216, 
219, 220, 223, 225. See also Atwood's attacks in N. Y. Hist, Coll. Hunter com- 
bined with others in slandering Mr. Vesey. 


Mr. Vesey returned from a visit to Europe in 171 5, bringing 
his commission as Commissary of the Bishop of London. 

Hunter left New York, July 19, 17 19, and April 19, 1720, 
William Burnet, son of the Bishop of Salisbury, succeeded 
him. The change formed a most agreeable relief to the Rec- 
tor of Trinity Church, as his differences with the late Govern- 
or, like those with Bellomont, and with Fletcher, also, at the 
close of his rule, had rendered him more or less uncomforta- 
ble.* These difficulties do not, however, concern us now, and 
we hasten on to say, that Burnet was superseded October 4, 
1727, by John Montgomerie, who, in turn, was followed by 
William Cosby, 1732 ; at whose death, in 1736, the govern- 
ment devolved upon George Clarke. The latter continued 
until 1743, when George Clinton was appointed. It may be 
interesting here to mention that in 1739 an effort was made 
to find out the actual condition of the Church in New York 
and New Jersey, Mr. Vesey, as Commissary, and authorized 
by the Bishop of London, sending out a request to the clergy 
to meet him at Trinity church, May 2, 1739. The following 
clergy attended : The Rev. Mr. Charlton, Catechist, in New 
York ; Mr. Standard, of Westchester ; Jenney, of Hempstead ; 
Mr. Stouppe, of New Rochelle ; Mr. Wetmore, of Rye ; Mr. 
Barclay, of Albany ; Mr, Brown, of Brookhaven ; Mr. Vaughan, 
of Elizabeth ; Mr. Campbell, of Burlington ; Mr. Pierson, of 
Salem ; Mr. Miln, of Monmouth Co.; Mr. Harrison, of Staten 
Island. Several were prevented from attending "by sickness 
and other accidents." The reports presented were meagre 
and show the day of small things.f 

July II, 1746, Mr. Vesey died, being succeeded by the 
Rev. Henry Barclay, D.D. Owing to dissensions. Governor 
Clinton resigned, leaving James De Lancey, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor. Sir Danvers Osborn was appointed in his stead, Octo- 
ber 10, 1753, when he named De Lancey his lieutenant. The 

* The Instructions are like others with which we are so familiar. See iV. J, 
Coll., Ser. I., Vol v., p. i. See N. Y, Coll. Docs. Index volume at " Vesey." 

f The Letters and report copied by the writer from the originals in the Library 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Ports, are appended 
to this sketch. ,. 


latter, only two days later, on the demise of his principal, suc- 
ceeded to the Government.* October 31, 1754, De Lancey 
signed the Charter for Kings', now Columbia, College. Its 
provisions required that the President should be a member of 
the Church of England, and Dr. Johnson, of Stratford, Con- 
necticut, was chosen. This favor shown to the Church excited 
the ire of the Presbyterian party, and a sharp controversy 
followed, leaving the advantage with the Church. January 
29. 1755. Sir Charles Hardy was appointed Governor of New 
York,f holding the office until June 3, 1757, when he nomi- 
nated Chief-Justice De Lancey Lieutenant-Governor, and 
sailed for Halifax. The conduct of Sir Charles was most ex- 
emplary, and he was distinguished over several of his prede- 
cessors for his attendance on the services of the Church, as is 
testified by President Johnson, in a letter to Archbishop 
Seeker, in 1759,:}: at which period Dr. Johnson urged upon that 
prelate the importance of a mission at Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, for the reason that that town was the seat of an insti- 
tution of learning.§ Dr. Johnson was one of those who took 
a mild view of the situation, and expressed the idea that 
Churchmen at this period simply desired the same privileges 
granted to others, who were at liberty to perfect their sys- 
tems, and that, on the same ground. Churchmen should be 
allowed to perfect theirs by securing the Episcopate. | This 
apologetic strain was deemed prudent by some, but there is 
no proof that any good was done by yielding anything to 

* This person became deranged and committed suicide. 

f N. Y. Col. Docs., VI., 935, 939, 947, 960. 

X Dr. Johnson, in a long letter, in which he discusses the legal status of the 
Church in New York and the need of a Bishop, says : " Meantime I humbly 
beg your Grace's influence, if possible that such may be appointed governors 
from time to time, as are friends to religion, and will countenance and encourage 
the Church, and set an example of constant, or at least frequent attendance on the 
public worship, which has not always been the case ; and when it is otherwise the 
ill of great examples are very deplorable. We have rarely seen a Governor at 
Church in this Province except S' Charles, since the year 1743." — N. Y. Coll. 
Docs., VII., 373-4. 

^ N. Y. Coll. Docs., YII., 374. 

1 Hid. Vol. VII., for Letters of Dr. Johnson on this subject. 


March 20, 1761, after the death of De Lancey, Robert 
Moncton was appointed Governor,* and Cadwallader Golden, 
Lieutenant-Governor. Moncton soon resigned, leaving his 
subordinate to meet the political storm that was now rising 
in the Colonies. 

At this time another change came in Trinity Church, and 
on August 28, 1764, the Rev. Mr. Auchmuty, the Assistant 
Minister, succeeding Dr. Barclay, who was removed by death. 

Sir Henry Moore was the next Governor,f upon whose 
death he was followed by the Earl of Dunmore.:}: St. Paul's 
Chapel, which had been commenced in 1763, was finished in 

In the midst of these dark days an attempt was made to 
secure something in the way of organization. March 21, 1766, 
the Clergy of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut formed 
themselves into a convention. The first meeting was held at 
the house of Dr. Auchmuty, when fourteen of the Clergy 
were present. Dr. Johnson, of Connecticut, was elected 
President, and the Rev. Samuel Seabury, of Jamaica, Long 
Island, Secretary. In this capacity Mr. Seabury appears to 
have been both useful and influential, though it forms an 
episode of his life that seems to have escaped notice. The 
president of the convention was to be elected annually, being 
ineligible for more than two terms. Three members could 
call a special convention, while due care was taken to have the 
Clergy outside of New York represented on the standing 
committee. Messrs. Auchmuty, Cooper, Charlton, Munro, 
and the Secretary formed the Standing Committee. Two 
special conventions were held the next year. § 

The New York Journal oi July 19, 1768, has the follow- 

* See notice of in N. Y. Coll. Docs., VIII., 250. 

f Appointed June 20, 1765. N. Y. Coll. Docs., VII., 745. He died Septem- 
ber II, 1769. 

X N. Y. Col. Docs., VIII., 193. For a full list of Governors see the N. Y. Civil 
List, 1882, p. 152, though all the dates cannot be followed. 

§ The records of these conventions, in the handwriting of the Secretary, are 
in the possession of his descendant, the Rev. Wm. J. Seabury, D.D., of New 
York City. 


* On Wednesday last the annual Convention of the Epis- 
copalian ministers of this Province, Connecticut and New 
Jersey was held in this city, on which occasion a Sernion was 
preached by the Rev. Dr. Cooper, President of King's Col- 
lege, on the former part of the first verse of the 28th ch. 
of Exodus. A larger Number of ministers were present than 
ever assembled before on like occasion."* The same journal 
says on the thirty-first : 

" Saturday last the Supreme Court ended here when John 
Hennessey,for Felony and Sacrilege, in stealing the Sattin Cov- 
ering of the Cushions of St. Paul's, in this city, received Sen- 
tence of Death, and is to be executed the 23d of August." 
The Chronicle of August 24, announces " a pardon from his 

From the New Yox\i Journal xt also appears that. May 25, 
1772, the Clergy of New York and New Jersey " met in their 
first annual voluntary convention," when they presented an 
address to Governor Tryon, in which the belief is expressed 
that he will grant " to the Church of England in this province 
all that Countenance and Protection to which it is justly en- 
titled." The address is signed by " Samuel Seabury, Secre- 

In September of the same year the "Corporation for the 
Relief of the Widows and Children of Clergymen, in the 
Communion of the Church of England in America," was in 
session at Trinity Church. 

February 8, 1774, a lottery of ;^4,ooo was projected to pur- 
chase "a piece of ground, and erecting a church thereon for 
the congregation of the Church of England, which now most 
inconveniently assemble in Horse and Cart Street." f A 
similar enterprise was projected the next month for " a Church 
at Brookland Ferry, opposite the city of New York, under the 
patronage of the Rector, and the Vestry of Trinity Church," 

* Quoted in " Old New York and Trinity Church" in N. Y. Society's Coll., 1870, 
p. 199. A valuable compilation by Mr. William Kelby, Assistant Librarian of 
the New York Historical Society. 

f Now Williams Street. The history of that congregation is not known to the 


pointing to the beginning of St. Ann's.''^ The records of 
Trinity are silent on the subject. 

Governor Tryon reached New York July 8, I77i,f but was 
obliged to turn over the government to Golden, being the 
last Golonial Governor of New York. General Washington 
arrived in New York April, 1776, placing the Department 
under General Putnam. 

This was a period of great trouble and distress, yet three 
assistant ministers were called to Trinity Church in 1774, 
namely, the Rev. John Wardill, the Rev. Benjamin Moore, 
the Rev. John Bowden, the last two accepting positions. 

When the storm fully burst upon New York, the Rector 
of Trinity, being in feeble health, retired to the country, leav- 
ing his oldest assistant, Mr. Inglis, in charge. 

It was with great difficulty that the services were main- 
tained, owing to the hostility of the people. Mr. Inglis and 
his friends felt that they were more or less in danger, but in- 
vestigations prove that the danger w as exaggerated, as Wash- 
ington was in the city, a worshipper at Church, and not 
likely to allow any violence. 

September 15, 1776, the American forces abandoned New 
York, when the British troops entered and hehd the place until 
November 25, 1783. This brought relief and gladness to 
Churchmen,Jbut on the following Saturday a great fire broke 
out, destroying several hundred houses. Trinity Church and 
the Rector's residence, together with the Charity School 
houses, were reduced to ashes. The two Chapels and King's 
College were saved. 

*Rivington's Gazetteer, Feb. 17, 1774. Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1870, p. 241. 
Ibid. 242. 

f N. Y. Col. Docs., VIII., 278. He was formerly Governor of North Carolina, 
and Dunmore wanted to exchange governments with him. Tryon recognized 
the impractical character of the home government, but stood by his instructions, 
remaining until the hostility of the people became unendurable, though returning 
later to push unrelenting hostilities. 

\ On the *' State of the Anglo-American Church" in 1776, see the long letter 
of Inglis, Doc. Hist. N. Y., Vol. III., p. 637, 8 vo. Ed. A newspaper cutting 
of Aug. 17, 1776, says : " The Episcopal Churches in New York are all shut up, 
the prayer-books burned, and the ministers scattered abroad, in this and the 
neighboring provinces. It is now Puritan's high holiday season, and they enjoy 
it with rapture." 


In March, 1777, " We, the clergy of the Church of England, 
convened in the City of New York," presented an address to 
General Howe, while at the same period Mr. Seabury preached 
occasionally in the city, if not often, where he published two 

Dr. Auchmuty died in March, 1777, and Mr. Inglis was 
elected Rector of Trinity Church on the 20th of the 
same month. His institution did not take place in one of 
the Chapels, but he was brought to the ruins of the church, 
and inducted by placing his hand upon the ruined wall. 
April 13, 1778, while the war was still raging, "The Church 
at Brooklyn was opened and Divine Service, according to the 
ritual of the Church of England, performed by the Rev. Mr. 

With the return of peace Mr. Inglis resigned the rector- 
ship of Trinity Church, and retired to Nova Scotia. Mr. 
Moore was elected to succeed him, but circumstances pre- 
vented his induction, and the Rev. Samuel Provoost was 
elected, April 22, 1784.* 

October 5th and 8th, 1784, "The Corporation for the re- 
lief of the widows and children of the Episcopal Clergy," was 
held in New York, and it was decided to meet the next time 
at Trenton, New Jersey, on the Feast of St. Michael's. Dr. 
William Smith was President, and the Rev. Benjamin Moore, 

We now reach the period of diocesan organization, and 
find recorded the " Proceedings of a Convention of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, in the State of New York, on 
Wednesday, June 22d, 1785.":!: The record is brief, occupying 
only a single page. It is not stated where the convention 
was held, but as Trinity church had not been rebuilt, and 
since some following conventions were held in St. Paul's 
Chapel, it may reasonably be inferred that the initial conven- 
tion was held in that place. This indeed seems quite certain 

* Collections of the N. Y. Hist. Soc, 1 870, p. 320. 

f See History of Society, Bp. Perry's History of the American Episcopal 
Church, I., 647. Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soc, 1870, 335. 
X Republished with other early journals, 1844. 


from the form of invitation dated May 22, 1786, addressed to 
the Church at Poughkeepsie, inviting them to send delegates 
"to meet again in St. Paul's Chapel."* 

The record says : " This State Convention having associ- 
ated agreeably to the recommendation of the General Conven- 
tion held in this city, on the 6th and 7th of October, 1784, 
proceeded to take into consideration the matters recom- 
mended by the said General Convention." Now there was no 
" General Convention " in New York in 1784, and the statement 
must be understood as referring to proceedings taken in con- 
nection with the meeting of the Corporation for the relief of 
Widows and Children of the Clergy, which the extract, al- 
ready quoted, says took place on the " 5th and 8th." Bishop 
White's statement, prefaced to Bioren's Edition of the Jour- 
nals of General Convention, further explains the matter, and 
shows that, in connection with this meeting, action was taken 
with reference to organization, the same even having been 
done at a meeting of the Society held the previous year at 

* In the hope of gaining definite information on this point, the writer corre- 
sponded with the rectors of the various parishes represented at the second con- 
vention. The only information gleaned was contained in a letter found by the 
Rev. Henry L. Ziegenfuss, Rector of Christ Church, Poughkeepsie, among the 
archives of that ancient parish. Mr. Ziegenfuss very kindly sent the appended 

N. York May 23 

The Churchwardens and Vestrymen 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
at Poughkeepsie 

The Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church to which you were in- 
vited to send Delegates, after sitting two Days adjourned, to meet again in St. 
Paul's Chapel on the second Tuesday of June between the Hours of ten and 
eleven A.M. as affairs of considerable moment will then come before the Con- 
vention, as full a representation as possible of the Church in this State is to be 
wished for. — Your congregation tharefore is earnestly requested to depute persons 
properly authorised to meet at the Time and Place above mentioned. — 

We are gentlemen with great Respect 
your most obedient and very Humble Servants 
Sam.' Provoost Rect : Trin: Church, 
Abr? Beach, and Benj° Moore 
New York May 22^ 1786 


New Brunswick. Deputies were present from New York, 
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but they represented simply 
themselves. Bishop White says, *' they called themselves a 
Convention, in the lax sense in which the word had been be- 
fore used, yet they were not an organized body," and " did not 
consider themselves as such/' nevertheless they projected a 
plan for a General Convention the year following. * In the 
^^ Memoirs'^ Bishop White makes a fuller statement of the case. 
This first convention therefore grew out of the suggestions of 
tbe informal gathering of the previous year. 

On the assembling of the convention, the Rev. Mr. Pro- 
voost read prayers, and Mr. Moore, of Trinity Church, was ap- 
pointed Secretary. The only business that appears to have 
been transacted was the election of three Clerical and three 
Lay Deputies " to represent the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the State of New York, in the general convention which is 
to be held at Philadelphia, on the Tuesday before the Feast 
of St. Michael next." f 

The convention met again May 16, the next year, in St. 
Paul's Chapel, when Mr. Duane reported the proceedings of 
the Philadelphia Convention, whose members had devised 
a Proposed Book of Common Prayer, and made arrangements 
to apply to England for the Episcopate. This application was 
heartily endorsed by New York. At an adjourned meeting of 
the convention held June 14, Mr. Provoost was " recom- 
mended for Episcopal consecration." The Rev. William 
White was designated by the Clergy of Pennsylvania for the 
same office, September 14. 

* See Bioren's Journal, also White's " Memoirs " 3cl Ed. p. 19. 

f The following is the list of those present: "From Trinity Church, New 
York, the Rev. Samuel Provoost, the Rev. Mr. Beach, Rev. Mr. Moore, Honour- 
able James Duane, Marinus Willet, and John Alsop, Esquires. 

" From the United Parishes of Jamaica, Newtown, and Flushing, on Long 
Island, the Rev Mr. Bloomer, Mr. Charles Crommeline, Mr. Daniel Kissam, 
Mr. Joseph Burrows, Mr. John Johnson. 

" From Staten Island, the Rev. Mr. Rowland, and Paul Micheau, Esquire. 

"From New Rochelle, Mr. Andrew Fowler. 

" From Ulster and Orange Counties, Mr. Joseph Jarvis. 

" From Dutchess County, Mr. John Davis." 


Mr. Provoost presided at the third convention, held in St. 
Paul's Chapel, September 20, 1786, and afterward sailed with 
the Rev. Mr. White for England, where they were consecrated 
at Lambeth Palace, February 4, 1787, returning to New York, 
and landing on Easter Sunday following. 

Here we need to turn for a moment to consider briefly the 
action of New York in connection with the Episcopate. Of 
course it would be impossible to go over the discussion which 
had taken place during the colonial period respecting this sub- 
ject, and must simply say that, during the Revolution, it was 
believed by many that, though the war must eventually cease, 
our independence would never be recognized by Great Brit- 
ain, and that, consequently, it would be impossible to obtain 
the Episcopate for a long time to come. Actuated by this 
belief, the Rev. Mr. White proposed a plan for the temporary 
organization of the church, in a pamphlet entitled "The Case 
of the Episcopal Churches in the United States considered," 
published in Philadelphia in 1782. Immediately, however, 
upon the acknowledgement of American Independence, the 
plan was abandoned, and he proceeded to act on the line 
agreeable with his principles and feelings. 

March 25, of the year 1783, fourteen Connecticut Clergy- 
men met secretly at Woodbury, in that State, and elected the 
Rev. Jeremiah Leaming their candidate for the Episcopate, 
with the Rev. Samuel Seabury as alternate. Mr. Leaming 
declined the position, which Mr. Seabury accepted, and sailed 
for England, July 7, nearly four months before the Evacuation 
of New York. On the very day of the election, however, and 
at a time when everybody knew that the plan proposed in 
the " Case " considered had been abandoned. Dr. Jarvis wrote 
to Mr. White from Woodbury, condemning the pamphlet, 
but making no allusion to the election. Mr. White replied in 
his gentle manner, explaining that the Convention labored 
under a misapprehension, and the correspondence ended, 
though it may be added that the pamphlet was not subjected 
to criticism by the authority in England.''^ All unconscious 

* It has appeared to some as though Bishop White persisted in his plan, and 
that possibly, he published a second edition of the "Case" in 1783. Bishop Perry 


of the course being pursued by Seabury, Mr. White now 
took measures with reference to securing the Episcopate. In 
his pamphlet he had advocated the joint action of the clergy 
and laity in the Church Councils, and on May 24, 1784, at 
Philadelphia, a movement was begun with reference to obtain- 
ing the Episcopate in accordance with this principle. The 
Philadelphia movement was openly undertaken and sixteen 
parishes were represented. The committee were empowered 
to " confer with representatives from the Episcopal Church in 
other States," it being a subject which concerned all the peo- 
ple, and therefore not to be undertaken secretly by any clique 
or party. The deliberations of this convention were made a 
matter of record, and the committee appointed sent out a 
circular letter. A copy of this letter is herewith appended.* 

in his edition, seems to have given support to this view, by reprinting what some 
readers at least take to be the original edition, the style of the title page of the origi- 
nal edition being followed, but bearing the date of T783 instead of 1782. The origi- 
nal work was printed by David Claypoole, being reprinted by William Stavely, of 
Philadelphia, in 1827, and again in 1869, from 1224 Chestnut Street, of the same 
city, with the title, " Bishop White on Episcopacy." 

* The copy used was that sent to King's Chapel, Boston, which then had not 
lapsed to Socinianism. A transcript has kindly been furnished by Dr. James 
Freeman Clarke, who holds it in possession. The six principles embodied are 
found in Bishop White's Memoirs, 3d Ed., E. P. Dutton & Co. 1880., p. 92. 
We give the paper without the names of the delegates which were appended. 

At a meeting of Clergymen and Lay-Delegates from Sundry Congregations 
of the Episcopal Church in the State of Pennsylvania, held at Christ- 
Church in Philadelphia, on Tuesday, the 25th day of May, 1784. 
The Committee appointed to propose a plan on which the Episcopal Church in 
this State may consult with their Brethren of the same Church in other States 
concerning the preservation of their Communion, report, That they think it expe- 
dient to appoint a standing Committee of the Episcopal Church in this State, 
consisting of Clergy and Laymen ; that the said Committee be empowered to 
correspond and confer with Representatives from the Episcopal Church in the 
other States, or any of them, and assist in forming an ecclesiastical Government ; 
that a constitution of ecclesiastical Government when framed be reported to the 
several Congregations through their respective Ministers, Church-wardens and 
Vestry-men, to be binding on all the Congregation consenting to it, as soon as 
a Majority of the Congregation shall have consented ; that a Majority of the Com- 
mittee, or any less number by them appointed, be a Quorum ; that they be 
desired to keep minutes of their proceedings ; and that they be bound by the 
following instructions or fundamental principles : 


September 8, at Boston, principles of a similar character 
were adopted, though it was provided that the vote of the 
Clergy should not exceed that of the Laity. May 13 and 14, 
however, prior to the dates of the Philadelphia and Boston 
meetings, a number of the Clergy met at New Brunswick to 
take action respecting the Society for the Relief of Widows 
and Orphans of the Church of England. The occasion was 
utilized, especially as influential Laymen were at hand, to 
discuss the principles upon which the union of the Church 
should be effected, the Philadelphia Clergy suggesting their 
plan. Mr. Moore, of New York, who, with Mr. Inglis, had 
signed the papers recommending Mr. Seabury, now became 
embarrassed, finding himself apparently face to face with 
the suspicion that the course of concealment which had been 

First. That the Episcopal Church in those States is and ought to be indepen- 
dent of all foreign authority, ecclesiastical or civil. 

Secondly. That it hath, and ought to have in common with all other Religious 
Societies, full and exclusive Powers to regulate the concerns of its own Com- 

Thirdly. That the doctrines of the Gospel be maintained as now professed by 
the Church ol England, and uniformity of worship be continued, as near as may 
be to the Liturgy of the said Church. 

Fourthly. That the succession of the Ministry be agreeable to the Usage which 
requireth the three orders of Bishops, Priests and Deacons, that the rights and 
powers of the same be respectively maintained, and that they be exercised accord- 
ing to reasonable laws, to be duly made. 

Fifthly. That to make Canons or Laws there be no other authority than 
that of a representative body of the Clergy and Laity conjointly. 

Sixthly. That no powers be delegated to a general ecclesiastical government 
except such as cannot be conveniently exercised by the Clergy and Vestry in their 
respective congregations. 

The above report, having been considered by paragraphs, was adopted, and 
the Committee chosen in consequence thereof are as follows : 
Rev. Dr. White, Dr. Gerardus Clarkson, 

Rev. Dr. Magaw, Dr. Robert Sharon, 

Rev. Robert Blackwell, Mr. John Chaloner, 

Rev. Joseph Hutchins, Hon, James Read, Esq., 

Matthew Clarkson, Esq., Richard Willing, Esq., 

Plunket Fleeson, Esq., Mr. Benjamin Johnson. 

The above is a true extract from the minutes of the said meeting. 

W. White, [Autograph.] 


practiced was neither dignified nor just. Recognizing the sit- 
uation, the next morning Mr. Moore took Mr. White " aside " 
and confessed the truth, at the same time begging that " noth- 
ing should be urged further on the subject, as they found 
themselves peculiarly circumstanced." The writer adds: "This 
brought to the knowledge of the Clergy from Philadelphia 
what they had not before known, that Dr. Samuel Seabury, 
of the State of New York, who had sailed for England just 
before the evacuation of New York by the British troops, car- 
ried with him a petition to the English Bishops for consecra- 

Bishop White put the matter on record in his quiet way, 
but made no remark, though we can readily understand 
what his feelings must have been. More than a year had 
passed since Connecticut, of her own motion, had taken 
action so secretly respecting the Episcopate, while, on the day 
of the selection of the two candidates, he had been addressed 
by the Secretary of the Convention, yet not a syllable had 
been communicated to him with respect to a proceeding con- 
cerning which it would certainly have been " prudent " to con- 
sult one who occupied so prominent a position, especially as 
the subject concerned the whole Church. The request of Mr. 
Moore, however, was acceded to, for the purpose of giving him 
time to escape from his entanglement, and action was sus- 
pended.* But, as we have seen, the subject of the Episcopate 
was resumed at New York, Inglis having left the country un- 

* It was insinuated that it would be unsafe to allow the action to become known, 
and Jarvis was deputed to visit New York and consult with such of the clergy as 
he thought "prudent." Mr. White belonged to the patriot party and was offen- 
sive to Inglis and Seabury, the former being am unrelenting Tory. When Inglis 
left, New York was free to turn to her natural allies, though not recognizing Sea- 
bury's consecration until 1789. Bishop White indeed recognized the fact that 
South Carolina was not prepared to receive the Episcopate, and ecclesiastical sus- 
picions rankled in the Connecticut mind. Bishop Williams, in treating the sub- 
ject of the secrecy of the action in Connecticut, repudiates the notion that the 
mission of Seabury was kept secret on account of supposed opposition of the 
Laity, and attributes the action to fear of possible action on the part of Congre- 
gationalists and Presbyterians. But William White at least might have been 
trusted, being neither Congregationalist nor Presbyterian. — Church Review, 
October, 1885, pp. 307-309. 


reconciled, and indeed having no rights as a citizen under the 
Act of Attainder. Mr. Moore, by joining in the proceedings 
and serving as secretary, the following October, took the right 
method of extricating himself from a false position ; all of 
which was done before Seabury received consecration. We 
can readily understand, perhaps, why Dr. Provoost regarded 
Bishop Seabury with so much asperity, since, in addition to 
ecclesiastical difference, they represented opposite political 
poles ; while we see that there is no truth in the notion, that, 
but for Seabury, Mr. White might not have taken the course 
which he actually pursued, as he acted in entire ignorance of 
what the Seabury party had been doing. 

After this New York did not waver, nor pay any further 
attention to Seabury, until the organization of the Church had 
been accomplished. On the contrary, New York proceeded 
to co-operate with the brethren " to the southward " in secur- 
ing a triple succession from Canterbury, which manifestly was 
the wise course to pursue, since a failure to connect our- 
selves organically with the Church of England would have left 
us in a.most unfortunate position. The position might have 
been the more unfortunate, for the reason that Bishop Sea- 
bury made a compact with the Scotch church, known as the 
" Concordate " ; in which it was stipulated that those whom 
he represented should take " care when in Scotland not to 
hold Communion in Sacred Offices with those persons, who 
under pretence of ordination by an English or Irish Bishop, 
do, or shall take upon them to officiate as clergymen in any 
part of the National Church of Scotland, and whom the Scot- 
tish Bishops cannot help looking upon as schismatical in- 
truders," etc. 

At the end of a hundred years, this provision appears very 
impractical, yet we detect the design of the canny Scot, eager 
to secure an ally in America ; for, whatever may have been 
the grievances of the Scotch Church, and however great our 
sympathy for them in their misfortune and distress, the ten- 
dency of any such provision was mischievous ; while it is also 
a notable fact that when the Scot saw that nothing was to 
be gained by the Concordate, and that the American Church 


had formed an alliance with Canterbury, the manifestations 
of interest disappeared. 

New York, in common with the Middle States, fully rec- 
ognized the position, and saw what was to be done ; yet 
there was no unhealthy haste, neither was any one discour- 
aged by the apparent failure of the first application to the 
English Primate. Indeed, may we not consider it fortunate 
that the first application was unsuccessful, and that the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury waited until all technicalities had been 
cleared away, and he could proceed with unanimous approval ? 
If he had been swift to assent, his act might have been fol- 
lowed by a century of regret in connection with the truth that 
haste is not always speed. 

These remarks are not offered for the purpose of cheapen- 
ing the estimate of the work done in Connecticut, whose 
clergy exhibited rare courage and heroic endurance. To 
them we owe much. At one period White and Seabury 
stood on either side of our mother, the Church, like Aaron 
and Hur holding up the hands of Moses ; yet it must be con- 
fessed that it would have proved an awkward thing if all the 
upholding had been done by the first Bishop of Connecticut, 
especially if our general policy had been shaped in accordance 
with that inimical provision of the " Concordate," which 
would have put us into a position of antagonism to the Eng- 
lish Church. 

The movements represented by these two men were ani- 
mated by different schools of thought, and proceeded on some- 
what divergent lines. The one school was wanting in appre- 
ciation of the value of lay co-operation, and at the same time, 
being piqued by the issue of events, was in danger of becoming 
involved in the contentions of foreign ecclesiastical bodies by 
the terms of a written compact; the other accepted the prin- 
ciple underlying the joint action of the Clergy and Laity in 
Church Councils, and stood untrammelled, being ready to hold 
out the hand of fellowship to all the world. New York cast 
in her lot with those who best represented the genius of 
American Churchmen, and united with the sagacious White 
in carrying out his plan. When the desired result was ac- 


compHshed, this diocese properly joined in the recognition 
of Seabury, and exhibited a trua appreciation of his work. 
Let us therefore rejoice that, in the Providence of God, two 
such men as White and Seabury, while in some respects so 
unlike, at least proved to be substantially of one mind, and 
able to labor together for a common end.* We turn here, 
however, to resume the thread of the narrative. 

Sunday, July 15, 1787, was a marked day in the calendar of 
New York, for on that day took place the first apostolic 
ordination to the sacred ministry ever performed in the city 
of New York, or within the territory which is now included 
in the Diocese of New York. Mr. Richard C. Moore and Mr. 
Joseph G. J. Bend were ordained Deacons by the Rt. Rev. 
Samuel Provoost, the first Bishop of New York, f In 

* In leaving this subject we may point out what seems to have been one re- 
sult of the " Concordate." In a sermon, by the Rev. William J. Seabury, D.D., 
preached in the Church of the Annunciation, New York City, December 14, 1884, 
and reprinted from TAe Church Eclectic^ 1885, the author, after speaking of the 
uneasiness felt by the English Bishops respecting the consecration of Seabury, 
as "partly due" to the doubt which they had or "affected" to have, he says, with 
reference to the first Bishop of Connecticut, " that he was not only not received by 
them as a Bishop when he passed through England on his return home, but he 
was even addressed in a formal communication from the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel, of which the bishops were the chief members, not by his title 
as Bishop, but by his academic title of Doctor." Yet how could he ask for recog- 
nition, or expect it, after having put himself and the Church of Connecticut in a 
hostile attitude, both by receiving consecration and by signing the Concordate ? 
We gan easily understand, however, that the English Bishops were moved by 
something more than a doubt, real or affected, with respect to the " proper juris- 
diction " of Bishop Seabury's consecration. The latter had put himself in a posi- 
tioi> to repudiate both the English and Irish in Scotland ; and thus, as Professor 
Seabury states, the Bishop of Connecticut was not recognized by the American 
Bishopsuntiltheusualnumber of three was secured. " Then," continues Professor 
Seabury, " in 1792, the thxee Bishops of English consecration did condescend to 
permit the Bishop of Scotch consecration to join with them (supposing, I presume, 
that it could then do no harm) in the consecration of Dr. Claggett of Maryland." 
Bishop White says with reference to the recognition of Bishop Seabury on this 
occasion: " The question had changed its ground by the repeal of the laws agains 
the Scotch Bishops ; and by their reception in their proper characters in England." 
Thus Bishop Seabury was not employed in this vital connection until after the 
Concordate was practically annulled, and then only as an extra canonical party. 

f " On Sunday last, in St. George's Chapel, in this city, Mr. Richard C. 
Moore and Mr. Joseph G. J. Bend were ordained Deacons of the Episcopal 


November when the third annual convention was held in 1787 
and met in St. Paul's chapel, where the Bishop expressed his 
satisfaction " on account of the increasing state of the Church." 
Further, he had ordained " several persons," and had lately 
visited several churches on Long Island. 

In the journal of the fourth convention, 1788, we find the 
following entries : 

" Resolved, that it is highly necessary, in opinion of this 
Convention, that measures should be pursued to preserve the 
Episcopal succession in the English line, and 

^'Resolved also, That the union of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States of America, is of great impor- 
tance and much to be desired : and that the Delegates of this 
State, in the next General Convention, be instructed to pro- 
mote that union by every prudent measure, consistent with 
the Constitution of the Church, and the continuance of the 
Episcopal succession in the English line." 

This action is explained by Bishop White, in th.Q Memoirs, 
where it is stated, in connection with the movement in favor 
of the consecration of the Rev. Edward Bass, of Massachu- 
setts, that the former laid the application before the conven- 
tion, though expressing his doubt with regard to the proposed 
consecration " being consistent with the faith impliedly 
pledged to the English prelates [not] to proceed to any con- 
secration, without first obtaining from them the number held 
in their Church to be canonically necessary to such an act." 

Church, by the Right Rev. Samuel Provoost, D.D,, Bishop of said Church in 
this State. These gentlemen, according to the usuages of the Church, are ordained 
Deacons, with special permission to preach ; and it is requisite that they should 
continue Deacons for some time, previous to their admission to the order of Priest- 
hood, The Chapel was unusually crowded, the ceremonies of Episcopal ordina- 
tion being novel in America. The solemnity of the occasion, the great good con- 
duct which was observed through every part of it, and an excellent sermon, 
delivered by the Rev, Benjamin Moore with an admired diction and eloquence 
peculiar to him, made a pleasing impression upon the audience. We cannot on 
this occasion, but with pleasure reflect that the Protestant Episcopal Church, in 
these States, is now perfectly organized and in full enjoyment of each spiritual 
privilege (in common with other denominations) requisite to its preservation and 
prosperity." — N. Y. Daily Advertiser, July 17, 1787. Bishop Seabury ordained 
John Lowe, of Virginia, at Hempstead, Long Island, Nov. 3, 1785, See New 
York Packet, Nov. 10, 1785. 


Bishop Seabury's consecration, however, was deemed valid, 
and convention was wilHng that the Bishop of Connecticut 
should unite with White and Provoost in consecrating Mr. 
Bass ; but that step was rendered unnecessary by the election 
of Dr. Madison, of Virginia, and his consecration September 
19, 1790, at Lambeth, thus giving the triple English succes- 
sion. The subject of Mr. Bass' consecration was therefore 
dropped, and his elevation did not take place until 1797, 
when he received the full English succession. 

In 1790, measures were taken to secure the incorporation 
of the Church in the State of New York, and in 1792, the re- 
building of Trinity Church was accomplished. 

In 1794, there were in attendance at the Annual Conven- 
tion fourteen clergymen, and lay delegates from twenty-two 
parishes. The next year no convention was held, while in 
1796 only twelve clergymen and sixteen parishes responded. 
At this period age and infirmities were telling upon the 
bishop, and in 1801 he resigned, having previously relin- 
quished the rectorship of Trinity Parish. He was succeeded 
in both positions by Dr. Benjamin Moore, who, in December, 
1800, was elected Rector of Trinity church, and Bishop of 
New York, September 5, 1801. 

So far as the journals indicate, the improvement of the 
Church under his administration was not rapid. In 1805 only 
thirteen clergymen appeared in convention, with delegates 
from fourteen parishes. The bishop's failing strength indeed 
soon rendered the election of an Assistant necessary, and 
Dr. John Henry Hobart was consecrated May 29, 1811. 
Bishop Moore lived until 1816, passing the third decade of 
the diocese. Uniting a fine culture with a sound Christian 
character, he also exhibited a mind for work, and he under- 
took the visitation of the diocese with zeal and alacrity ; but 
the task was a severe one, and, wanting the physical energy 
of his earlier years, comparatively little was accomplished. 
It is, therefore, under God, to Bishop Hobart, that we owe 
the presence in convention, in 181 5, of thirty-six clergymen 
entitled to votes, with eight having seats by courtesy, to- 
gether with lay delegates from thirty-six parishes. 


Another decade of his administration ended with a list 
of sixty-eight clergy and lay delegates from fifty-three parishes, 
every one realizing that a man of genuine power was at the 
head of affairs. In the middle of the next decade, however, 
he ceased from his labors, departing to his reward September 
12, 1830. 

It is hardly necessary to say here what kind of a man 
Bishop Hobart was. Besides, it would not be possible to de- 
scribe him in a paragraph. It must suffice to observe that he 
was Catholic in his principles and temper ; broad and deep in 
his convictions — having the courage of them ; strong in intel- 
lect, yet simple in life and manner ; impetuous and devout. He 
was no cold, mercenary calculator, priding himself in that he 
never made a mistake. His biographer says that the language 
of Coleridge was often his : " Give me a little zealous impru- 
dence," while there was so much method and persistence in 
his imprudence, that it told powerfully upon the Church, mak- 
ing his name, as well as that of the Diocese of New York, a 
tower of strength. There is something grand and inspiring 
in the memory of this man, but we must not be beguiled by 
the interest of the subject ; and therefore let us simply add 
the record of his early translation, which took place amidst 
universal sorrow, his body being too frail to retain the im- 
passioned soul. He died on the field a true soldier of Christ. 

The Rt. Rev. Benjamin Tredwell Onderdonk followed in 
the Episcopate, being consecrated November 26, 1830. At 
the time of his predecessor's decease the clergy list numbered 
one hundred and twenty-seven, with an actual attendance 
of ninety-four. 

The next decade fell upon 1835, when the convention met 
at Utica, the clergy numbering one hundred and ninety-eight, 
with sixty-three parishes represented, the attendance of lay 
delegates being small. At this convention a Committee was 
appointed on the division of the diocese, which was suggest- 
ed by Bishop Onderdonk at the convention of 1834. It was 
accomplished in 1838, causing warm and prolonged discussion, 
and leading to the publication of various pamphlets.* In 

* Bishop Onderdonk referred to the division in his address of 1835, when the 


this discussion, which took place at Utica, in 1838, Dr. Hawks 
bore a prominent part, making a speech an hour long.* 

In 1845, ^t the convention in New York, one hundred and 
forty clergy were entitled to seats, while forty-five additional 
names were on the roll. The total number of churches and 
chapels was one hundred and seventy-four, of which one hun- 
dred and forty-six were represented by the laity. 

The administration of Bishop Onderdonk, in the main, 
proved able and successful, but it had ended January 3, pre- 
vious, under a cloud. During his supervision, the Diocese 
of Western New York was created out of New York, and, No- 
vember I, 1838, he presided at the Primary Convention, held 
at Geneva, when forty-eight clergy assembled with delegates 
from forty parishes, t After his retirement an interregnum 

Secretary of the General Convention sent notice of the proposed change in the 
Constitution of the Church respecting the division of a diocese. A committee 
was appointed on the subject, which was unable to report the next year and was 
discharged. In 1837 the division was decided upon, and the next year an attempt 
was made to rescind the action. At an adjourned meeting held in New York the 
October following, the arrangements were completed. At the Primary Con- 
vention of the Diocese of Western New York, Bishop Onderdonk presiding, 
and held at Geneva, November, 1838, the Rev. William Heathcote DeLancey, 
D.D., of Philadelphia, was elected Bishop, Dr. Whitehouse and the Rev. 
Manton Eastburn being among the candidates. Among the pamphlets pro- 
duced in this connection the following are in the collection of the Rev. Dr. 
Eigenbrodt : 

1. An Address to the Clergy and Laity of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
residing in the western part of the State of New York respecting the proposed 
changes in the Episcopal Supervision of that Diocese, April, 1835. 

2. A Pamphlet and Broadside by V. Matthew, J. C. Spencer, & F. Whitlesey, 
the former addressed to " The persons belonging to the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in Western New York, who united in the petition to their Diocesan for 
a special Convention of the Diocese." 

3. A letter from the Rev. Professor Whittingham, of the General Theological 
Seminary to a Clergyman of Western New York, in relation to the Division of 
the Diocese of New York, June, 1838. 

4. The present State of the Question, in regard to the Division of the Diocese 
of New York ; with a summary of reasons therefore, July, 1838. 

5. A letter to the Editor of the Gospel Messenger, on the division of the Diocese 
of New York, by a Missionary, 1838. 

* See report of the debate in The Churchman, September 30, 1838. 
\ Bishop DeLancey, took charge of the diocese May 9, 1839. In 1868 the 
Diocese of Central New York was created out of Western New York, the Rev. 


followed, and no election took place until September 2, 1851, 
when the Rev. William Creighton, D.D., was elected Provis- 
ional Bishop. He declined the trust. The next year the Rev. 
Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright, D.D., was elected, being con- 
secrated November 10, 1852. In the meanwhile Episcopal 
functions were exercised by Bishops McCoskry, DeLancey, 
Ives, Alonzo Potter, Doane, Whittingham, and Chase. 

Bishop Wainwright proved an able and successful admin- 
istrator, and the Church continued to advance, but his career 
was brief, and he died September 21, 1854, in the midst of 
years and usefulness. * During his administration the color 
line was broken, and in 1853, St. Philip's colored church of 
New York city, was admitted into union with the convention 
by an overwhelming majority. The Rt. Rev. Dr. Horatio 
Potter, the present venerable and beloved bishop, was con- 
secrated as the successor of Bishop Wainwright, November 
22, 1854, and the next year, falling on the seventh decade of 
the diocese, the number of clergy belonging to the diocese 
was three hundred and four, of whom two hundred and 
thirty-two had seats in the convention. One hundred and 
sixty parishes were represented by lay delegates. 

April 30, i86i,bythe death of Bishop Onderdonk, Bishop 
Potter became the Bishop of New York. 

In the meanwhile, though strong discussions were com- 
mon respecting principles and methods, the Church continued 
to thrive, and in 1865 there were three hundred and ninety-five 
clergymen on the roll, two hundred and fifty-eight being en- 
titled to seats, with one hundred and ninety-two parishes. 
In 1868 the entire list of the clergy numbered four hundred 
and forty-six, of which number two hundred and ninety-five 
were entitled to seats. 

The year previous, the convention had voted to create two 
new dioceses, those of Albany and Long Island, but the sep- 

Frederic D. Huntington, D.D., being elected bishop, and consecrated February, 
2, i86g. 

* The church edifice, occupied by the Parish of St. John the Evangelist, New 
York City, is regarded as the "Wainwright Memorial," but there never was any 
parish bearing the name. 


aration had not been accomplished at the time when the 
convention met, and the clergy list appears full. The bishop 
gave his consent to the division, retaining the Diocese of New 
York under his jurisdiction. The next year, 1869, showed a 
reduction of the clergy list to two hundred and ninety, the 
number of one hundred and eighty being entitled to seats. * 

At the convention in 1872, Bishop Potter, in his annual 
address, recommended action with respect to founding a ca- 
thedral, when a committee of fifteen was appointed to take 
the subject into consideration. 

He also presided at the Primary Convention of the Dio- 
cese of Long Island, November 18, 1868, where sixty-five 
clergy entitled to seats appeared, the whole number on the 
roll being eighty-five. No less than fifty-five parishes were 

Another ten years of the administration of Bishop Potter 
passed away, when the total number of the clergy had risen 
to three hundred and four, of whom one hundred and eighty- 
four were entitled to seats. Of parishes having a right to 
representation, there were one hundred and fourteen. These 
figures appear extremely favorable when compared with the 
strength of the diocese at the time Long Island and Albany 
were set off. Soon after some action was taken with refer- 
ence to a federation of the five dioceses, in accordance with 
the canon of the General Convention, but the project was 
abandoned, and has since lain dormant. 

October 20, 1883, the Rev. Henry Codman Potter, D.D., 
LL.D., was consecrated Assistant Bishop in Grace Church, 
New York city, the venerable presiding bishop, the Rt. Rev. 
Benjamin Bosworth Smith, Bishop of Kentucky, acting as 

The convention of 1885 was held in St. Augustine's Chapel, 
commencing Wednesday, September 30. At this time there 
were three hundred and thirty clergy connected with the 
diocese, of whom two hundred and seven were entitled to 
seats, while one hundred and seventy were actually present. 

* Bishop Potter presided at the Primary Convention of the Diocese of Albany, 
Dec. 2, 1868. 


The parishes and mission chapels numbered one hundred 
and ninety-five, one hundred and fifty-four being in union 
with the convention and one hundred and thirty-six repre- 
sented by lay delegates. 

The following is a summary of a class of results that have 
grown out of the small beginnings of 1785, when the Epis- 
copal supervision included the entire State of New York: 
Bishops, 5 ; Clergy, (about) 769 ; Churches and missions, 663 ; 
Candidates for Orders, 75 ; Sunday School Teachers, 7,967 ; 
Scholars, 79,813. The Communicants exceed 100,000, about 
40,000 of whom are in the Diocese of New York. 

The total contributions of the five dioceses for various 
objects demanding support amounted the year past to about 
$2,390,599.77, nearly one-half of which was contributed by 
the Diocese of New York. 

The subject has now been treated in a brief and somewhat 
fragmentary way, the design having been to prepare a sketch 
and not a history. It would prove a source of satisfaction to 
the writer to delay for the purpose of speaking of a few of the 
important movements that have sprung up, and to mention 
some of the institutions of learning and charitable organiza- 
tions that form the crown and glory of a century of diocesan 
work ; but these topics, whatever may be their interest and 
importance, must be passed by now. It is gratifying, however, 
to know that they are in safe hands ; for they are watched 
over with unremitting care by him who so recently, and by 
the unanimous voice of this great diocese, was called to take 
up the heavy burden which the failing strength of the ven- 
erable Senior Bishop obliged him to lay down, and whose 
successful administration, if a tithe of the good wishes of our 
people, nay, of the entire Christian community, are fulfilled, 
will take a high place in the forefront of the incoming cen- 
tury, and form the inspiring theme of him whose glad task 
will be to tell the story of our second hundred years. 





New York, April 2nd, 1739. 
Reveiend S' 

In obedience to the comands I have Received from the Right Reverend 
Father in God Edward Lord Bishop of London and the orders of the Honoura- 
ble Society, I Doe appoint a meeting of the Clergy of New York and New Jersey 
at Trinity Church in this city, on the second day of May next ensuing ; and I 
Desire you there pursuant to the Orders you have Received from the Society to 
deliver to me your parochial accounts, And the state of your Income, to be trans- 
mitted to my Lord of London and by his Lordship's hand to that Venerable Body 
as they directed. 

Your affectionate Brother and Humble Servant, 

Will: Vesey Com. 
A I chives of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel, 
New England, &c. 1738-9, No. 103. 

' New York, June 4th 1739. 

Rev** S' 

Inclosed you'l Receive a copy of my circular Letter to the Rev^ Clergy of New 
York & New Jersey Desiring them to meet at Trinity Church In the City of New 
York, on the second day of May Last. They all accordingly met Excepting only 
such as were prevented by sickness and other accidents ; And they have delivered 
to me the slate of their Income and Parochial accounts which by this conveyance 
I have transmitted to you to be layd before the Honourable Society, who by 
this means will have a View of the condition of the Church and Clergy in these 
provinces. If in any affair I can be serviceable to that Venerable Body no per- 
son will be more ready to do it than 


Your Very Humble Servant 

Will: Vesey. 

p. S. — I presume Mr. Harrison and Mr. Miln will get their accounts Ready to 
be Sent by the Next Ship. 

New England &c. 1738-9 pp. loi. 




New York. 

Missionary's Income from their Congregations for the Year 1738. 

The Reverend Mr, 
Charlton, the 
Society's cate- 
chist for the city 
of New York. 

Mr. Standerd. . 

Mr. Colgan. 
Mr. Jenney. 

Mr. Stoupe. . . . 
Mr. Whitmore. 

Mr. Barclay 
Mr. Browne 

Mr. Vaughan . 
Mr. Skinner. . 
Mr. Campbell 

Mr. Pierson . . 
Mr. Nichol. . . 
Mr. Harrison. 

Income by Subscription. 

West Chester 

Perquisites by estimation. 
Jamaica, Long Island . . . . 
Perquisites by estimation. 

Hempstead, Long Island 

A glebe of 172 acres of upland and 
25 of meadow land. 

Perquisites by estimation 

New Rochel 

Perquisites by estimation 


Perquisites by estimation. 


Perquisites by estimation. 


Perquisites by estimation . 

New Jersey, 1738. 

Elizabeth Town 

Perquisites by estimation 


Perquisites by estimation 


And from another place 

Perquisites per estimation 


Perquisites per estimation 

Monmouth County. Perquisites 
per estimation 

Staten Island. Perquisites per 
estimation. A parsonage house 
and glebe of 60 acres and a con- 
siderable plantation left by will 
of Elias Danbury. 

Paper and 

Equal Ster- 
ling moneys. 

£ s. 
82 10 


to £ s. d. 

52 50 

Settled salary. 
31 5 



settled by a fund of 
the Province. 

36 7 3 
I 17 

Salary settled by law of the 

60 36 7 3 
17 10 6 
13 2 6 8 



2 16 
16 2 


Settled salary. 

30 6 

22 8 5 
I 15 10 
9 15 I 
I 4 8 

10 10 

6 10 


1 16 

3 13 3 




12 2 5 

15 5 
5 3 

9 5 

Settled salary. 
40 o o 24 4 3 


Reverend Sr. : 

The above accounts were delivered to me by my Reverend Brethren the 
Clergy, in order to be transmitted to the Venerable Society by Sr. 

Your very Humble Servant, 

Will: Vesey, 
To the Reverend Doctor David Humphreys, Secretary to the Honorable 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, London. 
[New England, &c., 1738-9 p. 105.] 

[The interesting sketch of the Early History of the Colo- 
nial Church in New York has been kindly contributed to this 
volume by Dr. De Costa, at the request of the Publication 
Committee, as an Introduction to the foregoing valuable His- 
torical Address. The two contributions cover the entire 
history of the Church in the Colony and Diocese of New 



Standing upon some headland of the Atlantic coast dur- 
ing a calm day when no movement is perceptible in the air, the 
loiterer is nevertheless conscious of the fact that movements 
are taking place in the sea. No breeze ruffles the shining 
expanse, but anon there comes a long, swelling winrow of 
brine, rolling silently landward, until it falls with a crash 
upon the sandy shore. Whence the mysterious wave on this 
calm day? It is the result of an unreported cyclone that 
smote some remote sea. Similar movements take place in 
modern society, and we are not without some experience of 
them in what anciently formed the Province of New York. 
Occasionally the wave from a distant storm centre, two hun- 
dred years away, breaks suddenly against the walls of a vene- 
rable church or institution of learning. The surges assume 
a variety of shapes, social, political, and ecclesiastical, but 
whenever and wherever they strike, the impact is the product 
of some old agitation, the significance of which few 
understand. The Colonial days formed a stormy period. 
Let us, therefore, make some examination of the times 
during which the English laid the foundations of Church and 
State, especially since various writers have represented that 
both Church and State were founded by injustice and usur- 

I. Thus far hardly more than a single historian really 
worthy of the name has essayed to write the history of the 
State of New York, and the work of this writer, as we must 
all regret, ends with the year 1691. Mr. Brodhead writes 
with unquestioned ability, bringing to his task a full and 
critical knowledge of the authorities employed, and yet his 
exaggerated estimate of the Dutch, notwithstanding his de- 
sire to be fair, repeatedly renders him insensible to plain con- 
siderations. Besides, since his first volume appeared, histor- 
ical geography had made rapid advancement, and is now 
shedding fresh light upon old subjects. 


There is a general understanding that New York was 
settled by the Dutch, but the first colonists, those of 1623, 
were chiefly French Huguenots, while Germans and Jews 
mingled with the later Dutch. In 162 1 there was a distinct 
movement set on foot for an exclusively French colony in 
this neighborhood, based on the feudal principle. The leaders 
desired special authority to style themselves " nobles," but 
the plan miscarried, and the Huguenots, called Walloons, came 
two years later, under the Dutch. In 1656 the French ele- 
ment was so important that public documents were drawn up 
in the French tongue. It has been estimated that, in 1685, 
the French constituted about one-fourth of the population. 
In 1552, French religious worship had become prominent, 
and in 1682 that French Church was founded which survives 
in our day. This mixed population maintained a mild type 
of the Reformed religion, and it was not until a later time 
that New York became inoculated with that hostile political 
ecclesiasticism against which the Church of England was 
obliged to strive. 

If called to say what nation was entitled to the territory 
of New York by right of discovery, we might be obliged to 
award the claim to the French, who were conducted thither 
by Verrazano in 1524. Verrazano wrote the first description 
of the Bay of New York, his letter being addressed to Fran- 
cis I. Prior to this time Pope Alexander, by a decree, had 
given away all America to Spain, but that was trifling with 
the subject ; while we are told that the Dutch were entitled 
to the country by reason of occupation based upon the voy- 
age of Henry Hudson in 1609, and some explorations three 
or four years later. This is trifling with the subject, too ; 
since Henry Hudson was only one of a long line of naviga- 
tors who followed Verrazano. A Spanish expedition suc- 
ceeded the French within one or two years, naming the Hud- 
son River " Rio Antonio," probably in memory of St. An- 
thony, whose day falls upon June 13. 

Besides it is now known that the French were actually 
living here in 161 3, when a child was born. Yet Mr. Brod- 
head, writing of this particular period, says that, after Verra- 


zano, no European vessels, except those of the Dutch, had 
yet visited the region around Manhattan. His statement is 
distinctly disproved by a legend found on the Dutch Figura- 
tive Map, presented to the States General in 1614, which de- 
clares that the French ascended in their shallops as far as the 
present site of Albany, to trade with the Indians. Mr. Brod- 
head praised the map, but he does not seem to have discov- 
ered the legend. In this connection we may refer to a bit of 
hitherto unnoticed testimony found in Champlain, who was 
in Canada in 161 5, and was told of the Flemings trading on 
the fortieth degree, three of whom were captured by his allies 
and released on the supposition that they, being of the same 
language, were the friends of the French in Canada. Many 
evidences exist proving the knowledge of this region pos- 
sessed by the English, who did not plant their colony in Vir- 
ginia in 1584 without any examination of the country on 
the border of which they sat down. The coast was often run 
by the English prior to the settlements of Raleigh. In 1583, 
Christopher Carlisle drew up proposals for a colony in this 
neighborhood, and his reasons therefor show an intimate knowl- 
edge of the country and the nature of the voyage required. 

Three years before the voyage of Henry Hudson, who 
was an Englishman, half his crew also being English,* this re- 
gion was doubly covered by patents issued by King James to 
the North and South Virginia companies, who in 1607 com- 
menced colonization in both New England and Virginia. 
The whole country was pre-empted, as the Dutch very well 
knew, having been claimed, too, at an early period by the 
English on the ground of Cabot's voyage. In New England 
the English were active and repelled French intruders. On 
the Hudson, in 1613, they boldly asserted their supremacy. 
Plantaganet, who was followed by other writers, stated in 
1648, that Argall, from Virginia, found some Dutch traders 
at the Hudson in 1613, and received their submission. This is 
repeated in a manuscript of about 1663, now preserved in the 

* The voyage of Hudson was used by the English to support their own claim. 
On his return voyage, Hudson entered an English port, where his ship was de- 
tained for several months on account of his intrusion. 


British State Paper Office, which speaks of the Dutch at Man- 
hattan as having made an engagement with " Sir Samuel 
Argall that they would come thether noe more." 

In 1620 the Englishman, Captain Dermer, found the 
Dutch trading here, and told them that they were violating 
English rights, when they professed ignorance. At this very 
time the Leyden Pilgrims were preparing to sail for the Hud- 
son, whither they would have come, but for a storm which 
drove them into Massachusetts Bay, where they settled at 
Plymouth. The next year the English Ambassador at the 
Hague brought the Dutch intrusion to the notice of the 
States General. That body replied that they had heard of 
"no such thing," and that "it was without their authority." 
They also said that they knew of no colony there " planted " 
or " intended." It was a private venture. In 1623, however, 
the Dutch West India Company was completed, for the pur- 
pose of operating against Spain, and under this company a 
colony, composed chiefly of French Huguenots, called " Wal- 
loons," came over. Wassanaar says that the ship New 
Netherland arrived in the beginning of May, 1623, "with 
thirty families Walloons." Yet the same season the English 
knew what the Dutch authorities were doing, and a plan was 
arranged to dispossess them. What was actually done we 
cannot say, as the ship arrived in Virginia late in the year. 
This incident is drawn from an unpublished letter written off 
the Isle of Wight, on board the Bonnie Bess, May 4, 1623. 
The writer says : " We are by commission from the Lord of 
Southhampton, Governor of the Company, and other learned 
counsel, and divers great Lords, to discover the very top and 
head of that river [the Hudson], and if we there find any 
strangers, as Hollanders or others, which is thought this year 
adventure there, we are to give them fight and spoil, and sink 
them down into the sea, which to do we are well provided 
with a lusty ship, stout seamen, and great ordnance."* 

In the course of a controversy on the subject of Dutch 
rights, the Governor of New Netherland, October 6, 1659, said 

*From the Duke of Manchester's Kimbolton MSS. 


that " the King of Spain . . . did renounce and give over 
unto the united Republic of the Seven Provinces aforesaid 
all his right and title in such countries and dominions as they 
have in process of time conquered and settled in Europe, 
America and elsewhere, wherefore the above said Province of 
New Netherland . . . became, in this regard, the true, 
proper inheritance of the Dutch nation." * The same year 
he declared, we " take our origin as vassals and subjects 
from the King of Spain, then the first finder and founder 
of all America."f A few days later the governor made 
another statement, saying, " The King of Spain was at the 
time of the discovery of America our King, and we were 
as much his vassals and subjects as they [the English in 
Maryland] were the subjects of their King or Republic of 
England, but afterwards, when we were obliged to take up 
arms, and achieved our liberty, the King of Spain conveyed 
over and to us, in full propriety, by lawful right and title, all 
his own and other conquered lands in Europe and America.":}: 
Again in 1660 the Directors of the West India Company made 
the same claim. § Mr. Brodhead ignores this transaction. 

An attempt has also been made to bolster up the Dutch 
claim, on the ground of purchase. In this connection the 
historian of New York is quite'eloquent. Mr. Brodhead says : 
"This event, one of the most interesting in our Colonial 
annals, as well deserves commemoration, as the famous treaty, 
immortalized by painters, poets, and historians, which William 
Penn concluded, fifty-six years afterwards, under the great 
elm tree with the Indians at Shackamaxon." || This compar- 
ison, however, is doubly unfortunate, since the researches, by 
some of the Pennsylvania antiquaries, men jealous of all that 
regards Pennsylvania's fame, completely fail to prove that 
the treaty between Penn and the Indians ever took place. 
It has been said that the comparison was doubly unfortunate, 
and for the reason that the Penn treaty has always been 
described as a genuine treaty, while the purchase of this isl- 
and, according to the Dutch, formed a sharp bargain. Hence 

*JV. V. Col. Docs., II., 80. \Ibid., 91. Xlbid., 93. %Ibid., 139. 
\ History of New York, I., 164. 


neither painter nor poet has troubled himself to adorn 
the transaction, which a Dutchman here at the time disposes 
of in a laconic fashion, under date of November 7, 1676, say- 
ing, " They have bought the Island Manhattes from the 
Indians for the value of sixty guilders," about the price of a 
puncheon of gin, in which commodity it was probably paid. 
When Heckwelder, the Moravian missionary, came here, he 
heard the lament of the Indians over this transaction. They 
gave its history in a distorted form, yet we recognize the main 
truth in their account, which says, that the " great man," as 
they call the governor, wanted only enough land to raise greens 
for his group, but on the land allowed them for a garden they 
planted great guns and " afterwards they built strong 
houses and made themselves masters of the island." * 

Another Indian lament comes from a different source. 
Turning over some manuscripts in the British Museum in the 
summer of 1885, the writer came upon a petition sent to the 
British Government by one Kohhewenaaunant, who says 
that the ancestors of his tribe, then living on the Housatonic, 
from " time immemorial lived on the River called Hudson 
River, and were the original and true owners of the lands lying 
on said River, and when the white people first made settle- 
ments on said River they found the tribe aforesaid the sole 
possessors of said lands." The petitioner, continuing, says : 
" The white people taking the advantage of the ignorance 
of us Indians, and taking away from us Indians what they 
never purchased, your petitioners have lost all foothold on 
said Hudson's River. " f Thus at the end of nearly a hun- 
dred and forty years, the memory of transactions, which the 
eulogist of the Dutch thought so worthy of the attention 
of poets and painters, rankled in the Red Man's breast. Here 
we get a glimpse of the foundation of the Dutch claims 
urged in opposition to those of the Church. But we must 
leave this part of the subject, and hasten to notice what 
followed. In 1632, eight years after the seizure of Man- 

*Fenn. Coll., Vol. XII., p. 77. 

f Add. Mss. 22679, p. 4. The particular lands contended for lay on the upper 


hattan, a Dutch ship which came over was held on her re- 
turn in the port of Plymouth, England. The Dutch also failed 
to make any claim to jurisdiction in opposition to England 
based on occupation, and it was left for one in our day to 
claim the country for them on the ground of discovery and 
actual possession. Nevertheless, though without any valid 
claim, the Dutch continued to hold the country, the English 
being absorbed in struggles which prevented the Crown 
from giving due attention to its rights. The Dutch, however, 
as the years rolled on, felt a growing sense of insecurity, and 
understood that the day of reckoning must come. Realizing, 
therefore, the absurdity of their position, the representatives 
of the West India Company through their agent here, main- 
tained that Holland derived her claim to America from Spain. 
The foolishness of this position was not apparent to the Eng- 
lish then living on the Delaware, but elsewhere it was perfectly 
understood ; and in 1663, the convenient time having arrived, 
the English Government sent out Commissioners, who quietly 
took possession in the name of the Crown, and received the 
Dutch obedience, changing the name of New Amsterdam to 
that of New York. 

So far as technicalities went, the English were entitled to 
the soil, but morally also England had the superior right, and 
was charged with a superior obligation, possessing as she did the 
evident ability to insure to the people a greater degree of happi- 
ness and prosperity than could be guaranteed by any other 
nation ; while politically, whatever may have been the prior- 
ity of the Dutch, it would have been a simple impossibility 
for New Netherland to exist, dividing, as that jurisdiction 
did, the Northern American Colonies from those in the South. 
On every principle New Netherland must at last have been 
ground between the upper and nether millstone. Partisan wri- 
ters have wrangled over the subject, while the sentimental 
essayist has dropped his tear, but the fact remains that the 
English brought a better and more reasonable government, 
and a superior type of civilization. It hardly needs to be 
added that they brought a superior type of Christianity. 
In time the Dutch themselves appreciated the advantages 


enjoyed, having retained all civil and ecclesiastical rights, 
indeed, the day after the surrender of the Dutch, " the 
Court of Burgomasters and Shepens assembled to transact 
their usual business, proceeding to administer Justice as 
though nothing had happened." At this point we turn from 
the State to consider the position of the Church. 

II. It has been stated that the first English residents of 
New York were those Connecticut men brought here in 1635, 
after their capture on the Delaware. It would nevertheless, 
perhaps, prove a difficult task to trace the growth of the Eng- 
lish population. At the time of the occupation it must have 
been small, though it was increased by the arrival of those 
who naturally followed in the train of the Royal Commis- 
sioners. The first governor was Nicolls, one of the Com- 

In 1664 a code of laws, known as the Duke's Laws, was 
given to the people at Hempstead, Long Island, and the 
Protestant religions were all put upon a common footing, 
nothing being said about Common Prayer.* In 1668 Nicolls 

* For the understanding of this period it is very important that we should 
study the Duke's Laws, which were settled at Hempstead, L. I., March i, 1664. 
It is stipulated as follows : 

1. That in each Parish within this Government a Church be built in the most 
Convenient part thereof. Capable to receive and accommodate two Hundred 

2. That For the making and proportioning the Levies and Assessments for 
building and repairing the Churches, Provisions for the poor, maintenance for the 
Minister ; as well as for the more orderly managing of all Parochiall affairs in 
other Cases exprest. Eight of the most able men of Each Parish be by the Major 
part of the House holders of the said Parish Chosen to be Overseers out of which 
Number the Constable and the aforesaid Eight Overseers shall yearly make Choice 
of two of the said number, to be Church Wardens and in case of the Death 
of any of the said Overseers and Church Wardens ; or his or their departure out of 
the parish, the said Constable and Overseers shall make Choice of another to 
Supply his Room. 

3. Every Overseer is to take the Oath of Allegiance at the time of his Admit- 
tance into his office in the Presence of the Minister, Overseer and Constable of 
the parish, besides the Oath of his office. 

4. To prevent Scandalous and Ignorant pretenders to the Ministry from in- 
truding themselves as Teachers ; No Minister shall be admitted to Officiate, 
within the Government but such as shall produce Testimonials to the Governore, 
that he hath Received Ordination either from some Protestant Bishop, or Minister 


was succeeded by Francis Lovelace, whose instructions were 
similar to those of his predecessor. He brought the Duke of 
York's approval of the Laws, and in a letter to the Home 
Government he described himself as " being in a middle posi- 
tion of the two distinct factions — the Papist and the Puritane." 
During the war with Holland, in 1673, the city passed 
back into the hands of the Dutch, but with the return of peace 
the English recovered the territory, and Edmund Andros 
came over with instruction from the Duke of York, who had 

within some part of his Majesties Dominions or the Dominions of any foreign 
Prince of the Reformed Religion, upon which Testimony the Governour shall in- 
duce the said Minister into the parish that shall make presentation of him, as 
duely Elected by the Major part of the Inhabitants house holders. 

5. That the Minister of every Parish shall Preach constantly every Sunday, 
and shall also pray for the Kinge, Queene, Duke of Yorke, and the Royall 
family. And every person affronting or disturbing any Congregation on the 
Lord's Day and on such publique days of fast and Thanksgiving as are Appointed 
to be observed, After the presentment thereof by the Church wardens to the 
Sessions and due Conviction thereof he shall be punished by fine or Imprison- 
ment according to the merritt and Nature of the offence, And every Minister shall 
also Publiquely Administer the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper once every Year 
at least in his Parish Church not denying the private benefit thereof to Persons 
that for want of health shall require the same in their houses, under the penalty 
of Loss of preferrment unless the minister be restrained in point of Conscience. 

6. No Minister shall refuse the Sacrament of Baptism to the children of 
Christian parents when they shall be tendered under penalty of loss of preferr- 

10. That no Congregation shall be disturbed in their private meetings in time 
of prayer or preaching or other divine Service Nor shall any person be molested 
fined or Imprisoned for differing in Judgement in matters of Religion who pro- 
fess Christianity. 

11. No Person of Scandalous or Vicious Life shall be Admitted to the holy 
Sacrament who hath not given Satisfaction therein to the Minister. 


That Church wardens shall twice every year (viz.) on the Second day of the 
Sessions, to be held in June ; and on the Second day of the Sessions to be held 
in December, In open Sessions deliver a true presentment in writing of all such 
misdemeanours as by their knowledge have been Comitted and not punished 
whilst they have been Churchwardens. Namely, Swearing, prophaness, Sabbath 
breaking Drunkenness, fornication. Adultery, and all such abominable Sinnes." 
Under "Charges Publique" it was ordered that "Every Inhabitant shall Con- 
tribute to all Charges both in Church and State, whereof he doth or may receive 
benefit according to the equal proportion of his Estate." — Col. N. Y. Hist. Soc, 
1809, Vol, L, p. 332. 


regained his former position. The Duke was a Roman 
Catholic, disabled by the Test Act, and felt wondrously kind 
toward those who suffered like himself; therefore he gave 
religious liberty to " all persons," instead of " all Christians." 
Dongan, the next governor, arrived in 1683. He was a 
Roman Catholic, and a liberal and enlightened man, who de- 
serves a high place in our estimation. His services to New 
York have been recognized. In 1686 the Duke of York, now 
in the second year of his reign as King James, sent out new 
and full instructions respecting the Church. The Roman 
Catholic King straightly commanded his Roman Catholic 
Governor to maintain " Common Prayer " and the " Blessed 
Sacrament " according to the Church of England.* 

* " You sliall take especial care that God Almighty bee devoutly and duly 
served throughout yo' government : the Book of Common Prayer, as it is now es- 
tablisht, read each Sunday and Holy day, and the Blessed Sacrament adminis- 
tered according to the Rites of the Church of England. You shall be careful that 
the Churches already built there shall bee well and orderly kept and more built 
as y^ Colony shall, by God's blessing, bee improved. And that besides a compe- 
tent maintenance to bee assigned to y^ Minister of each Church, a convenient 
House bee built at the Comon charge for each minister, and a competent Propor- 
tion of Land assigned him for a Glebe and exercise of his Industry. 

" And you shall take care that the Parishes bee so limited & settled as you 
shall find most convenient for y^ accomplishing this good work. 

" Our will and pleasure is that noe minister bee preferred by you to any 
Ecclesiastical Benefice in that Our Province, without a Certificat from ye most 
Reverend the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury of his being conformable to y^ Doc- 
trine and Disciplin of the Church of England, and of a good life and conversa- 

"And if any person preferred already to a Benefice shall appear to you to 
give scandal either by his Doctrine or Manners, you are to use the best means for 
y^ removal of him, and Jto supply the vacancy in such manner as wee have di- 
rected. And alsoe our pleasure is that, in the direction of all Church Affairs the 
Ministers bee admitted into the respective vestrys. 

" And to the end the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the said Archbishop of Can- 
terbury may take place in that Our Province as farr as conveniently may bee. 
Wee doe think fitt that you give all countenance and encouragement in ye exer- 
cise of the same; excepting only in Collating to Benefices, granting licenses for 
Marriage, and Probat of Wills, which wee have reserved to you our Gov' & to y* 
Commander in cheif for the time being." 

" And you are to take especial care that a Table of marriages established by 
y^ Canons of the Church of England bee hung up in all Orthodox Churches and 
duly observed." 


Dongan never allowed his personal views to interfere with 
his official duty. He recognized the fact that he had no dis- 
cretion in the matter, and he persisted, though complaining 
mournfully at last that he found it hard work to make the 
average Protestant pay the preacher's salary. In this state 
of affairs, as may well be imagined, it was not easy for the 
Church to make progress, but the men of those days acted 
no doubt according to the light which they possessed. To- 
day the Church asks no favors, and is all the stronger by 
relying upon her own resources. 

The story of the Colonial period is everyway remarkable. 
Never before, perhaps, not even in that age of Hebrew his- 
tory, when the conqueror of the Jews stood forth to rebuild 
their walls and the temple, was religion found hampered by 
such curious circumstances. The advocacy of the Church by 
Henry Vni. was embarrassing, but the zeal of acknowledged 
Roman Catholics, combined later with the unwilling service 
of a New York Dissenting Legislature, was simply grotesque. 
In those days men were sometimes more zealous for the form 
of godliness than for its power. It was in many respects a 
cruel age, an age in which they consented to the prose- 
cution of small offenders, even viewing with satisfaction 
the execution of a servailt-girl upon the gallows in New 
York for stealing what is described as ** sundry articles," 
the poor creature dying, as the newspaper states, in great 

In 1693 the Ministry Act was passed, and then came a 

" And you are to take care that Books of Homilys & Books of the 39 Articles 
of y® Church of England bee disposed to every of y^ said Churches, and that they 
bee only kept and used therein." 

" And wee doe further direct that noe School-master bee henceforth permitted 
to come from England & keep School within our Province of New York with- 
out license of the said Archbishop of Canterbury ; And that noe other person now 
there or that shall come from other parts bee admitted to keep school without 
your license first had. . . ." 

" You shall permit all persons of what Religion soever quietly to inhabit with- 
in yo' Government without giving them any disturbance or disquiet whatsoever, 
by reason of their differing Opinions in matters of Religion, provided they give noe 
disturbance to y^ publick peace, nor doe molest or disquiet others in y* free exer- 
cise of their Religion." — N. Y. Col. Docs., HI., 372. 



struggle respecting its interpretation. The details of this 
episode are given in the accompanying paper found in this 
volume. The case is a clear one, even though the handful 
of Presbyterians in New York affected to belfeve that the 
Church and State of England were untrue to all their tra- 
ditions, and devised an Act for the establishment of Dissent. 
This is a point that we must not evade, since out of the old 
controversy come those periodic assaults upon Church in- 
stitutions to which allusion was made at the beginning. 

In 1695, Governor Fletcher told the New York Assembly, 
that the interpretation of the Ministry Act was a matter that 
belonged to the Courts, to which, however, the Presbyterians 
made no appeal. The Assembly was not an authority. It 
was a creature of the Crown, and not a true republican 
representative body. The part performed by New York in 
developing republican institutions was small. In 1621, Vir- 
ginia had made an advance that New York did not reach a 
hundred years later ; for at that time, while the Pilgrims were 
starving in their communal huts at Plymouth, free represen- 
tative government, the first established in America, was 
firmly and intelligently planted in Virginia. In fact, the posi- 
tion of New York with respect to the development of popu- 
lar rights, has been misunderstood. The ancient Presbyter- 
ian was deceived in fancying that the New York Assembly 
had the power to establish Presbyterianism. The modern 
Churchman is deceived if he supposes that it established 
the Church of England. It could not do anything except 
what the King, through its agent, the governor, allowed. 
So far as the Church of England was concerned, the business 
of the Assembly was simply to recognize the legal status 
of the Church. That was all that the Act accomplished in 
1693. Until then it was inexpedient to act, but when the 
Duke of York reached the throne he felt the responsibility, 
and did what he conceived to be his duty to the Crown. New 
York was at that time nothing but a province, and continued 
in the same condition down to the period of the Revolution, 
never having been able to secure a charter, and remaining in 
a state of vassalage. 


It has been stated in a recent work, Church Law,* 
that "the legal status" of the churches here in America, 
in the Colonial days, " excepting as modified in some of 
the colonies by civil enactment, was according to the de- 
cisions of the English courts that of entire independence." 
Granting this, for the sake of the argument, the declaration 
would not affect the case of New York, as the civil enact- 
ment endorsed by the Crown was secured. But the statement 
is not true with regard to the old English colonies. The case 
quoted in support of the view is the modern case of Long vs. 
the Bishop of Cape Town, the language of the Courts being as 
follows : " The Church of England in the colonies which have 
an established legislature and no Church established by law, 
is to be regarded in the light of a voluntary association, in 
the same situation with any other religious body, no better 
but no worse." On this it is to be remarked that it is a 
modern decision, respecting the colonies now existing, the 
decision growing out of an advanced stage of the British 
Constitution, which had six remarkable periods of growth 
from 12 1 5 to 1 701, while ever since wonderful progress has 
been going on. The Cape Town decision when announced, 
filled large portions of the Church with surprise, it not having 
been supposed that the Constitution, and consequently the 
interpretation of the law, had made such an advance. 

It is our duty, however, not simply to recognize the law 
as it is, but as it was. Let us, therefore, go back to the case 
as it stood in the early Colonial days, since the integrity of our 
present position may be somewhat involved in the justice or 
the injustice of the action of the past. 

In 1692, when Governor Fletcher bade the Assembly pass 
an Act for the support of Divine Worship, he planted himself 
on solid ground, declaring that the Law of Magna Charta 
provided " for the religion of the Church of England." This 
it may be remembered is recognized in Article II. of that 
instrument, which declares that " the Church of England 
shall be free and have her rights intact and her liberties unim- 

* Andrews' Church Law, New York, 1883, p. 2. 


paired." * This did not satisfy the Presbyterians of New 
York, who, in 1753, in a publication called the Indepetident 
Reflector, attempted to set Magna Charta aside, by the fol- 
lowing paragraph. The writer says : 

"The Common Law of -£";/^/^;z<^, properly defined, consists 
of those general Laws to which the English have been accus- 
tomed from time to time, whereof there is no memory to the 
contrary; and every law deriving its Validity from such im- 
memorial Custom must be carried as far back as to the Reign 
of Richard L, whose death happened on the 6th of April, 
1199. But the present Establishment of the Church oi Eng- 
land was not till the fifth year of Queen Ann. And hence it 
is apparent that the Establishment of the Church of England 
can never be argued from the Common Law, even in Eng- 
land ; nor could any part of it, since it depends not for its 
Validity upon Custom immemorial." — Independent Reflector, 

1753. P- 177. 

The author of this extract attempts a good deal. First, 
in an arbitrary manner, and without any reason that a legally 
constituted mind can accept, he tells us that the law deriving 
validity from custom, must go back to Richard L, 1199, or 
sixteen years before Magna Charta, which, by such tactics, 
would be put quite out of the field. Now, as said, is not 
one entitled to hold that fair-minded men must agree that 
this attempt is arbitrary, covering a position assumed with- 
out reason? For if we cannot recognize Magna Charta, 
what can we recognize? No doubt some may remember 
that when the charter was approved there were those high 
in position who wondered very much where the charter came 
from. Possibly the Presbyterians of 1753 wondered, too, yet 
the great charter existed, substantially, in the Constitutions 
of Clarendon, 1166, or thirty-three years before Richard 
L, as required by the Independent Reflector ; and even in 
the Laws of Beauclerc, Henry L, 1106, ninety-three years 
before the stipulated time. Henry L's charter was the 
first written charter, and out of this and that of Henry H., 

* " Quod Anglicana ecclesia libera sit et habeat jura sua integra et libertates 
suas illesas." — Blackstone's Great Charter, p. 28. 


Magna Charta came. Besides, generations before the time 
of Henry I., the Church of England was a part of the un 
written Constitution, and entered into the Common Law of 
the Land. Blackstone does not contravene this. 

Next we have the statement that the Church of England 
was not established until the fifth year of Queen Anne. But 
the fact is that the Church was established from time im- 
memorial, as we must recognize. In 1707 the union between 
England and Scotland was consummated, continuing until 
now. The Act then passed was, not to establish the Church of 
England, but to secure the Scotch in their old ecclesiastical 
status, and protect the then existing and recognized establish- 
ment of the Church of England, which all along had been as 
much established as monarchy itself. It secured to the Church 
of England nothing that she did not already possess, while it 
left the colonies just where they stood before. This argument 
from the Reflector was the best that the Presbyterians could 
devise, and that, too, at a time when the whole subject was 
fresh and the memories of men clear ; at a time, in fact, when, 
if ever, the enemy of the Establishment would be able to find 
something to say. 

The Church in New York seems to have been a part of the 
common law, though, like a great deal of common law, it did 
not, for a time, gain due respect. Chancellor Kent distinctly 
says, that " English statutes passed before the emigration of 
our ancestors applicable to our situation and in amendment 
of the law, constitute a part of the common law of the country." 
(Com. I., 472). Magna Charta was confirmed by many parlia- 
ments. Also West says, in Chalmers Opinions of Eminent 
Lawyers, that " the Common Law of England is the common 
law of the plantations, and so all statutes in affirmance of the 
Common Law antecedent to the settlement of a colony, un- 
less there is some previous act to the contrary ; though no 
statutes made since those settlements, are those in force unless 
the colonies are particularly named." Hoffman refers to a 
similar teaching in the case of Bogardus vs. Trinity Church. 
No decision is found that overturns the position of Governor 
Fletcher, that Magna Charta provided for the religion of 


the Church of England. The Church by common and statute 
law was projected into the Colony of New York with the 
State, and both were founded in accordance with recognized 
principles of justice and religion. 

During the half century following the Ministry Act there 
were faint-hearted Churchmen, both in New York and Eng- 
land, who quailed before the Presbyterian outcry, and were 
half inclined to yield the ground. Quotations from the writ- 
ings of such men could easily be made. There are always 
those who in a crisis are ready to court popularity or stay 
impending hostilities by abandoning the cause. They are, 
however, hardly the men whom we are now called to admire. 

It will thus appear that the status of the Church of Eng- 
land during the Colonial period was misconceived by many 
in the early times, even as in our own day. The real sig- 
nificance of the Ministry Act has not been appreciated by all 
Churchmen. The issue involved was an issue that the action 
of an Assembly composed mainly of Dissenters could not 
materially affect. They themselves knew it, and, therefore, 
without seeming to strike at Magna Charta, really sought, by 
arbitrary decisions and interpretations, to set that instrument 
aside. Nor was it a question of numbers ; for if it had been 
a question of numbers, the mere handful of Presbyterians ex- 
isting in 1693 would have had no advantage over Churchmen. 
Cadillac, in 1692, estimated the number of English families 
in New York at forty. Dongan's report, made during his 
administration, shows that the English population increased 
slowly. Colonel Heathcote, who did not appreciate the real 
position of the Church, said, in 17 14, that there were forty 
Dissenters to one Churchman at the time the Ministry Act 
was passed. But there were probably five hundred Dissenters 
to one Presbyterian, that denomination having no organi- 
zation in New York at the time Heathcote wrote. The 
question, therefore, was a legal question that could not 
be decided by any local ballot. Governor Fletcher, how- 
ever, held a clear and consistent view of the subject. King 
Charles, who instructed the Commissioners, understood the 
situation perfectly as it was related to the colonies, but he 


saw that New England was practically in a state of rebellion, 
rendering undesirable any attempt to force the Church upon 
the people, while he recognized the fact that in New York 
there was at that particular time no large Church of Eng- 
land population. Consequently he acted a wise part, by 
giving the Commissioners the advice which they actually 
received. The Duke of York recognized the same state of 
affairs, and, being a Romanist, he counselled general tolera- 
tion, under which policy, he fancied, the Protestants might 
be divided, and, ultimately, conquered. The Duke carried 
this policy as far as deemed prudent, but at last, to secure 
his position in the State, he resolved to do his duty by the 
Church. This finally led to the passage of the Ministry Act, 
which could have had no validity or value, whatever might 
have been the local strength of the Church, if it had not 
been based upon recognized principles of Magna Charta. 
The Dissenting Assembly felt very bitter when contemplat- 
ing its own action ; and so, likewise, did King John, who, 
after signing the great charter, returned to Windsor from 
Runnymeade, and threw himself upon the ground, rolling in 
uncontrollable rage, and snapping like a madman at the grass. 
But neither King nor Dissenter had any remedy. On both 
sides of the sea, however disowned and oppressed, the re- 
ligion of the Church of England was the legitimate Law of 
the Land. 

The historian of this evening, said Bishop Potter, has told 
you, dear brethren, of the organization of this diocese. The 
story of the dioceses which have sprung from the bosom of 
the mother. New York, is to be told by other lips. It is cer- 
tainly a chief interest in these services that we are honored 
with the presence of sons who are also fathers in the Church, 
and it is my privilege, first of all, to present to you one, the 
worthy successor of the great DeLancey, who was schooled at 
the feet of Hobart, and who comes here to-night, himself the 
father of a diocese, to speak to us both for Western New 
York, and in the absence of the Bishop of Central New York, 


of its daughter, the Diocese of Central New York. There 
are none here who need that I should introduce him, and 
there are many to whom his voice will come with particular 
charm, as one who in this city early learned to love the 
Church, and was in later years called hence from the Rector- 
ship of Calvary Church to the position which he now adorns. 
I have great pleasure in presenting the Rt. Rev. the Bishop 
of Western New York. 



My Right Reverend Brother, Right Reverend and Rev- 
erend Brethren, and you, my Christian Brethren of the Laity : 
Taking up the narrative where the historical essay closed, we 
might go on and survey the history of the Church in the State 
of New York, with great and inspiring interest. We have no 
time to observe what wonderful things God has done by 
agencies apparently weak, but it is His delight to show that 
while He permits us to be fellow-laborers with Him, He is 
capable of working without us, of working beyond and above 
us, and of doing wonderful things whereof we are glad, in 
which after all we can discover very little that is done by 

When I think, my Right Reverend Brother, of what the 
Church in New York might have done, had all those who, for 
one hundred years have shared her blessings, been possessed of 
a deep sense of their personal duty to make known the tidings 
of the Gospel to every soul within the bounds of this State, 
oh, how meagre appears the result. I say when we think 
what would have been the consquence had all the clergy, and 
particularly the laity, been animated by the spirit of the first 
Christian ages ; of the days when every man who professed the 
name of Christ undertook to fight manfully under His banner, 
and that not in rhetorical figure, but as one who counted not 
his life dear unto him ; who was willing to take joyfully the 
spoiling of his goods, and to give his body to be burned that 
he might have a portion in the eternal inheritance of the Re- 
deemer, whom he glorified and magnified in life and death. 

Oh, for that martyr-spirit of the first ages, which is so lack- 
ing in our times ; which, I think, in some respects was not so 
essentially lacking in the days when this diocese was founded. 
We congratulate ourselves now upon having, with our pleasant 
homes, these magnificent fabrics for churches, and we see 
religion enshrined in much that strikes the eye ; but, alas, I 
fear we may be too willing to congratulate ourselves on all 
this without reflecting upon what the Church was in the 


hearts of those who, without any such accompaniments, never- 
theless understood and valued her privileges and resolved, 
one hundred years ago, to leave to their children, her richest 
blessings purchased by sacrifices. What less could have in- 
duced Seabury and White, and the brave men of that age, 
clerical and lay, to do what they did ? There was little to ex- 
cite enthusiasm , their means were apparently small ; books, 
schools, everything seemed wanting ; and to be a minister of 
Christ in the communion of this Church was to be subjected 
to a great many forms of trial of which we know nothing. 
Nay, to be even a layman of this Church, unless it was in this 
favored city, was to be deprived, through a large portion of the 
year, of almost every thing which we count essential to one's 
religious life. If reflections like these, my Right Reverend 
Brother, might be more freely worked out, I am afraid we 
should feel that, after all, this day should be to us one of 
humiliation : certainly not one of self-sufficient pride. " Not 
unto us, but unto Thy name," great God, be the glory and the 

When we have thus made becoming acknowledgments of 
our own demerit, "let us now praise famous men," and speak 
with thanksgiving and joy of all those glorious spirits who 
were successively raised up to carry on the work and to bless 
us and our children after us. 

My right reverend brother has spoken of me as a native 
of New York. It is of no importance ; but not to sail under 
false colors, let me say that I was born in the neighboring 
State of New Jersey ; albeit, within forty miles of New York, 
where, in Hibernian phrase, " I became a native " when but 
two years old. At six years of age I knew parts of the Cate- 
chism, and kept my first Christmas in dear old St. Paul's. I 
am thankful that I am under the roof of St. Thomas' church, 
to say here that in the original St. Thomas' church (a build- 
ing which greatly impressed my fancy as a child), I was privi- 
leged at seven years of age to keep my second Christmas, and 
to hear the mellifluous tongue of Duffie. He struck me at that 
time as one of the most gracious specimens of a Christian 
pastor that could be conceived of; and I retain, to this day, 


the sweet sounds that came upon my ear, in the words of the 
Epistle and Gospel, as he read them on that joyous Christmas 
of 1826. Duffie was the delight of children, and one of the few 
who knew how to interest and instruct them. Ah, if it were 
becoming, if it were proper, what stories I could tell of the 
Church in this city as it rose upon my boyhood's imagination, 
and grew brighter and brighter every year. How lovingly I 
remember the clergy of those days ; how well I remember 
Bishop Hobart, his week-day ministrations, and the sermons 
which he preached when I was a boy. I could not be kept 
away from the fair temples of God, even for boyish play. At 
this point, I may add, that I was present when Dr. Upfold 
was instituted rector of St. Thomas' Church, to succeed the 
lamented Dufifie. I could recall many pleasant memories of 
that glorious man, the great bishop, who preached that morn- 
ing ; and many more, gathered from others, since I succeeded 
to a portion of his diocese in Western New York. My dio- 
cese and its college are trophies of Bishop Hobart's life. To 
him we owe our existence. He regarded that region as his 
peculiar missionary field ; he bestowed much love and labor 
there : and, as representing the oldest daughter of the Diocese 
of New York, I may feel that I am speaking of a region which 
ought to be beloved by the Churchmen of New York. It must 
be so, if you reflect that it was there, in Western New York, 
that Bishop Hobart's last labors were given to God. It was 
there that he laid down his pastoral staff and his life and went 
to his reward. Well do I recollect the thrill of unfeigned 
sorrow that went through this city (when there was no rail- 
road and no telegraph), as, day after day, the papers announced 
that the bishop had fallen sick at Auburn, and that his life 
was despaired of. So it always occurs with great events even 
in our days ; something comes beforehand, and no one knows 
hpw it comes ; but the news is everywhere surmised, and then 
at last comes the sudden blow. Permit me to recall the fune- 
ral of Bishop Hobart, which I followed from St. John's Square 
all the way down through Walker Street to Broadway, and so 
on to Trinity Church ; the most decorous and most venerable, 
in every respect the most impressive funeral that I ever be- 


held. All New York looked on and everything was done with 
decency and order, yet without parade and with a sublime 
simplicity. The funeral train was very long ; there were no 
carriages, save one or two, perhaps, for the bishop's family, 
and all that was good in New York seemed present. The 
ministers of religion, the students of Columbia College, in 
academic dress, and venerable presbyters of the diocese, in 
gown and cassock, with bands, made a striking figure. 

The body was carried on men's shoulders and covered 
with a pall, which six presbyters supported as pall-bearers. 
As they passed down Broadway a military company, or per- 
haps a larger portion of a regiment, met the funeral by acci- 
dent ; but instinctively, reverently, by those methods which 
military men better understand than I can describe them, the 
ranks were separated and they stood with reversed arms while 
the remains of the great Bishop of New York passed between 
that file of solemn soldiery, offering an unbought tribute to 
his universally acknowledged merits as a prelate and a man 
of God. 

I have exhausted one-half of my time and the story is not 
told. I ought to tell how the Diocese of Western New York 
originated. You are celebrating the one hundredth year of 
this maternal diocese. You are celebrating the fiftieth year 
of my diocese. Fifty years ago, and, if I am not wrong, at 
this very time of the year, there was gathered in the city of 
Utica one of the most memorable conventions that was ever 
held among us, to take into consideration whether the Dio- 
cese of New York should be " made two bands." Public sen- 
timent was greatly divided at that time. I remember it well, 
for, owing to circumstances, the idea had taken possession of 
our people that a diocese must always be commensurate with 
the State, so that the Diocese of New York, it was supposed, 
must be the Diocese of the State of New York. Who was it 
that woke us up to higher and more Catholic ideas ? I an- 
swer. Dr. Whittingham, afterwards Bishop of Maryland : his 
memorable little tract it was that stirred the whole Church. 
And when one reflects on what is commonly said concerning 
the Catholic movement of Oxford fifty years ago, it may 


justly be suggested that it was all anticipated in the lofty- 
character of Whittingham, at that time rector of St. Luke's 
Church. I saw him instituted ; he was then one of the most 
interesting young ecclesiastics that ever lived ; without charms 
of person ; without charms of that kind of eloquence which is 
called popular ; but a man perfectly saturated with the spirit 
of the primitive ages ; a man concerning whom an English 
divine said to me, " If the whole Catholic Church was buried 
save only your Whittingham, I believe out of that one man 
the whole Catholic Church might rise up again like our Di- 
vine Lord in living glory." He anticipated the Oxford move- 
ment, and he might have saved it from its merited decline. 
His life, his character, and teachings were those of the first 
Christian ages. He lived them over again ; and what higher 
eulogy can we pay to the Diocese of New York, in its early 
history, than to say that it bred that man? He was the typi- 
cal, the characteristic son of the diocese, reflecting in his whole 
nature, not only the teaching of his great master. Bishop Ho- 
bart, but the spirit of the blessed apostles, the spirit of the 
Nicene Fathers, the spirit of the martyrs, as no other man of 
our times has done. He was really, what some only imagine 
themselves to be — a Catholic. In him Antiquity was known 
here, was professed here, and lived here; he was the grand 
apostle of it before we heard of Dr. Pusey — I say it not to 
disparage that great and venerated scholar. There are those 
in this church who know that what I say is a tribute to his- 
toric truth. The Diocese of Western New York originated 
in his great and most Catholic instructions. The whole 
Church responded. A diocese thereafter was not to be, 
necessarily, large enough for an empire. He pointed out the 
seven churches to which Jesus sent His apostles ; showed us 
the great high-priest of the Catholic Church addressing the 
bishop of Philadelphia, the Church of Tarsus, the Church of 
Smyrna and other cities. A diocese was originally a city. 
Every great city was to have its bishop, and to be the centre 
of power and influence to surrounding Paganism. 

So, as I have said, just fifty years ago a reforming Council 
met at Utica, and it was glorified by a splendid debate. 


Again I must bear a tribute to St. Thomas' Church, for the 
eloquent tongue of Hawks was never more distinguished than 
on that occasion. In a brilliant debate he was met by a 
prominent layman well known as an American jurist,* and 
these representative men led the discussion. Then were set- 
tled the principles upon which the diocese should be divided; 
but, previously, the great question whether it should be di- 
vided at all ; or, to use better ecclesiastical phraseology, whether 
a daughter diocese should be erected. Three years after that, 
in 1838, such a diocese was erected, and the graceful and 
learned De Lancey was taken from Philadelphia (he was a son 
of New York, of an old Westchester family), and was made 
the first bishop, taking up his pastoral staff at Auburn, where 
the great Hobart had closed his luminous career. 

If I could tell you of the humble men, living on a few hun- 
dred dollars, who had brought Western New York to the 
point where it could receive such a man as its first bishop, 
you would have the history of simple, persevering, suffering, 
fidelity to the truth of the Gospel, on the part of men who 
have left little record in this world except that of their good 
works, which still speak to all men, and which follow them to 
glory. Beloved, faithful missionary presbyters built up my 
diocese. See what "diocesan missions" mean. They rest 
from their labors ; but let it be remembered of one, the illus- 
trious missionary of the West, whose work was in that region 
where my own labors are now expended, let it be remembered 
of Davenport Phelps, and to the honor of the second Bishop 
of New York, that he came to the city of New York to be 
ordained by Bishop Moore, because he was a bishop who 
"believed in missions." Bishop Moore — reverend and vener- 
able name — had started from the very outset of his episco- 
pate with an impression of the importance of missions, and 
with confidence in missionary effort. Mr. Phelps said : " I 
want to be ordained by that man who believes in my chosen 
work; " and wherever that missionary labored (going into lit- 
tle cottages, and baptizing children, and catechising them), 
now stands some monument of his life and of his faith. 

*John C. Spencer, of Canandaigua. 


Under the guidance of that glorious character, Bishop De 
Lancey, the Diocese of Western New York grew from great 
feebleness to something like strength. When he rested from 
his labors in 1865 I was called from my beloved parish in this 
city, very reluctant to turn away from my work here, to suc- 
ceed that blessed man, or rather, to be consecrated by his 
hands, and to be his coadjutor; a position I held for three 
months only, when his mantle and the great responsibilities 
of the whole diocese fell upon me. Three years after, in 
1868, the Diocese of Western New York herself became a 
mother, and the admirable Diocese of Central New York was 
called into being. In 1869 was consecrated as its first bishop, 
that "burning and shining light," Bishop Huntington, form- 
erly the ornament of Harvard University, and now the faith- 
ful and devoted missionary apostle of Central New York, 
whose absence in this day of memories is about all that has 
given it any touch of disappointment. 

I ought to sit down. I have told my story, and yet I have 
not told it. May I take a few minutes to say in close of my 
share in this solemn day's proceedings that it is a day which 
ought to be remembered and which should leave a deep im- 
pression on all who have been favored to attend it. If there 
ever have been divisions of hearts where there have been 
divisions of dioceses (I am not aware that there have been, 
but such things grow up with unavoidable estrangements), 
to-day it seems to me they are gone forever. It seems as if 
the beautiful services in Trinity Church this morning were 
animated from beginning to end by the spirit of that old 
hymn of the Church: 

" Of strife and of dissension 

Dissolve, O Lord, the bands. 
And knit the knots of peace and love 
Throughout all Christian lands." 

Touchingly has the bishop of this diocese been remem- 
bered in our prayers and in our constant reverence of filial 
affection. The names of the presiding bishops have been re- 
called with love and admiration ; the eminent names of God's 


servants who have entered into rest have passed before us in 
bright review : the names, among others, of Muhlenberg, 
dear saint, and of Milnor, and of Hill, the modern evangelist 
of Greece. But there is one name which I think was not 
mentioned this morning, and it ought to have been — the 
honored name of Dr. McVickar. He was one of the best 
preachers I heard in my early days, and his sermons, if not 
strictly what are called eloquent sermons, were most instruc- 
tive, and were delivered from the pulpit with a critical use of 
language and a command of his subject which made me look 
up to him and feel what a glorious thing it is to be a minister 
of Christ. And such it is, my brethren. If anything has 
been done in our country and for our country, it has been 
done, if not altogether by clergy, yet by means of them ; not 
by power, not by might, but by the Lord of Hosts, by the 
Spirit of God working in the lives and in the hearts and souls 
of faithful men who, looking upon the allurements of the 
world, counted all as dross, that they might preach Christ. 
They carried on the work for which the Son of God came 
down, and for which the most noble spirits that ever glorified 
humanity have lived and died. O, mothers, why are not 
your sons forthcoming, like Timothy and Titus and such as 
were the Chrysostoms and the Ambroses of the early Christ- 
ian day? Why do you not reflect that the work which 
stands first and last and will live forever is the work which 
the faithful man of God is permitted to do in his Master's 
name, winning souls which shall shine as the firmament and 
as the stars forever and ever? 

Bishop Potter at the conclusion of the address said, 
The Bishop of Western New York has reminded us of the 
one cloud upon the joy of this assemblage. I may men- 
tion one other, which will occur to all of you, in the ab- 
sence of the venerated bishop of this Diocese, who would 
most properly have presided on this occasion, and have 
given to you his paternal benediction. In his absence, how- 


ever, we are favored with the presence of one who succeeded 
him in the parish from which he was called to the charge of 
this diocese, and who to-day presides over that part of the 
State of New York to which Bishop Potter by his associa- 
tions was especially endeared. I have great pleasure in pre- 
senting to you the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Albany. 


This is the second Convention of the Diocese of New 
York, said Bishop Doane, which it has been my privilege to 
attend. The first was in 1868, at which twin daughters were 
born to the mother; Long Island the older, and Albany the 
younger of the two. And as I come back here to-night with 
so many memories revived, so many faces remembered, and 
so many missed, I confess almost the first thought in my 
mind has been that which my brother has so delicately and 
kindly alluded to just now ; that it was my privilege some- 
what to relieve the shoulders of the venerable bishop of this 
diocese from a large part of what was a heavy burden both 
of travel and of travail; and at the same time, I know a por- 
tion of the burden which he was always most glad to bear. 
The history of the Diocese of Albany, I think is in certain ways 
a somewhat peculiar one. I remember, for instance, that you 
owe to what is now the Diocese of Albany, the bishop and the 
assistant bishop of this diocese ; one of whom was the rector 
of its old mother parish, and the other of whom won his first 
spurs in the important city of Troy — spurs which I am so 
glad he still wears and uses to stimulate to all noble and 
energetic efforts for the Church. I remember that the old 
Northern Convocation, which is now the Diocese of Albany, 
furnished at once the missionary field and the missionary 
spirit of the Diocese of New York ; and I remember that 
I can say of it what Bishop Coxe has just said of Western 
New York, in its relation to Bishop Hobart, that it was 
the dearest portion of Bishop Potter's jurisdiction, which 
certainly will yield to no part of the diocese in the affection 
in which it held him ; and in the love and reverence in which 


it holds his memory now. I remember that Albany has 
given to the Church at large, not only these two bishops of 
whom I speak, but also the Bishop of Long Island, who 
began his work in Schenectady ; the Bishop of Missouri and 
Utah, of New Jersey and Northern Jersey, of Fond du Lac 
and Indiana and Nebraska, and the Assistant of Central Penn- 
sylvania, I remember among the names of this diocese, 
when it was one great undivided family, that chief missionary 
of the State, who won the name, because he bore the charac- 
ter of true fatherhood, of Father Nash, the great missionary 
of Otsego County, and the old names, familiar as were their 
faces to you, of Bostwick and of Payne, and Tucker, the 
latter of whom I miss so much to-day; and I remember the 
layman, whose gray hair was the type not only of the dignity 
and honor of his years, but of the ripeness and beauty of 
his intellect and character, my most beloved friend, — whose 
friendship was an heritage, which the bishop of this diocese, 
I cannot say handed down to me because I shared it with 
him — my beloved friend, Orlando Meads. When I remem- 
ber these men and these things I am disposed to feel that the 
history of Albany and its relation to this diocese are matter 
both of interest and importance. I go back to certain other 
things; I am somewhat full of the traditions of the old part 
of this diocese. It was known as the Northern Convoca- 
tion. It was full of the most intense and earnest energy in 
the developments and progress of the Church, and it was 
saturated, down to the very children, with Catholic theology, 
as Bishop Hobart first taught it in this diocese and I might 
almost say in this land. I suppose I may seem to be making 
somewhat of a strong claim when I say that the great river, 
which gives to New York its wealth, finds it source in the 
Adirondack forests, a portion of the Diocese of Albany. The 
water-shed that is protected — I only wish it was better pro- 
tected and I only hope that it will be one of these days — the 
water-shed that is protected by that primitive forest is the 
source and spring of the wealth and commercial dignity of 
this great city of the Union ; "which thing is an allegory" of 
the men that came to you from us ; and of the tone and stand- 


ard of churchly teaching and feeling which those men always 
brought down with them, like a fresh pine odor and a 
fresh mountain breeze from the North, when they came 
to this Convention ; to stand by Bishop Onderdonk in 
all his trials ; to minister as they well could, soundness 
and strength to the counsels of this diocese. I am dis- 
posed to think I have some right to found upon these facts 
the statement of a claim, which I think Albany has upon the 
Diocese of New York. I hope nobody will imagine that I 
have forgotten the proprieties of this occasion, or that I have 
forgotten my own personal dignity so far as to feel that this is 
the time or place, even if there were any need, to speak of any 
claim that can be paid in money, whether it be the dower to 
be given, as I believe it will one day be given by the mother 
to the daughter ; or the help that I trust will one day be given, 
in recognition of the effort making to build a Cathedral Church 
in the capital city of this State. I am not thinking of any 
claim of this sort, or of any matter that money can repay ; 
I am thinking of just what my brother said who spoke 
before me. 

I was going to say, when I first spoke of the twin birth of 
Long Island and Albany, that twinship was the only thing in 
which they resembled Jacob and Esau, but I am a little dis- 
posed to think that the older brother has taken part of my 
right ; for the one thing I had saved to speak of here was the 
earnest longing — and I am quite sure I represent the diocese I 
have the honor and privilege of belonging to when I speak of it 
— the earnest longing to come back to this old mother diocese ; 
not, as St. Paul said of Onesiphorus, " not as a servant, but 
as a brother beloved." So I say, not as a child to be fostered 
and fed and cared for (we have a notion up North that we 
are walking pretty well alone) but to come back to that, 
which, in all human experience, is the sweetest of all com- 
panionship and the safest of all counselling, the relation 
between daughters grown up to be almost the sisters of their 
mother — " Fades non omnibus u?ia, nee diversa tamen, qualem. 
decet esse sororum;^' the fair and well-grown sisters with 
their mother, taking counsel together for the things that 


pertain to the common interests. I am not speaking of this 
either out of sentiment or out of sympathy ; although I am a 
great believer in both. I do not believe that Jacob would 
ever have built his pillar or consecrated it, or gone back there 
again and doubly consecrated it, if he had not used those 
stones first for the pillow on which he dreamed. I do not 
think men do any great thing in the world that they do not 
dream about ; and sentiment and sympathy give wings, and 
life, and airiness, and heavenly tendencies to the work that men 
are proposing to do. But this is not a matter, in my judg- 
ment, of mere sentiment or sympathy. I dimly caught to- 
day, rather hearing between lines, both in the admirable 
sermon this morning and in the historical sketch of this even- 
ing, a little sort of diminution, or degradation, or depravation 
of the idea of Provincial Synods or Federate Councils. I 
do not care what you call it (although I would rather call 
things by their right names than their wrong names), I do 
not care what you call it so you get it ; and I do ask you, my 
Right Reverend Brother and my friends, to take this matter in 
hand. There are a thousand and one things, which I think, if 
I were the Diocese of New York and were a hundred and one 
years old, I would resolve to do in the strength of the past 
and in the hope of the future ; but I am not the Diocese of 
New York and not a hundred and one years old ; so I do 
not propose to enumerate the one thousand things ; but I do 
press this one thing, as needful for the great interests which 
are common to us all within the limits of this State. 

I live in Albany and some of you come there sometimes. 
There is a good deal of risk and danger going on there, now 
and then, in matters that concern, not questions of State, but 
questions of the Church, questions ecclesiastical and religious. 
I think we ought to be represented there not by the single 
bishop of a single diocese, but we ought to be represented, 
when the occasion comes, by the multitudinous voice of the 
great old Diocese of New York ; stronger for its divisions, as 
some things do grow stronger when you cut them and plant 
them in proper places. For the administration of great trusts, 
for the government of general institutions already founded, for 


the foundation of other institutions, and the regulation of mat- 
ters of charity and mercy as well as of education ; above all, 
for this great question, of somewhat controlling and shaping 
the ecclesiastical legislation, so far as civil legislators have 
anything to do with it ; for such things as these, I believe in 
letting the thousand things go, so that this one thing, THE 
PROVINCE, worth praying for and thinking of, may be se- 
cured. This Diocese of New York, entering with renewed 
strength upon its work, perhaps has, perhaps has not, got 
through with the consideration of divisions; the question of 
" ex uno pluresT The thing to treat of now is the " e pluribus 
unum,'' the reuniting of the parted members. 

That is pretty much what I have to say, my Right Rever- 
end Brother. Last week in my Greene County visitations, if 
it had not been for a range of mountains, I might have shaken 
hands with the Assistant Bishop of New York, when we were 
both consecrating churches, within eight miles of each other. 
Coming home from these autumnal visits, with feet and 
thoughts set towards this great gathering, I was struck with 
three things. I went to an old parish in Delaware County, 
in a town which had the good sense, I do not know how 
many years ago, to change its name from an exceedingly 
common and secular appellation, to the dignified and honored 
name of Hobart. I was in St. Peter's Church, Hobart, only 
on Monday night, the eve of the Feast of St. Michael. I went 
the next day to consecrate a church in the adjoining village 
of Stamford, the outgrowth of the zeal and energy of the old 
parish in Hobart, and it seemed to me to be a fitting type of 
so much that we have to thank God for to-day, that out of 
the zeal and energy, the devotion and wisdom of that great 
bishop of this State, so much has grown. 

I wonder if I dare say here that the village of Stamford, 
adjoining the village of Hobart, in which I consecrated the 
Church, the Church being due to the energy of the Rector of 
Hobart, used to be known as the " Devil's half-acre ; " and 
now it rejoices in the possession of as good and peaceful a 
body of villagers as I know of anywhere. This is not an un- 
fit symbol of Bishop Hobart's battle with evil, and because he 


fought it so well, the Church has its great strength and vigor 

Close by Stamford runs a little narrow stream, flowing 
from a lake with a long name which I cannot remember, 
which is the headwaters of the Delaware River. It took me 
back fifty-two years to that most beautiful and beloved place 
where my dear father lived, and labored, and died ; who, if 
he called any one master, and swore by the words of any 
master in the world, that man was Bishop Hobart. And the 
old stream of personal memories carried me back to many 
and many a thought and longing and wish; that, as such great, 
great blessings flowed from such small beginnings as that 
little stream seemed there ; so, from such little things as we 
are able to do in our life and labor, God may bring great and 
gracious results of spiritual refreshment to the world. Then I 
came down the other side of the same mountain, through those 
marvellous colors on the hillsides, which realize, into almost 
material fact, the truth, that God " maketh His Angels spirits 
and His Ministers a flame of fire ; " kindling a tongue of flame 
on every tree, upon the hills, and, it seemed to me, that in 
the midst of all those unearthly glories, I could feel, not 
merely that gracious appointment of God, by which He has 
set men and angels in a wonderful order, to work ; but that I 
could realize also how the beloved in Paradise, in the pure 
and fair and unveiled vision of the glories of the Eternal City, 
absent from our eyes, were none the less sharers with us, by 
interest and intercession, in perpetually carrying on the work, 
for which they lived and for which they laid down their lives. 

As the traveller crosses the Atlantic on his homeward 
way, said Bishop Potter, he is saluted, when he approaches 
this port of ours, as the first sign of the home which he 
seeks, by that magnificent light, which, heralding Long 
Island, greets the traveller from that other, which we know 
as Fire Island. Another light clear and commanding has 
ruled the peaceful history of the Diocese of Long Island, as 


witness to the influence of a life of service, both in letters 
and of labors, and has made that jurisdiction one of the 
most commanding in the whole American Church. We are 
favored and honored to-night, dear brethren, with the pres- 
ence of the Bishop of Long Island, who will speak for the 
diocese over which he presides. 


The past century of the Church in this State, remarked 
Bishop Littlejohn, has been eloquently reproduced to-day. 
The master-builders of our ecclesiastical life ; its movements ; 
its schools of thought ; its alternations of success and failure ; 
the creation of five dioceses out of one, together with the 
new lines of development thus originated — all have been 
vividly put before us. The duty of the hour, before all else, 
is to interpret and apply the lessons they teach. Rich as the 
occasion is in historic interest, it should be equally so in its 
practical uses ; and it is only as we enter into both that we 
can be intelligently grateful to the mother diocese, whose 
loving heart has called her children about her for the pur- 
poses of this celebration. 

All questions of the hour centre in this : What have we 
done? What do we mean to do with what has been commit- 
ted to our keeping? Granted that our lineage and our inheri- 
tance, our gifts, endowments, and opportunities, are what we 
claim ; what has been in the past, what is likely to be in the 
future, the fruit of them in our hands? It matters little 
what commemorative dignity and splendor may be thrown 
around this day; the only thing that can make it truly great 
and memorable, is the answer we give to these questions. If 
we may not be proud of our record, certainly we need not be 
ashamed of it. It is written on the forefront of the century, 
where all men may read it. It witnesses to a growth which, 
when rightly viewed, has been scarcely less than marvellous. 
A century of growth for the Nation, and a century of growth 
for the Church, are not to be measured by the same tests. 
The former because it has been social, political, intellectual, 


industrial, has been rapid and demonstrative. Its energies, 
methods, results, have naturally tended to the surface, and 
been patent to all eyes. Whatever harvests it has reaped 
have commanded instant recognition, and have at once been 
rated at their full value. The latter, on the other hand, be- 
cause belonging largely to the unseen, the supernatural, has 
been more gradual and unobtrusive, and every way more dif- 
ficult to estimate. The popular judgment is never a safe 
criterion of the scope and momentum of the Church's work. 
It seeks what it does not find ; it instinctively forgets that a 
hundred years is one thing for the Nation, and quite another 
thing for the Kingdom of God. A single generation or even 
decade, lost to the economies of material wealth and polit- 
ical development, may be fatal ; whereas to the economy 
of grace it may be only a missing pulse-beat in the wide- 
sweeping, endless circulation of a Divine organism that counts 
a thousand years as one day. 

In dealing with the growth that with us has multiplied the 
little one into a thousand, it is not enough to cite statistics, or 
appeal to outside facts. It is indeed much that we have them 
abundantly at hand to prove in a tangible way what has been 
done ; but it is of far more moment to be able to show that 
what growth we have had has consistently embodied and duly 
exemplified the faith, worship, and discipline which we pro- 
fess to regard as the glory and strength of our Apostolic and 
Catholic heritage. It is much that we can point to an increase 
of nearly lOO per cent, in the last twenty years in our clergy, 
our confirmations, communicants, contributions, and perma- 
nent property, and even to a greater advance in the moral and 
social influence of the Church ; but it is vastly more if we can 
truly afiRrm that all this has been accomplished really in 
Christ's name and in Christ's way. Bulk, numbers, wealth, 
what the world calls power, are only the shifting, often delu- 
sive side of progress. Its heart and soul, all that is essen- 
tially vital in it, are to be found only in loyalty to truth, de- 
votion to principle, love of souls for whom Christ died, and in 
the energies which they have awakened and directed. Just 
this in the main, and stript of its accidents, has been the char- 


acteristic of our growth in the century past. In becoming 
more catholic, I believe we have not become less evangelical. 
In learning to encourage and to exercise more liberty of 
thought and action in all things lawful, we have not learned 
to value less the claims of all duly constituted authority. In 
seeking to bring our teaching and work into more effective 
and intelligent sympathy with all that is best in the spirit of 
the Nineteenth century, we have not as a whole weakened in 
our traditional regard for the faith once delivered, nor in our 
hereditary attachment to the old paths. Nor, still further, 
have we in our efforts to reconcile Revealed Truth, as em- 
bodied in the Church's witness, with the advances of modern 
knowledge, fallen aw^ay into temporizing concessions or cow- 
ardly evasions. 

But there is another characteristic of our growth that de- 
serves mention. In the history of the mother Church there 
has been one period, one school of thought and work, that 
towers above every other in sacred learning, ecclesiastical 
wisdom, and steadfast, intelligent fidelity to the spirit and 
teaching of the early Church. I refer, need I say, to the 
men who held sway in the Seventeenth century — men who 
by what they said and did sounded the battle-cry and 
marked out the lines to be occupied in after days, and espe- 
cially in our own in every successful conflict with Rome or 
Puritanism ; men, I may add, too, who wrought out, as it had 
not been done before, and as it has not been done since, the 
principles on which the Church will have to rely again, and 
perhaps more than ever in the struggles that lie before her. 
It were idle to call over the roll of those names. They are 
graven forever on the Church's memory, and are upon the 
tongues of all who teach, and in the minds of all who study 
the Catholic faith. Now it is in the mould they cast that our 
growth on the whole has been shaped, our life built up, our 
work done ; and I say this without forgetting or underrating 
the contributions made to the Church's progress in this land 
by other periods or other schools in the past or in our own 
day. It is our good fortune — nay, it is one proof of the gra- 
cious over-ruling Providence that has guided our steps — that 


we have been so richly blessed with master-builders, who 
knew how to adapt the learning and principles of the Seven- 
teenth century to the circumstances of the Nineteenth. If 
the Church of England in this age has had her Wordsworth 
and Hook and Harold Browne, her VVilberforce and Mozley 
of Oxford, and her Benson of Canterbury, so have we had 
right among us here the invincible orthodoxy, the resolute 
energy, the luminous foresight of Hobart, the balanced piety 
and remarkable practical wisdom of De Lancey, and the strong, 
clear intellect, the disciplined, carefully massed erudition of 
Seabury. And how the list might be lengthened from the 
living as well as the dead who, having wrought wisely and 
grandly upon the fair temple of our Zion, deserve our grateful 
remembrance at this hour. 

To this source as much as, I think more than any other, is 
to be traced that deep, strong, always discernible drift in our 
corporate ecclesiastical life which has fashioned, as with the 
force and certainty of an instinct, our higher thinking as well 
as our practical policy. Hence, more than from anywhere 
else, save the Spirit of God, has arisen, I believe, the influ- 
ence — I had almost called it the inspiration, the counsel of 
wisdom, the power of a sound mind — which has kept us in 
the ways of truth, soberness, and moderation; saved us from 
dangerous, perhaps fatal aberrations in these times of tumult 
and upheaval when so much of Christendom has dragged its 
anchors and floated off" into ultramontane corruptions or sec- 
tarian dilutions of the faith. Our history, then, in the century 
now closed, has been what it is with most things in it that 
give us joy to-day because it has reproduced in large measure, 
and wisely applied under the greatly changed circumstances 
of this age, the theological and ecclesiastical principles pushed 
to the front in the Seventeenth century ; and this not because 
these principles had their birth in that century, or were in 
any sense its exclusive property, but because they are funda- 
mental to the faith and order of the Body of Christ in all the 
a^es of its life from first to last. 

And now let me speak briefly of the future. The past is 
of moment to us chiefly as it bears on what we are to be and 


to do. I may not indulge in speculative suggestions or in- 
quiries, nor outline ideals, nor discuss possibilities, however 
inspiring may be their contemplation. It is the test of life 
that it begets more life. It is the quality of work that it 
creates the demand for more work. It is the characteristic 
of Christian responsibility that it knows no limit short of the 
universal spread of the Gospel of Christ and the salvation of 
all to whom it was sent. And yet the occasion must confine 
our view to life, work, duty, as they present themselves 
within the five Dioceses — the mother and the four daugh- 
ters — represented here to-night. 

Keeping in mind the common aim of the Catholic Church, 
I would speak of what is specially required of us for the 
furtherance of that aim, and generally, of interests that, for 
the present, seem to dominate all others in the fields com- 
mitted to our charge. We want more and better schools for 
the training of the young — schools that without antagonizing 
the State will enable us to counteract the perilous tendencies 
of an exclusively secular training. We want better equipped 
and more effectively administered institutions for the higher 
Academic and Theological education. We want more concert 
of action in promoting a Church literature that^ shall suitably 
stimulate and express our best thought and scholarship. We 
want more wisely planned or more vigorously pushed methods 
of Church extension and aggressive Missionary activity that 
shall put us fairly abreast of the increasing multitudes of the 
indifferent and irreligious. We want a sounder, more intense 
organic life ; a more sympathetic, compact, energetic fellow- 
ship among these five Dioceses, that shall help to cure not 
only the individualism of individuals, or the individualism of 
parishes, but that still worse disease that seems to be growing 
upon us — the individualism of the Dioceses themselves, the 
divinely ordered units and pivots of ecclesiastical progress. 
I may not discuss generally the ways and means for meeting 
these wants. It is enough that I allude to one instrumentality 
now dormant among us, but duly authorized and easily within 
our reach. I believe the day is upon us when a closer federa- 
tion and union of these dioceses is demanded. I believe 


that they ought to be drawn together and held together for 
common work by a more vital bond than now exists, call it 
Federate Council, or Provincial Council, or anything else you 
please. We want the reality, whatever name it bears. We 
want the added force, the greater concentration of motive 
power, whatever the form it may take. And I believe further 
that both policy and duty should lead us to encourage this 
venerable and beloved mother Diocese to take the lead to 
which she is, on every ground, entitled in a movement of 
this kind. 

Standing now amid the evening shadows of this centennial 
day, and facing the dawn of another century, God give us the 
wisdom to be as men of understanding rightly discerning the 
signs of the times, and with it the grace and strength so to 
quit ourselves in this our day and generation as that those 
who shall stand in our places in obedience to a call such as 
has brought us here to-night, shall be able to say of us that 
we were not faithless to the heritage entrusted to us, nor al- 
together unprofitable servants in the vineyard of our Lord 
and our Christ. 



What he undertook was to be admired as glorious ; what he performed, to 
be commended as profitable ; and wherein he failed is to be excused as pardon- 
able. — Thomas Fuller. 

Samuel Provoost, the first Bishop of the Diocese of New 
York, and the third (possibly the second) of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in America — Seabury, of Connecticut, being 
the first — was born in the city of New York, 26th February, 
1742. He was the eldest son of John and Eve Rutgers Pro- 
voost. His ancestors were Huguenots,* who had first settled 
in New Amsterdam in 1638. Young Provoost was one of 
the seven graduates of King's, now Columbia College, at its 



first commencement in 1758, carrying off the honors, although 
the youngest of his class.f In the summer of 1761 he sailed 
for England, and in November of the same year entered St. 
Peter's College, Cambridge. He soon became a favorite with 
the master. Dr. Edmund Law, afterward Bishop of Carlisle, 
and the father of Lord Ellenborough, and two English bish- 
ops. John Provoost being an opulent merchant, his son en- 
joyed, in addition to a liberal allowance, the advantage of an 
expensive tutor in the person of Dr. John Jebb, a man of pro- 
found learning, and a zealous advocate of civil and religious 

* Some of the early settlers at Quebec bearing the name Prevost and Provost, 
were from St. Aubin, in Bretagne, Rouen, in Normandy, and from Paris. — Tan- 
quay's Dictionaire GMMogique des Families Canadienties, 

f His classmates were the Rev. Joshua Bloomer, Judge Isaac Ogden, of the 
Supreme Court of Canada ; Joseph Reade, of New Jersey, Master in Chancery; 
Rudolph Ritzema, Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army; Col. Philip Van Cort- 
landt, of the American Service, and Samuel Verplanck, one of the Governors of 
King's College. 


liberty, with whom he corresponded till the doctor's death 
in 1786. In February, 1766, Mr. Provoost was admitted to 
the order of deacon at the Chapel Royal of St. James Palace, 
Westminster, by Dr. Richard Terrick, Bishop of London. 
During the month of March he was ordained at the King's 
Chapel, Whitehall, by Dr. Edmund Kean, Bishop of Chester. 
In St. Mary's Church, Cambridge, he married, on June 8th 
of the same year (1766), Maria, daughter of Thomas Bous- 
field, a rich Irish banker, residing on his beautiful estate of 
Lake Lands, near Cork, and the sister of his favorite class- 
mate.* The young clergyman with his attractive and accom- 
plished wife sailed in September for New York, and in De- 
cember he became an assistant minister of Trinity Church, 
which then embraced St. George's and St. Paul's, the Rev. 
Samuel Auchmuty, rector, the Rev. John Ogilvie, and the 
Rev. Charles Inglis, assistant ministers. During the summer 
of 1769, Mr. and Mrs. Provoost visited Mrs. Bousfield and 
her son on her estate in Ireland, and spent some months in 
England, and on the Continent. 

Some time previous to the commencement of the Revo- 
lutionary War, Mr. Provoost's connection with Trinity Church 
was dissolved.f The reasons assigned for the severance of 
this connection were, first, that a portion of the congrega- 
tion charged him with not being sufficiently evangelical in his 
preaching; and, second, that his patriotic views of the then 
approaching contest with the mother-country were not in 
accord with those of a majority of the parish. Before the 
spring of 1774, Mr. Provoost purchased a small place in 
Dutchess, now Columbia County, adjacent to the estate of 
his friends, Walter and Robert Cambridge Livingston, who 
had been fellow-students with him in the English University, 

* Provoost's brother-in-law, Benjamin Bousfield, afterward a member of the 
Irish Parliament, wrote an able reply to Edmund Burke's celebrated work on the 
French Revolution, which was published in London in 1791. 

f Dr. Berrian and other writers are wrong in giving the year 1770 as the date 
of this event. From endorsements on MS. sermons submitted to the writer, it ap- 
pears that Provoost was preaching regularly in the parish church and chapels as 
late as the month of December, 1771. It is probable that the connection was 
continued beyond this date, possibly as late as the beginning of 1774. 



and removed there with his family. At East Camp, as his 
rural retreat was called, the patriot preacher occupied him- 
self with literary pursuits, and with the cultivation of his farm 
and garden. He was an ardent disciple of the Swedish Lin- 
naeus, and he possessed, for that period, a large and valuable 
library. Provoost was, perhaps, the earliest of American biblio- 
philes. Among his beloved books were several magnificent 
Baskervilles, numerous volumes of sermons, and other writ- 
ings of English bishops, including the scarce octavo edition 
of the poems of the eccentric Richard Corbet, of whom Pro- 
voost related many amusing anecdotes; a rare Venetian illus- 
trated Dante of 1547; Rapin's England, in five noble folios ; 
a collection of Americana and Elzeviriana, and not a few 
incunabula, including 
a Sweynheym and 
Pannartz imprint of 
1470, These were 
chiefly purchased 
while a student at 
Cambridge, and con- 
tained his armorial 
book-plate, with his 
name engraved, Sam- 
uel Provost. It was 
not until 1769 that 
he adopted the ad- 
ditional letter which 
appears in his later 
book-plate and sig- 

While in the en- 
joyment of his books 
and flowers and 
farm, and finding 
happiness in the society of his growing family and his 
friends, the Livingstons, and far away from " the clangor 
of resounding arms," Mr. Provoost occasionally filled the 
pulpits of some of the churches then existing in that part 

^ j^^z^n^y^ ty^^€ft/tw<y6>* 


of the diocese — at Albany, Catskill, Hudson, and Pough- 
keepsie. At the latter place, he preached the consecra- 
tion sermon at Christ Church, the Rev. Mr. Beardsley, rec- 
tor, on Christmas Day, 1774. In the following year, among 
his literary recreations was the translation of favorite hymns 
in Latin, French, German, and Italian ; also the preparation 
of an exhaustive index to the elaborate Historia Plantarum 
of John Baushin, whom he styles the '* prince of botanists" 
on a fly-leaf of the first volume of this work, purchased while 
at Cambridge University in 1766. To the year 1776 also 
belong the passages appended below, which are written on the 
last leaf of a sermon that would seem to have been delivered 
in St. Peter's Church, Albany.* In a hitherto unpublished 

* In times of impending Calamity and distress, when the liberties of America 
are imminently endangered by the secret machinations and open assaults of an 
insidious and vindictive administration, it becomes the indispensable duty of 
these hitherto free and happy Colonies, with true penitence of heart, and the 
most reverent Devotion, publicly to acknowledge the over-ruling providence of 
God; to confess and deplore our offences against him, and to supplicate his inter- 
position for averting the threaten'd danger, and prospering our strenuous efforts 
in the Cause of Freedom, Virtue, and Posterity. 

The Congress, therefore, considering the warlike preparations of the British 
ministry to subvert our invaluable rights and privileges, and to reduce us by fire 
and sword, by the savages of the wilderness, and our own domestics, to the most 
abject and ignominious Bondage : desirous at the same time to have people of 
all ranks and degrees, duly impressed with a Solemn sense of God's superintend- 
ing Providence, and of their duty devoutly to rely, in all their lawful enterprises 
on his aid and direction : Do earnestly recommend, that friday, the seventeenth 
Day of May next, be observed by the said Colonies, as a day of Humiliation, 
Fasting and Prayer; that we may with united hearts confess and bewail, our mani- 
fold sins and Transgressions, and by a Sincere repentance and amendment of 
Life, appease his righteous Displeasure and thro' the merits and mediation of 
Jesus Christ, obtain his pardon & forgiveness. Humbly imploring his assist- 
ance to frustrate the Cruel purposes of our unnatural Enemies; and by inclining 
their hearts to justice and benevolence, prevent the farther effusion of kindred 
blood. But if continuing deaf to the voice of reason and humanity, and inflexibly 
bent on Desolation and war, they constrain us to repel their hostile invasions by 
open resistance, that it may please the Lord of Hosts, the God of Armies, to 
animate our officers and Soldiers with invincible fortitude ; to guard and protect 
them in the day of Battle, and to crown the Continental arms by sea and land 
with victory and Success. Earnestly beseeching him to bless our Civil rulers and 
the representatives of the People, in their Several Assemblies and Conventions; 
to preserve and strengthen their union, to inspire them with an ardent and dis- 


letter, without date, addressed to his brother-in-law, Bous- 
field, tlie patriot preacher wrote one hundred and eleven years 
ago: "I received with pleasure the books you sent me by 
Captain Lawrence. They afford me the most agreeable 
amusement in my Country retirement. Dalrymple has set 
the period he treats of in a clearer light than any person 
before him, and made some most interesting discoveries un- 
known to previous historians. Lord Chesterfield had always 
the character of one of the politest writers and best-bred per- 
sons of the age. His letters show him, at the same time, the 
tenderest of fathers and most amiable of men. 

" I suppose you interest yourself somewhat in the fate of 
this Country, and am therefore sorry that my distance from 
town and the uncertainty of opportunities for Ireland puts it 
out of my power to write anything that you will not be ac- 
quainted with when you receive my letters. The late ini- 
quitous acts of Parliament, and the sanguinary measures 
adopted to enforce them have induced the various Provinces 
to unite firmly for their common defence. Each Province 
has its separate Congress intended to enforce resolves, and 
to be subject to the control of the Grand Continental Con- 
gress, which sits at Philadelphia. An Association has been 

interested love of their Country; to give wisdom and stability to their Councils ; 
and direct them to the most efficacious measures for establishing the rights of 
America, on the most honourable and permanent basis — that he would be gra- 
ciously pleased to bless all the people of these Colonies, with health and plenty, 
and grant that a Spirit of incorruptible patriotism and of pure and undefiled 
religion may universally prevail ; and this Continent be speedily restored to the 
blessing of Peace and Liberty, and enabled to transmit them inviolate to the 
latest posterity. — and it is recommended to Christians of all denominations, to 

assemble for public worship, and abstain from servile labour on the said Day. 

march 16. 1776. 

May that being who is powerful to save, and in whose hands is the fate of 
nations, look down with an eye of tender pity and Compassion upon the whole 
of the united Colonies, — may he continue to smile upon their Councils and 
Arms, and crown them with success, whilst employed in the Cause of Virtue and 
of mankind — may every part of this wide-extended continent, thro' his divine 
favour, be restored to more than their former lustre, and once happy state, and 
have peace, liberty, and safety, secured upon a Solid, permanent and lasting 


formed, and signed by an incredible number of people, to 
support the measures of these various Congresses, never to 
submit to Slavery, but to venture our lives and property in 
defence of our Liberty and Country. Gentlemen of ap- 
proved abilities are appointed to take command of our 
forces. As Colonel Hall has, I think, served in America 
and may be able to give you their characters, I shall mention 
a few of them. Colonel Washington, a Virginia gentleman 
of considerable property and respectability who behaved 
very gallantly in many engagements of the last war, is ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of our army. Colonel Lee has 
given up his half pay and accepted a commission as Major- 
General in the American Service. Horatio Gates, formerly, I 
think, a Major in the English Army, is appointed Adjutant- 
General. Captain Montgomery, an Irishman, brother of the 
Countess of Raneleigh, and our near neighbor in the country, 
is made a Brigadier-General, and Fleming, formerly adjutant 
of the Sixteenth Regiment which was quartered a few years 
ago at Cork, is a Lieutenant-Colonel. The other general 
officers are mostly of the country. 

"There are so many thousands in this wide extended con- 
tinent determined not to survive the loss of their liberties, 
that there is little probability the English will get the better 
in this impolitic contest, the outcome of which, I think they 
have greater reason to fear than the Americans, for our num- 
bers increase so rapidly and our Country supplies us so fast, 
that we must naturally rise superior in the end over any 
present difficulties, whereas if England once sinks, she will 
find it difficult, if not impossible, to emerge again. 

" General Gage has had two engagements with the people 
of New England in which his men were so roughly handled 
that they have thought proper to remain quiet for some 
weeks past. It is reported that there were about a thousand 
officers and soldiers killed in the last engagement, in which 
the loss of the Provincials was inconsiderable." 

Mr. Provoost was proposed as a delegate to the Provincial 
Congress, which he declined, as also an invitation to become 
Chaplain of the Convention which met in 1777, and framed 


the Constitution of the State of New York. About the same 
period he deemed it in no wise derogatory to, or inconsistent 
with, his clerical character to bear arms against the enemies 
of his country. After the British burned Esopus on the 
Hudson, he joined his neighbors, the Livingstons and others, 
in their pursuit. Mr. Provoost was also proffered, in 1777, the 
rectorship of St. Michael's Church, Charleston, S. C, and in 
1782, that of King's Chapel, Boston, where his patriotic prin- 
ciples and practice were strong recommendations, but he de- 
clined both calls, on the ground that he was unwilling to 
avail himself of his politics for acting toward his brethren 
who differed from him, in a manner that might be imputed 
to mercenary views, and an ungenerous desire of rising on 
their ruin. 

In another undated letter, addressed to a friend in New 
York and written about the close of the war, Mr. Provoost 
says, ''As you sometimes amuse yourself with the different 
systems of theologists, I recommend to your perusal Dr. 
Law's Theory of Religion, which contains many judicious ob- 
servations, and is written with a freedom and impartiality 
which I wish was more common than it is among divines of 
all professions. The theory (that we are in a progressive 
state and that we have advanced in religious knowledge in 
proportion to our improvements in the arts and sciences) is 
a very pleasing one, and except a few retrogrations which he 
accounts for ingeniously enough, very well supported. The 
work, I think, merits being more known than it is in our 
American world. But perhaps the very great obligations I 
am under to its author may make me partial in its favor. 

" Colonel Peter Livingston acquaints us that he is to set 
off for town to-morrow. I am going to the Manor to trouble 
him with a few lines to inform you that we have received the 
articles you sent by the Judge's sloop, and to return Basford 
Abbey, for the use of which I am much obliged to your son 
David. You cannot expect much news from our situation. 
I have been prevented from going to Nine Partners by an 
ugly wound my right-hand man. Master Hanlet, gave himself 
in the foot with an axe, as he was cutting wood. The chil- 


dren are all well, but Maria is poorly. If the farm is not yet 
advertised, I really think it would be advisable to mention 
it as for sale, as well as to be let. Mr. Livingston will be 
able, without doubt, to put you in the way of sending up the 
money that you are to receive for me.'* 

After the colonies had gained their independence and New 
York had been evacuated by the British and their Loyalist 
allies, Mr. Provoost was unanimously elected rector of Trinity 
Church, January 13, 1784, and immediately removed with his 
family to the city, and entered upon the duties of his office, 
preaching his first sermon on the Sunday following from the 
text, "Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren 
to dwell together in unity! " It so happens that the joyous 
event was described to the writer in his youth by a venerable 
and ardent patriot who was present, and who said : " It was a 
glorious occasion, and many friends of their Country met that 
day for the first time in years. There were no rascally Tories 
there that morning." The rector of Trinity received many 
other honorable marks of the high esteem in which he was 
then, and always, held by his Whig contemporaries. 

Before the close of the year (1784) Mr. Provoost was made 
a member of the Board of Regents of the University, and 
when the Continental Congress removed from Trenton to 
New York, he w^as, in November, 1785, chosen as their chap- 
lain. In the summer of 1786 he was selected by the Dio- 
cesan Convention, which met at that time, as first Bishop of 
New York. The choice seems to have been made by a sim- 
ple resolution, " Resolved, That the Reverend Mr. Provoost 
be recommended for Episcopal Consecration." There is no 
record of a ballot.'^ Three weeks later he received from the 
University of Pennsylvania the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 
In November of the same year Dr. Provoost proceeded to 
England in company with his friend, Dr. William White. 

* The testimonials of Dr. Provoost, as Bishop-elect of New York ; Dr. Will- 
iam White, as Bishop-elect of Pennsylvania ; and Dr. David Griffith, as Bishop- 
elect of Virginia, were signed by the members of the General Convention held 
at Wilmington, Del, (of which Convention Dr. Provoost was President) on the 
nth of October, 1786. — Berriatt's Sketch of Trinity Church, New York, 1847. 


They arrived in London on Wednesday, the 29th of that 
month, and after various preliminaries had been duly settled, 
including their presentation to the primate by John Adams, 
the American Minister,* they were consecrated in the chapel 
of Lambeth Palace, February 4, 1787, by Dr. John Moore, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. William Markham, Arch- 
bishop of York, Dr. Charles Moss, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
and Dr. John Hinchcliff, Bishop of Peterborough, participat- 
ing in the ceremonial. It has been claimed that, as senior 
presbyter and also senior in years, Provoost was consecrated 
first. While it would be pleasant to assign this honor to 
New York, it would appear that it properly belongs to Penn- 
sylvania, the weight of the evidence being in favor of Dr. 
White's just claim to that distinction.f On the following 
day the bishops left London for Falmouth, which was 
reached in five days. Detained by contrary winds, they at 
length embarked on the i8th, reaching New York on the 
afternoon of Easter Sunday, April 8th, after a long and tem- 
pestuous passage, during which Dr. Provoost was so ill that 
for several days it was supposed he would die. 

* Adams was particularly polite and cordial to the bishops elect, notwithstand- 
ing his being the author of the following lines : " If Parliament could tax us they 
could establish the Church of England with all its creeds, articles, tests, cere- 
monies, and tithes, and prohibit all other churches as conventicles and schism- 
shops." — Works, vol. X., p. 287. 

f Dr. Samuel Seabury, of Connecticut, the first bishop of the American Church, 
meeting with obstacles and objections to his consecration from the English 
bishops, proceeded to Scotland where he was consecrated at St. Andrews by 
three bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church, November 14, 17S4. Chaplain- 
General Gleig, of the British Array, whose father was a Scottish Bishop (1753- 
1839), in a letter to the author of this paper, dated March 10, 1886, says : " I am 
glad to learn that you are engaged in a work which cannot fail to interest very 
many readers both in America and in England. The rise and growth of a Church 
in a nation, or any portion of a nation, which has expanded like the United 
States, is perhaps the most important theme in the history of the nation itself. 
And when I add that my father played a considerable part in getting Bishop Sea- 
bury consecrated when sent out on his great mission, you will see that something 
more than mere love of antiquarian research will carry me through the perusal of 
your promised volume." It may be added that this venerable man and well-known 
writer, before he entered the ministry, fought with Wellington in Spain nearly four- 
score years ago, and was severely wounded in the battle of New Orleans. 



Bishop Provoost immediately resumed his 
duties as rector of Trinity parish, the two posi- 
tions, in those primitive times, being filled by 
the same person. He was one of the Trustees 
of Columbia College, appointed by act of legis- 
lature April 13, 1787, reviving the original char- 
ter of that institution. Two years later, in the 
organization of a new Congress under the pres- 
ent constitution, the bishop was elected Chap- 
lain of the United States Senate. After his 
inauguration as the first President of the 
United States, Washington proceeded with 
the whole assemblage on foot from the spot 
now marked by his statue in Wall Street, to 
St. Paul's Chapel, where, in the presence of 
Vice-President Adams, Chancellor Livingston, 
Secretary Jay, Secretary Knox, Baron Steuben, 
Hamilton, and other distinguished citizens, 
Bishop Provoost read prayers suited to the 
occasion. So closed the inauguration cere- 
monies of General Washington. The first con- 
secration in which Provoost took part was that 
of the Rev. Thomas John Claggett for the 
Church of the Diocese of Maryland, being the 
earliest of that order of the ministry conse- 
crated in the United States. It occurred at 
Trinity Church, September 17, 1792, during a 
session of the General Convention. As the 
presiding bishop Dr. Provoost was the con- 
secrator. Bishops White of Pennsylvania, Sea- 
bury of Connecticut, and Madison of Virginia,* 
joining in the historic ceremony and uniting 
the Succession of the Anglican and Scottish 
episcopate ; his last act in conferring the epis- 

* Dr. James Madison was consecrated Bishop of Virginia 
in the chapel of Lambeth Palace, September 19, 1790. He 
was the third and last bishop of the American Church conse- 
crated by the bishops of the Anglican Church. 


copate was in joining with Bishop White, as consecrator, and 
Bishop Jarvis of Connecticut, in the imposition of hands at 
the consecration of the Rev. John Henry Hobart for the 
Diocese of New York, and the Rev. Alexander Viets Gris- 
wold of the Eastern Diocese, in Trinity Church, May 29, 

Dr. Provoost's first ordination was the admitting, July 
17, 1787, in St. George's Chapel, New York, as deacon, 
Richard Henry Moore ; his last, the admission as priest of 
John Henry Hobart in Trinity Church in April, 1801. The 
first corner-stone laid by the bishop was at the rebuilding of 
Trinity Church, August 21, 1788 ; the last that of the present 
St. Mark's Church in the Bowery, April 25, 1795. These edi- 
fices, when ready for worship, were the first and the last conse- 
crated by him. 

A special meeting of the corporation of Trinity parish was 
held at the house of Bishop Provoost, No. 53 Nassau Street, 
on December 20, 1799, ^^ ^^ occasion when the country was 
plunged in the deepest grief by the news of the death of 
Washington. The vestry were called together to give ex- 
pression to their sorrow. The record on their minutes from 
the pen of the bishop, is beautiful for its simple brevity. 
" Ordered, That in consideration of the death of Lieutenant- 
General George Washington the several churches belonging 
to this corporation be put in mourning." 

Mrs. Provoost died after a long and lingering illness 
August 18, 1799, which, with other domestic bereavements 
and declining health, induced the bishop to resign the rector- 
ship of Trinity Church, September 28th of the following 
year, and his bishopric on September 3, 1801. His resigna- 
tion was not accepted by the House of Bishops, by whom 
consent was, however, given to the consecration of Dr. Ben- 
jamin Moore as an assistant bishop. He was subject to 
apoplectic attacks, and from one of these he died suddenly, 
Wednesday morning, September 6, 181 5, aged seventy-three 
years and six months.* His funeral at Trinity was numer- 

* Died suddenly this morning in the seventy-fourth year of his age, the Right 


ously attended. The sermon was delivered by the Rev. 
William Harris, rector of St. Mark's Church, and the place of 
his interment was the family vault in Trinity churchyard. 

In person Bishop Provoost was above medium height. 
His countenance was round and full and highly intellectual.* 
He was stately, self-possessed, and dignified in manner, pre- 
senting, in the picturesque dress of that day, an imposing 
appearance. He was a fine classical scholar, and thoroughly 
versed in ecclesiastical history and church polity. He was 
learned and benevolent and inflexibly conscientious ; fond of 
society and social life. He was a moderate Churchman. 
Under his administration as rector, for seventeen years, of 
Trinity, the church was rebuilt on the same site, but on a 
much larger and more imposing scale. During his episcopate 
of fourteen years the Church did not advance as rapidly as 
during the same period under some of his successors. It 
must not, however, be forgotten that those were days of 
difficulties and depression in the Church, and that the people 
of Pennsylvania threatened to throw their bishop into the 
Delaware River, when he returned from England in 1787. 
While it cannot be claimed that Provoost is among those 
" upon the adamant of whose fame time beats without in- 
jury," or that he should rank with those eminent founders of 

Rev. Samuel Provoost, D. D., of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the State 
of New York. 

As among such a number of relations and so long a list of friends, it is impos- 
sible to send particular invitations, without some, the' involuntary, omissions, the 
friends and relatives of Mr. Colden, and generally the friends of the Church, are 
hereby invited to attend the funeral of the bishop from his late residence, No. 261 
Greenwich Street, to-morrow afternoon at five o'clock. — Evening Post, Wednes- 
day, September 6, 1815. 

* Among a most interesting group of portraits of rectors of Trinity, including 
the first and the last, in the vestry-room of Trinity Chapel, there are several of 
great artistic excellence and value. There is to be seen a particularly fine picture, 
by Copley, of Dr. John Ogilvie ; another by Inman, of Bishop Moore, and the 
admirable portrait, by Benjamin West, of Bishop Provoost, from which the front- 
tispiece of this volume is engraved. A good copy of the painting is in the 
gallery of the New York Historical Society — the gift of Cadwallader D. Colden, the 
bishop's son-in-law. Another portrait of Provoost is in the possession of the Bishop 
of Western New York. 


the American Church, Seabury and White, or with the epoch- 
makers Hobart and Whittingham, it may with confidence be 
asserted that for elegant scholarship Bishop Provoost had no 
peer among his American contemporaries. To his polished 
discourses he gave the greatest care. They were characterized 
by force and felicity of diction, if not rising to the rank of the 
highest order of pulpit eloquence. So indifferent was he to 
literary distinction that I cannot discover that this faithful 
and diligent student ever printed a single discourse or brochure 
of any description. He translated Tasso's "Jerusalem De- 
livered," for which congenial work he found ample leisure on 
his Dutchess County farm. It was never given to the world, 
nor any of his occasional poems in English. French, and Ger- 
man of which examples are in the writer's possession. He 
conversed freely with Steuben and Lafayette in their own 
languages and had several Italian correspondents. He was 
the trusted friend of Washington, John Adams, Jay, and Ham- 
ilton, one of whose sons was believed to be the last survivor 
of all who enjoyed a personal acquaintance with the bishop 
and had sat at his hospitable board in the Greenwich Street 
residence where he died. There, and in his previous place of resi- 
dence, corner of Nassau and Fair Streets, the bishop gathered 
around him at his weekly dinner-parties most of the prominent 
men of the city, including Dr. J. H. Livingston of the Dutch 
and Dr. John Rodgers* of the Presbyterian Churches. In 

* Though Dr. Provoost had probably little sympathy with the views and feel- 
ings of most other denominations of Christians, his general courtesy was never 
affected by any considerations merely denominational. For instance, he was in very 
agreeable, and I believe intimate, social relations with most of the clergymen of 
the Presbyterian and Reformed Dutch Churches ; and I suspect he rarely made a 
dinner-party but some of them were among his guests. An Episcopal clergyman 
from Ireland had come to this country, and I believe, through the bishop's in- 
fluence, had obtained employment, both as a teacher and as a preacher, in St. 
Anne's Church, Brooklyn. As the bishop was about to ordain one or more 

persons to the ministry, he invited this Mr. W to preach on the occasion. Dr. 

Beach, the bishop's assistant minister, sent invitation to Dr. Livingston, Dr. 
Rodgers, and some other of the ministers of the city, not connected with the Episco- 
pal Church, to be present. The Irish parson took it into his head to magnify 
his office that day to a very bold defence of the Doctrine of Apostolic Succession, 
involving rather a stern rebuke to those whom he regarded as preaching without 

^ 0? THF ^ 


England he had enjoyed the distinction of an acquaintance 
with Dr. Johnson and the celebrated John Wilkes, whose 
grandniece married the bishop's grandson, David Cadwallader 
Golden, and of frequently listening to Lord Chatham and 
other illustrious public men of that period.* 

At the first meeting of the Diocesan Convention held after 
Bishop Provoost's death, his successor. Dr. Moore, having fol- 
lowed him in February, 1816, Dr. Hobart said of our first 
bishop, Integer vitce, salerisque ptiriis—'^ To the benevolence 
and urbanity that marked all his intercourse with the clergy 
and, indeed, every social relation, there is strong and uni- 
versal testimony," and then added the words of Bishop White 
in regard to his official and personal intimacy with the de- 
ceased bishop, calling it a sacred relation " between two per- 

any authority. Though it is not likely that the bishop dissented from his views, 
he felt that it was at least an apparent discourtesy to his friends who were present 
at the service, and he was evidently not a little annoyed by it. Old Dr. Rodgers, in 
speaking of it afterwards, shrewdly remarked, "I wonder from what authority 
the bishop derived his baptism" referring to the fact that he had been baptized 
by Dominie Du Bois in the Dutch Church. — Sprague's Annals of the American 
Pulpit, vol. v., pp. 245, New York, 1855. 

* For much of the material used in this monograph the writer is indebted to a 
venerable friend of his early youth, who was a frequent guest at his father's table. 
From the handsome old man of four score and ten, with his rich stores of 
memory, the writer heard many particulars of Bishop Provoost and his contem- 
poraries. By the bishop he had been presented to Washington, and he was 
present at bis inauguration, the concluding ceremonies of which, as we have seen, 
occurred in St, Paul's Church. Daniel Burhans (1763-1854), the person of whom 

the writer speaks, was the last survivor of those who were ordained by Bishop 
Seabury, and he was well acquainted with almost all the early American bishops, 
including White, Madison, Moore, Bass, Hobart, Claggett, Griswold, and Ravens- 
croft. He was a delegate to several General Conventions, was in the ministry 
over half a century, and preached in St. Paul's Church, Poughkeepsie, where he 
resided for many years, at the age of eighty-nine. Two interesting letters written 
by the Rev, Mr. Burhans (D. D.'s were not so abundant in those days), de- 
scriptive of his friends, Bishops Seabury and Jarvis of Connecticut, may be seen in 
Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit. The writer is also indebted to the 
Rev, S. H. Weston, D.D,, for the perusal of a number of Bishop's Provoost's 
MS. sermons, and to the Rev. Drs. Dix, Eigenbrodt and Seabury for data kindly 


sons, who under the appointment of a Christian Church had 
been successfully engaged together in obtaining for it succes- 
sion to the apostolic office of the episcopacy, who in the 
subsequent exercise of that episcopacy had jointly labored 
in all the ecclesiastical business which has occurred among 
us, and who through the whole of it never knew a word or 
even a sensation, tending to personal dissatisfaction or dis- 

" The character of Bishop Provoost is one which the en- 
lightened Christian will estimate at no ordinary standard. 
The generous sympathies of his nature created in him a cor- 
dial concern in whatever affected the interests of his fellow- 
creatures. Hence his beneficence was called into almost 
daily exercise, and his private charities were often beyond 
what was justified by his actual means. In the relations of 
husband and parent he exhibited all the kindly and endear- 
ing affections which ennoble our species. As a patriot, he 
was exceeded by none. As a scholar, he was deeply versed 
in classical lore, and in the records of Ecclesiastical History 
and Church Polity. To a very accurate knowledge of the 
Hebrew he added a profound acquaintance with the Greek, 
Latin, French, German, Italian, and other languages. He 
made considerable progress also in the natural and physical 
sciences, of which botany was his favorite branch." 




Benjamin Moore was born at Newtown, Long Island, on 
the i6th of October, 1748. This rare historic interest, there- 
fore, belongs to his life, that its childhood and youth were 
spent in our colonial days, while his manhood and age were 
devoted to religious service in our republic. In the critical 
years of transition from the old to the new order, the country 
had no greater need than that of a pure, able, and earnest 
clergy in its metropolitan city. The supply of leaders with 
radical ideas was larger than the nation required. The men 
who were especially wanted were those who had learned from 
the past, and were conservatively busy in the present ; com- 
manding universal respect, and building foundations quietly. 
A man for his time was found when Mr. Moore began his 

ministry in New York, two years before the Declaration of 

His earlier history, therefore, becomes a matter of inter- 
esting inquiry. He had an elder brother, who inherited the 
paternal estate at Newtown, and whose descendants continue 
to live on the property to this day. Another brother, Will- 
iam, studied medicine, and became one of the most eminent 
physicians of New York, in the early part of the century. 

Benjamin was sent to school at New Haven, where he 
had the advantages for instruction that surrounded Yale 
College. But preferring to become a student of King's Col- 
lege (now Columbia), he removed to New York, and was 
fitted for it in a preparatory school. Little thought had he on 
the day when he was admitted as a Freshman, that he should 
become one of the most honored presidents of the institu- 




tion he was entering ; and that his college should then bear 
a new name in a new nation. 

" After his graduation," says Dr. Berrian, " he studied 
theology at Newtown, under the direction of Dr. Samuel 
Auchmuty, rector of Trinity Church; and for several years 
he taught Latin and Greek to the sons of gentlemen in New 
York. He went to England in May, 1774; was ordained 
deacon on Friday, June 24, in the chapel of the Episcopal 
palace at Fulham, by Richard Terrick, Bishop of London ; 
and priest, on Wednesday, June 29, 1774, in the same place 
and by the same bishop. 

" Returning from England, he was appointed, with the 
Rev. John Bowden (afterward Dr. Bowden of Columbia 
College), an assistant minister of Trinity Church, Dr. Auch- 
muty being rector and afterward Dr. Inglis, since Bishop of 
Nova Scotia." * 

At the beginning of Mr. Moore's ministry, the first Trinity 
Church (much larger and more imposing than the second), 
was still standing, and so remained until it was swept away 
in the conflagration which destroyed that part of the city in 
September, 1776. Built in 1696, and twice enlarged, its di- 
mensions were now one hundred and forty-six feet in length, 
by seventy-two in width, and its spire was one hundred and 
eighty feet high. Two chapels belonged to the parish— ^St. 
George's, built in 1752, and St. Paul's, in 1766. As yet, 
there was no St. John's chapel. That was erected in 1807. 

Through all those trying years, when the enemies of the 
Church were many, and the site of its chief sanctuary was 
marked by a blackened ruin, the young assistant persevered 
in his work, until, twelve years later, in 1788, he saw a new 
Trinity Church completed, though smaller than the old 
edifice. Dr. Berrian says of his entire ministry in the 
parish : " His popularity was unbounded, and his labors 
most extensive ; so that in the period of thirty-five years, 
he celebrated 3,578 marriages, and baptized 3,064 children 
and adults." 

* Historical Sketch of Trinity Church, New York, by the Rev. William Ber- 
rian, D.D. 8vo. 1847. 


Not only was he considered a man of learning, but of 
much power as a preacher. " His voice, though not strong, 
was so clear and musical that every syllable could be heard 
in the most remote part of the church." His words were re- 
inforced by the life which the people knew so well, and so 
thoroughly revered. Gentleness, kindness, simplicity, and a 
personal interest in his parishioners, together with great con- 
sistency, were his characteristics. Even in middle life there 
was something venerable in his appearance ; and very famil- 
iar to New Yorkers were his intellectual head ; plain-parted 
hair; tall, thin, and slightly bending figure; and the blend- 
ing in his manner of gentleness and courtesy. He was called 
apostolic. Theologically, he was a high-Churchman for his 

He married, in 1778, Miss Charity Clarke, who inherited 
an estate on the banks of the Hudson, extending from West 
Nineteenth to West Twenty-fourth Street, and from the 
Eighth Avenue to the river ; a portion of which land, by the 
generosity of her son. Professor Moore, became the site and 
property of the General Theological Seminary. Bishop 
Moore's only child, Clement Clarke Moore, was highly edu- 
cated for the ministry, but he never entered it. He compiled 
a Hebrew Lexicon for students, also other literary works and 
a volume of poems, by one of which, " The Night before 
Christmas," he made all children his debtors.* 

Bishop Provoost resigned the rectorship of Trinity 
Church in 1800, and Dr. Moore at once succeeded him in the 
parish, and afterwards in the diocese. On the 5th of Sep- 

* Dr. Moore, who served the Theological Seminary with singular and saintly 
fidelity for twenty-nine years (1821-1850), first as Professor of Biblical Learning, 
then as Professor of Greek and Hebrew Literature, afterwards changed to Orien- 
tal and Greek literature, was the author of a Hebrew and Greek Lexicon, 2 vols., 
8vo, New York, 1809 ; Poems, i2mo, 1844 ; George Castriot, surnamed Scander- 
beg. King of Albania, i2mo, 1852 ; and he edited and issued, in 1824, in two 
octavo volumes, a collection of his father's sermons, including several occasional 
discourses which had been published by the bishop. Among these are two 
printed by HughGainein Hanover Square, in 1792 and 1793, and bound together, 
which belonged to Bishop Provoost, and are now in the possession of the writer, 
— Editor. 


tember, 1801, he was unanimously elected Bishop of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, in the State of New York. He 
was so manifestly the man for the place that his election 
seemed to be spontaneous. A few days afterward, Septem- 
ber II, 1801, he was consecrated in St. Michael's Church, 
Trenton, New Jersey, by Bishop White, of Pennsylvania, 
Bishop Claggett, of Maryland, and Bishop Jarvis, of Connect- 

During his episcopate Bishop Moore remained rector of 
Trinity Church, the two positions in those days being ordi- 
narily held by the same person. Such an arrangement was 
the more practicable, because the confirmation visitations were 
so much fewer then than now. The list of parishes in the 
entire State of New York entitled to representation in the 
Convention of 1804, is as follows : in New York City, Trinity 
Church and its three chapels ; Church du St. Esprit, St. 
Mark's, in the Bowery, and Christ Church ; and beyond New 
York city single parishes in the following places : New 
Rochelle, Catskill, Newtown and Flushing, Yonkers, Brook- 
lyn (St. Ann's), Hudson, Staten Island, Rye, Bedford, Al- 
bany, Poughkeepsie (Rev. Philander Chase, rector), Fishkill, 
Hempstead, New Stamford, East Chester, West Chester, 
beside stations in Orange and Otsego Counties. These par- 
ishes were served by 28 clergy. 

The extent of the annual visitations is given by Bishop 
Moore himself. At the Diocesan Convention of 1808 he 
makes the following report : " Since the last meeting of the 
convention (exclusive of the four congregations which are 
more immediately committed to my pastoral care as rector 
of Trinity Church) I have visited the following churches for 
the purpose of administering the holy rite of confirmation: 
Christ Church, New York; St. Ann's, Brooklyn; St. An- 
drew's, Staten Island ; Trinity Church, New Rochelle ; St. 
Peter's, West Chester ; St. Paul's, East Chester ; St. Mark's, 
Bowery; St. John's, Yonkers. In the before-mentioned period 
of time, six hundred and ninety-two persons have been con- 
firmed. We have ten young gentlemen who have signified 
their intention of applying for admission into Holy Orders." 


In 1809, th^ bishop reports: " During the last year I have 
administered the holy rite of confirmation in the following 
churches : Grace Church, Jamaica ; St. James', Newtown ; 
St. George's, Flushing : St. Michael's, Bloomingdale ; Trinity 
Church, New York ; Christ Church, Hudson ; St. Peter's, Al- 
bany ; St. Paul's, Troy ; Trinity Church, Lansingburgh ; St. 
George's, Schenectady ; Episcopal congregation in the Lu- 
theran Church, Athens ; St. Luke's, Catskill. In the course 
of these visitations I have confirmed three hundred and four 

It will be observed that though these confirmations were 
occasional, the classes were large. The extent of the bishop's 
duties as rector may be inferred from the fact that in 1804 
there were in Trinity parish 1,000 communicants, 115 mar- 
riages, 378 baptisms, and 400 funerals. 

Bishop Moore's episcopate was marked by the steady 
growth of the diocese. Christ Church, New York city, was 
received into union with the convention in 1802, St. James', 
Goshen, in 1803, and the Church du St. Esprit was consecrated ; 
St. Paul's, Claverack and Warwick, was received in 1804, St. 
Stephens, New York City, and the Church at Athens, and 
Coxsackie in 1806, and St. Michael's, Bloomingdale, in 1807. 
The year 18 10 was very fruitful. On the i8th of March a 
young man of excellent promise was ordained deacon in St. 
John's Chapel. His name was William Berrian. Who could 
say that he would not some day become rector of Trinity 
parish itself. On the 22d of March, Zion Lutheran Church, 
in Mott Street, conformed to our communion, and its pastor, 
Ralph Williston, was ordained on the following day. On the 
17th of May the new St. James' Church, Hamilton Square, 
five miles distant from the city, among the country seats of 
prominent churchmen, was consecrated ; also on the 9th of 
June, Trinity Church, Geneva ; July 8th, Christ Church, 
Cooperstown ; and October 17, St. Matthew's, Bedford. 

During all these years of diocesan work the Rev. Mr. 
Hobart, of Trinity Church, afterward Bishop Hobart, was 
the active and most efficient helper of Bishop Moore ; and by 
his co-operation the Protestant Episcopal Theological So- 


ciety was established in 1806, and became the germ of the 
General Theological Seminary. The Bible and Common 
Prayer Book Society was also established in 1809. 

In February, 181 1, the bishop was attacked by paralysis, 
and called a special convention in May, for the purpose of 
electing an assistant bishop. Dr. Hobart was chosen, and 
after his consecration performed all the duties of the "diocese. 
Bishop Moore withdrew into the sacred retirement of an in- 
valid, where his bearing is said to have been saintly ; and he 
fell asleep on the 27th of February, 18 16, in the sixty-sixth 
year of his age. 

During his episcopate a question arose with regard to his 
jurisdiction, but it was one into which he did not enter, and 
it does not form a part of his history. 

Bishop Hobart preached his funeral sermon, in which he 
said : " He lives in the memory of his virtues. He was un- 
affected in his temper, in his actions, in his every look and 
gesture. Simplicity, which throws such a charm over talents, 
such a lustre over station, and even a celestial loveliness over 
piety itself, gave its coloring to the talents, the station, and 
the piety of our venerable father. 

" People of the congregation I * * * you have not for- 
gotten that voice of sweetness and melody, yet of gravity 
and solemnity with which he excited while he chastened 
your devotion ; nor that evangelical eloquence, gentle as the 
dew of Hermon." 




John Henry Hobart, who became the third bishop of 
New York, was born in Philadelphia, September 14, 1775. 
He was thus, at his birth, a subject of the British Crown. 
His father's family was a highly respectable one in our colo- 
nial history, having been established in America since 1635. 
He was blest with a Christian parentage, and, as has often 
been the case with the brightest ornaments of the Church, 
he owed much to the piety and tenderness of a mother, 
upon whom, as a widow, was thrown the chief care and 
nurture of his boyhood. She was able to afford him a lib- 
eral education, and he was graduated B.A. at Princeton, 
in 1793. On the 3d of June, 1798, in his twenty-third year, 
he was admitted to the diaconate, by Bishop White. Af- 
ter brief engagements near Philadelphia, and afterwards 
at Hempstead, Long Island, he became an assistant minis- 
ter of Trinity Church, in New York, in September, 1800, 
while yet in deacon's orders ; and he was ordained to the 
presbyterate, in that church, by Bishop Provoost, in April, 
1801. The precise date of this ordination is not recorded. 

It may surprise us to find that be- 
fore this event he was Secretary to 
the House of Bishops, his election 
to that honorable duty taking place on the anniversary of his 
admission to Holy Orders. In 1801 he was made Secretary 
of the Diocesan Convention of New York; and, also, a 
deputy to the General Convention, which met in Trenton 
that year. He was also a deputy to the Convention of 1804, 
which met in New York, and was made Secretary of the 
House of Deputies. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Union College, in 1806. On the 29th of May, 1811, he was 
consecrated bishop-coadjutor to Bishop Moore, in Trinity 
Church, New York; and on the 27th of February, 1816, he 
succeeded to the jurisdiction, on the decease of his predeces- 



<^®ilIKr ISI11H1E.T 2)oJ®c 

o^*^- ^^^^^c^'g^- 


sor. He was also elected rector of Trinity Church, to suc- 
ceed Bishop Moore. His episcopal cure was extended to 
New Jersey, till it received a bishop, in 181 5, and from 18 16 
to 1819 he had provisional charge of the Diocese of Connec- 
ticut. On the lOth of September, 1830, he closed a laborious 
life and a career of distinguished usefulness, while visiting the 
Western district of his diocese. He fell asleep at Auburn, in 
the rectory of St. Peter's Church, and was buried in the chan- 
cel of Trinity Church, New York, on the i6th of September, 
Dr. Onderdonk officiating and preaching the funeral sermon. 

Such is the outline of a life which has left a deep impres- 
sion on the Catholic Church of America. The details of his 
biography are profusely recorded in historical and popular 
works, and need not be repeated here. The space accorded 
to his memoir in these pages may better be devoted to a 
brief review of his character and his work. 

The epoch-making bishops of our brief history are, of 
course, few. Nobody doubts, however, that of these Hobart 
was one. Circumstances to which I will direct attention, by 
and by, have led to a temporary neglect of his name and in- 
fluence, and thousands who have entered the Church from 
other communions are so uninstructed in her antecedents, 
and undisciplined by her historical traditions, that his mem- 
ory, like that of Seabury and Ravenscroft, is preserved in 
books almost exclusively, and lives not as it should in the 
hearts of men. It is a momentary evil, however, for he was 
one of those elect spirits whose labors are imperishable in 
their effects, and must revive, from time to time, asserting 
their full value in living issues, and so recalling his influence, 
and elevating it into authority. 

Look, then, at the epoch which Hobart created. He res- 
cued the Church from a fossilized position in this country ; 
brought in into contact with the actual life and thought of 
his day, and lifted it into the sphere of commanding dignity, 
where, under his moulding and directing hand, it became a 
power in the nation. Few seem to have given due attention 
to these facts ; let me briefly illustrate them. 

Not till I had lived to see the hundredth anniversary of 


American Independence did it occur to me how nearly my 
own life and recollections had touched upon the period and 
the men of the Revolution. Not to speak of the venerable 
worthies to whose conversations I listened, as a child, when 
they related their own share in its political or military affairs,* 
I now feel as I did not previously, how really the Church, as 
I first knew it in New York, was yet the " Church of Eng- 
land," the name by which it was frequently spoken of in pop- 
ular usage. It was not till a.d. 1817, that Bishop Hobart 
buried Dr. Bowden, the last of those clergy who had belonged 
to the colonial days, and were ordained in England. Bishop 
Provoost himself had died only two years before, and Bishop 
White, outliving Bishop Hobart himself, survived till 1833, 
the grand patriarchal figure in whom the colonial period pro- 
tracted its influence, and was kept before men's minds to a 
date comparatively recent. 

In New York, more than elsewhere, however, the Church 
retained the traditions of its history, so long as Bishop Ho- 
bart lived. Trinity Church itself was a " royal foundation," 
and the other churches in the city (and, to a large extent, in 
the country) were but branches of that banyan-like old trunk. 
During the war the royal troops generally held the city, and 
it was considered a strong-hold of Tories. I can recollect the 
old-fashioned men and dames whose costume was in some par- 
ticulars that of Washington's " court." Powdered hair and 
the queue had not entirely disappeared from men ; and short 
clothes with shoe buckles were by no means uncommon. 
Bishop Moore, of Virginia, and also Bishop Griswold retained 
this grave and dignified attire to the last. The old traditional 
Church families of New York were the leaders of society, and 
in many ways they reflected the colonial manners and modes 
of thought. I recollect one modest and unassuming, but 
truly grand old dame, who lived till past A.D, 1840, and who 
never ceased to celebrate "the old King's birth-day" by a 
family feast. She was not untrue to the National Republic, 

* e. g. I remember a conversation of Governor Morgan Lewis with my 
father, in which he referred to the inauguration of Washington as first President 
and mentioned his command of the soldiery on that occasion. 


but she kept up, with tender fidelity to parental training, the 
feelings of her childhood and the traditions of her family. 
Now, the Church usages and traditions of the past lived on 
in Trinity parish in the same way, so long as these represen- 
tatives of the Province survived.* 

At the time of Hobart's consecration the Church was at a 
low ebb of vitality, though perhaps not at the lowest. The 
old clergy were dying out ; few had come forward to take their 
places ; in the country at large the Church was little known, 
and generally looked upon as antiquated, effete, and ready to 
perish. In Virginia Chief Justice Marshall was astonished, 
in A.D., 181 1, to hear of a young man who proposed to enter 
its ministry ; he had supposed it dead and buried. The con- 
fiscation of the glebe lands had indeed been an apparent 
death-blow to the church in the Old Dominion. Everywhere 
" her enemies were chief" The colleges, the press, the pre- 
dominating influence among the people, were in the posses- 
sion of the Presbyterians and Independents. So low was the 
populsir presitge of the Church, even in the city of New York, 
that Dr. Mason had been able to grasp the presidency of 
Columbia College, and not only so, for he dictated his own 
terms, entered upon his task as a reformer, and humbled the 
Church so low as to force upon the trustees of the college an 
evasion of their own laws. As he could not legally be made 
" president," he was invested with the same office, under the 
fiction of " Provostship." Let us not marvel that Bishop 
Provoost's conviction was understood to be that the Church 
was incapable of flourishing under the new conditions, and 
that it was destined to dwindle away, and hardly to survive the 
hereditary instincts of another generation in the old colonial 
families. In 18 13, when, for the first time, Bishop Hobart, 
though still a coadjutor-bishop, found himself invested with 
the entire responsibilities and Episcopal power of the diocese, 
he acknowledged himself cheered by the extraordinary fact 
that three young men of promise and high social position 

* The solemnity with which they observed Good Friday is well portrayed 
(strange to say) by Mrs. Stowe, describing the manner of old church-folk in Mas- 
sachusetts. See Oldtown Folk. 


had offered themselves as candidates for Holy Orders. In 
1818 he exulted in an increase of candidates very large for 
those days ; and from that year must be dated, as the late 
Bishop Burgess has shown, the upgrowth of the American 
Church. All that we see of progress is, in fact, the develop- 
ment of less than three-score-years-and-ten. If we accept 
the date of Hobart's death, A.D. 1830, as the starting point of 
our whole visible and acknowledged gain upon the thought 
and progressive conformity of our countrj'-men, we shall be 
just to historic facts. Bishop Hobart himself never saw the 
full success, even in promise, of those elements of organic in- 
crease, of which it was his life-work to be, in large measure, 
the creator. 

The press, as I have said, was in the hands of the popular 
denominations. Of our standard authors nothing could be 
had save by the expensive and tardy process of importation. 
But as early as 1803 Hobart began to move the Church and 
to awaken the attention of those without, by his didactic 
treatises. From his twenty-eighth year to his thirty-second 
his pen was constantly at work. He produced in quick suc- 
cession his essay on The Nature and Constitution of the 
Christian Church, his Companion for the Altar, the Com- 
paniofi for the Festivals and Fasts, The Church Catechism, 
prepared for Sunday School Instruction, and The Companion 
for the Book of Common Prayer. The Clergyman s Com- 
panion, a most useful hand-book of pastoral theology, belongs 
also to this catalogue, the very titles of which sufficiently in- 
dicate the bent of his mind and the school of his divinity. 

While these publications provided the clergy with valu- 
able aids, and attracted the attention of sectarians, who were 
surprised to find the press actively worked for such ends, 
their blessed fruits were more happily realized in the new 
and zealous spirit they began to impart to the laity. Dr. 
McVickar argued, very clearly, that one of the earliest and 
noblest fruits of Dr. Hobart's ministry was this regeneration 
of the lay element in the Church, Under the old establish- 
mentarian ideas many had too contentedly been " hangers-on " 
of her ordinances, who now became her sons and devoted ser- 


vants, in the love of Christ and " the brethren." From that 
day forth, like the house of Rechab, the Church has not 
wanted sons to stand before the Lord and before the world, 
like the faithful Laity of Carthage in the days of Cyprian. 

In his pastoral labors he was a devoted Catechist, and 
with a due sense of the importance of training the future 
clergy and people of the Church in the knowledge and love of 
her ordinances, he thus laid broad and deep the foundations 
of a lasting prosperity. As a preacher he was earnest and 
impressive, and was regarded as eloquent, but Dr. McVickar 
is candid in his criticisms, and acknowledges that his thorough 
devotion to his task of explaining and enforcing truth ren- 
dered him too little careful in the cultivation of style. What 
surprised the congregation of those days, he preached habit- 
ually without manuscript, and some hardly knew what to 
make of one who sometimes preached " like a Methodist," 
while yet he insisted on the authority and claims of the 
Church, with an emphasis unexampled previously. The writer 
of this memoir remembers his extemporary lectures on week 
days in St. John's Chapel, but never saw him in the pulpit 
without a manuscript. He was all fervor and action. Of 
course, my recollections are those of a child, but I recall my 
frequent remark, that I lost some of his words, owing to his 
rapidity of speech, and his occasional chewing of a syllable in 
utterance. But his biographer's remarks were probably not 
wholly applicable to his pulpit work after he became a bishop, 
the period when I fir>t saw and heard him. The tributes to 
his power and unction as a preacher which have been pre- 
served, however, are of no ordinary character, and coming 
from men of great eminence in different positions, as clergy 
or laymen, they make it indisputable that his eloquence was 
that of genuine earnestness and persuasiveness, negligent, 
indeed, of artificial forms and adornments, but penetrating to 
the consciences and the hearts of the hearers, and directing 
their souls to the Saviour of sinners as their only refuge. 

From his thirtieth to his thirty-fifth year Dr. Hobart sus- 
tained, with an unwilling, but not the less intrepid champion- 
ship, the part of a controvertist. Some of his publications 


were attacked with great bitterness by the sectarian press, 
and he was forced to stand upon the defensive. He became 
engaged in a memorable discussion with that Goliath of Cal- 
vinism, the learned and vigorous Dr. Mason, against whom he 
seemed matched like the youthful David in his contest with 
the towering Philistine, most unequally, like a mere boy with 
a man of war from his youth. The gifts and powerful intel- 
lectual endowments of Dr. Mason were, indeed, remarka- 
ble, and the bitter sarcasms with which he met his some- 
what diminutive antagonist justify the impression that he 
expected an easy victory, and disdained the youth whose te- 
merity he supposed must ensure defeat. But widely different 
was the result. The controversy awakened attention through- 
out the whole country. A storm of indignation was indeed 
awakened against the young divine who had ventured to pro- 
claim, in republican America, such doctrines as might plaus- 
ibly be represented as worthy only of the days of the Tudors 
and the Stuarts ; and, what was worse, the timid and the 
prudent, as well as the politic, in his own communion, were 
not prepared to approve of his course or to acknowledge his 
positions to be those of the Church herself. But he stood 
upon the ground of Scripture, and claimed it in support of 
his chosen position — " Evangelical truth with Apostolical 
Order." Enough, that the results justified his courageous 
and faithful soldiership. From that day to this, the principles 
for which he contended have never been suffered to escape 
from the attention of American Christians; they have been 
thoroughly examined and discussed, with the inevitable con- 
sequence — the vast increase of the Church's numbers, and 
the yet greater and wider diffusion of her influence among 
intelligent and earnest Christians. And well may the clergy 
of this day rejoice that what had to be done at first in the 
distasteful form of controversy was done once for all, and 
well done, so that we may "let it alone forever." Since then 
there have been discussions, indeed, but it has not been 
necessary to maintain an acrimonious conflict, because the 
Church's position and principles are known and identified, and 
can never again be treated as if they were but offensive and 


arrogant ideas of an individual. They may be resisted, but 
they are treated with respect. If the memorable debates of 
Dr. Barnes with Bishop Onderdonk, and those of Dr. Potts 
with Dr. Wainwright (subsequently Provisional Bishop of 
New York) were characterized by mutual courtesies and re- 
spectful concessions of just regard for the claims of an oppo- 
nent, we owe this improved state of things, in large measure, 
to what Dr. Hobart was forced to do and to endure, in the 
days of Dr. Mason, whose tactics were so largely those of an 
overbearing antagonist, determined to assert a victory from 
the start by the display of gigantic powers and a faculty of 
scorn that will hardly condescend to reason. In spite of 
admirable qualities and a commanding eloquence, such I sup- 
pose to have bee^n the defects of Dr. Mason in dealing with 
those who were bold enough to reject his dogmatic supremacy. 
But it was not only in the field of religious discussion that 
the youthful Hobart was obliged to meet this man of war. 
The humiliating condition to which Columbia College was 
reduced at this time, and the preponderating power of Dr. 
Mason, in the corporation, have been alluded to. No need to 
revive the painful history; but, great is the debt which that 
noble foundation will ever owe to the mastery with which Dr. 
Hobart asserted the claims of the Church to manage the en- 
dowments she had created. At this crisis one is reminded of 
the lines of Sir Walter Scott, in thinking of Dr. Mason : 

" While less expert, though stronger far, 
The Gael maintained unequal war." 

Judge Livingston, though by his religious alliances more 
naturally leaning to the great Presbyterian divine, said of his 
young opponent : " Mr. Hobart, if not now, will soon (believe 
me) be more than a match for Dr. Mason. He has all the 
talents of a leader ; he is the most parliamentary speaker I 
ever met with ; he is equally prompt, logical, and practical. I 
never yet saw that man thrown off his centre." Growing 
more emphatic, he replied to a rejoinder thus: "Sir, you 
underrate that young man's talents; nature has fitted him for 
a leader.* Had he studied law he would have been upon the 

*Dr. McVickar's comments upon this anecdote are very admirable. Would all 


bench; in the army, a major-general at the least, and in the 
State nothing under prime-minister T 

The Church's first need, at this time, was adequate pro- 
vision for a learned clergy. Going to the English univer- 
sities was no longer to be thought of. The theological semi- 
naries of the country were all creations of the divers popular 
forms of sectarianism. The patient and successful efforts 
of Hobart to establish the General Seminary form a chapter 
in our history of the greatest interest, and constitute one 
of his strongest claims on our lasting gratitude. In like 
manner, we owe to him the " Bible and Common Prayer 
Book Society," established in 1809, preceding the "Ameri- 
can Bible Society " by seven years. In defence of this 
cherished institution, to which the Church is indebted for 
her first lessons in one great department of missionary work, 
Dr. Hobart was subsequently forced to appear, once more, 
as a champion. Again, we are indebted to him for found- 
ing and sustaining the Churchman s Magazine, perhaps the 
most important of our early efforts to maintain a periodi- 
cal of this class, devoted to church matters. In 18 10, at 
the consecration of Trinity Church, Newark, his sermon on 
"The Excellence of the Church " contained an assertion of 
the most evangelical principles, but such a repudiation of the 
prevailing Calvinistic ideas then generally associated with 
" the doctrines of grace," has aroused no small opposition. 
In Dr. Mason's organ, the Christian Magazine, it was bitterly 
attacked. But hardly excepting what is said of the Liturgy, 
the same sermon, in our days, would hardly stimulate oppo- 
sition if preached from a Presbyterian pulpit. So great has 
been the change with respect to the tenets of Calvin, and so 
general the acquiescence of learned Presbyterian divines, in 
the truths of which the impact upon inveterate prejudice 
now began to be felt. 

The resignation of Bishop Provoost and the declining 
health of Bishop Moore created another critical state of 

our young clergy might read them. He notes as the four elements of greatness 
(i) sagacity in foresight, (2) rapidity of movement, (3) concentration of effort, and 
(i^ perseverance in purpose. — Prof. Years, p. 124. 


things in the feeble estate of Church life in New York. Dr. 
Hobart became coadjutor-bishop ; but the painful difficulties 
which arose out of all the circumstances are a chapter full of 
instructive warnings, as to various perils which may beset 
the Church, through human infirmity. Let us not revive the 
memory of those events, save to state the facts that the trials 
of the young bishop, at the outset of his career, were need- 
lessly multiplied, bravely encountered, and manfully over, 
come. In four years after his consecration, the number of 
his clergy had been doubled ; the missionary clergy had 
increased fourfold. Wholly devoted to his work, he went 
forth himself a missionary to the waste places of his diocese. 
In the cause of education, Bishop Hobart was again a 
pioneer. Apart from what he did for the already endowed 
college in New York, to which I have only made a passing 
reference, he was the founder of the college at Geneva, of 
which I shall speak more particularly by-and-by. He was 
also, in fact, the real founder of the seminary in New York. 
In the General Convention of 1813 he opposed a premature 
effort to establish something of the kind by that body ; but 
it was simply because he considered it premature, and be- 
cause he felt the vast importance of New York, and 
that its influence should be predominant in the founding 
of the school. From New York he was sure the funds 
must be largely derived, and he was unwilling to forfeit 
a corresponding control. This principle he had contended 
for, in behalf of the Church and her interests in Columbia Col- 
lege ; and, as to the proposed seminary, he foresaw that the 
General Convention would be unable to direct its affairs with 
adequate care and oversight. In New York, only, the Church 
was strong enough to give it, from the start, a proper charac- 
ter and dignity ; and there almost exclusively was it possessed 
of a traditional order and conformity in its usages with those 
of the Mother Church, which could be trusted to educate the 
future clergy by mere contact and habituation into the princi- 
ples and the tone of Hooker and Taylor and Hammond. It 
was not for any personal ends that he maintained this idea. 
He felt that a seminary placed anywhere else, at that crisis, 


would render only a feeble and equivocal service to the com- 
mon good. In a few years this was recognized by the whole 
Church, and the munificence of the worthy son of the late 
Bishop Moore* enabled it to begin its career with an effi- 
ciency which soon began to be felt in every part of the land. 
The bishop himself accepted its chair of pastoral theology, 
and gave his personal labor gratuitously to its earliest a hnn fit. 
With what inspiration he moved them to every high resolve 
and fired them with his own holy enthusiasm, I have heard 
eloquently described by the greatest of his pupils, the apos- 
tolic Whittingham. " For few of God's many blessings," he 
once said to me, " have I so much reason to be supremely 
grateful as for the day that brought me to sit at the feet of 
Hobart." Truly, the great man "lived in his issue," for like 
Clement after Pantaenus at Alexandria, Whittingham suc- 
ceeded to a similar power and influence in the seminary, and 
many of our living clergy express themselves in the same 
manner when in turn they speak of him. 

The college which now bears his name, at Geneva, grew out 
of the bishop's interest in the great missionary region of his 
diocese. In the days when railways were unknown and the 
Grand Canal itself was a mere projected scheme of improve- 
ment, the need of a local school for the rearing of the 
Church's children in the vast region of Western New York was 
more forcibly obvious than it could be considered now. He 
gave it existence, and had he lived longer, it cannot be 
doubted that a more vigorous life would have characterized 
its early history. It is worthy of remark that the Bishop's 
delight in natural scenery influenced his resolve that Geneva 
should be the site of the Western College. " And here it 
shall stand," he said, striking his staff into the turf, as he 
paused to survey the charming view of the lake which the 
college commands.f He chose the very spot where it is now 
situated and where it is cherished as a monument of his life 
and name. 

* My honored friend, Clement C. Moore, LL.D. 

t The late T. C. Burwell, of Geneva, a man of venerable and marked character, 
gave me this incident from his personal recollection. 


The missionary enterprise of the Church received its earliest 
impulses from the example, as well as from the burning words, 
of Hobart. In Western New York the remnants of the 
Oneidas were yet comparatively vigorous in their decay, and 
the missions of the Church of England had brought a consid- 
erable portion of them into the communion of the Church. 
In 1815, the bishop provided them with a missionary, and 
the correspondence which passed between these people and 
their apostle in 1818, is one of the most touching and primi- 
tive records of such events in modern times. Soon after he 
made them a personal visit and confirmed eighty-nine souls, 
who had been well prepared for the solemnity by their cate- 
chist, whom he afterwards admitted to holy orders, and who 
was believed to be himself of Indian extraction.* When, in 
1865, I visited this people, I found some still surviving on 
whom Hobart had laid hands. The eloquent chief spoke to 
his people in my behalf, welcoming a visit from a bishop who 
would be their friend; for, said he, "this Church has never 
deceived us, never injured us: she has been our helper for 
many moons, many years, and she will befriend us while grass 
grows and water runs." I was profoundly impressed by the 
surviving influence of the bishop's labors, and by the tender- 
ness with which they recalled his name. The mission at 
Green Bay, in the " far West," was soon after established, 
and the missionary was transferred, with many of his 
people, to what is now Wisconsin. To that distant field 
Bishop Hobart made an effort to follow them, by a per- 
sonal visitation, nor can it be doubted that he would have 
carried his purpose into effect had his life been spared. As 
it was, the " Green Bay Mission " was at that early day a 
Christian outpost which awakened the Church to the need of 
missionary efforts in the West, and kindled that interest in 
" Indian Missions " which has been made an honorable dis- 
tinction of the Church in America. I believe the Western- 
most limit of Bishop Hobart's apostolic journeyings was 

* The Rev. Eleazar Williams, who was afterwards supposed to be the lost 
Dauphin of France, Louis XVII. This idea is said to have been accepted by 
Dr. Hawks. 


Detroit, in the wilderness of Michigan, where he laid the 
corner-stone of a church in 1817. The time for "Foreign 
Missions " was hardly yet reached in the work of a Church 
which was little more than a mission itself; and this convic- 
tion of the bishop led those who were hostile to his spirit to 
accuse him of a lack of interest in evangelizing the world. It 
need not be argued how unjustly this was said ; but, it may 
be urged with great force, that from his diocese went forth 
the foremost of our missionaries in the person of one of his 
own sons in the ministry, who lived to do that great work for 
the restoration of Greece to the purity of the Gospel, which is 
everywhere acknowledged to be one of the most useful and 
successful missionary operations of this century. 

As a doctor and theologian it is the opinion of those who 
knew him best, that his influence was yet only begun when 
he was removed from the militant Church. Incessantly en- 
gaged in the practical duties of his apostolic office as well as 
in those which were parochial, one can only wonder how he 
found time for study, or for taking his natural rest. The lat- 
ter he often sacrificed to his self-imposed tasks. From his 
venerable relict I have heard the most tender expressions of 
regret that the bishop never thought of rest when anything 
was to be done. Said Mrs. Hobart: "The last words he 
said to me " (as he started on the visitation from which he 
was returned in the coffin) " were in reply to my remark — 
' you are undertaking too much.' ' How can I do too much 
for Him who has done everything for me ' — was his answer, as 
he turned away and left us to come back no more." To illus- 
trate the just remonstrance of Mrs. Hobart, he often rose long 
before day and lighted his own fire, to begin his day's work. 
It was by these exertions while others were sleeping, that the 
Church was indebted for the publication of an edition of 
UOyly and Mant's Family Bible. It was the earliest vent- 
ure of the press in this country to bring out a costly work, 
which could expect no support from any others than Church- 
men. It was undertaken at the instance of the bishop him- 
self who enriched it with original and selected annotations, 
and who gave it his personal attention and labor gratuitously, 


as an encouragement to the publishers in their bold venture 
on the Church's ability and good-will to sustain such an under- 

This was a defensive measure, however, as well as a labor 
to indoctrinate. The American Press already teemed with 
Calvinistic expositions and with books for family reading 
based on the Genevan theology. The publication of Scott's 
Family Bible, in a handsome form, found great popular favor, 
and as its author was a clergyman of the Church of England, 
great efforts were made to circulate it, on that ground, among 
professed Churchmen. But, it was saturated with Calvinistic 
ideas, modified indeed by the Church ; and in England, in- 
fluenced, and rendered comparatively harmless, by the pre- 
dominance of the Church. Here, however, it was fuel to fire; 
it helped on the prevalent sectarianism of the land and tended 
to dilute the principles of our own people. This was what 
Hobart could not behold with indifference. Who but he 
would have applied a remedy so costly to himself and from 
which nothing could accrue to his own credit as a divine? 
Even the Church has forgotten that such exertions were ever 
made in her behalf; but they left a deep mark on her grow- 
ing character and thus began the great enterprise of enlist- 
ing the capital of publishers in her work. 

In the enjoyment of a great privilege to which he was ad- 
mitted after the bishop's death, the writer has often observed 
the nature of his studies and the habits of his mind, in turn- 
ing over the well-used volumes of his private library. The 
marginalia abound with frequent evidences of his interest, 
approval, or disapprobation. Frequent marks of his emphatic 
" N. B."show the discrimination with which he judged favor- 
ably of expressions or statements which none other than well- 
learned men would have noted at all. He was undoubtedly 
well versed in the teachings of Bull and Waterland, and 
through them was imbued with the spirit of the Fathers, 
many of whose writings were doubtless his familiar study. 
He was the first to give the Church in America the example 
of an " Episcopal charge," explaining it as a duty of his office. 
It is justly surmised, therefore, by those who knew him best. 


that had he lived to see three-score and ten his later years 
would have been fruitful in doctrinal charges, and of teach- 
ings in other forms, which would have left upon our theologi- 
cal learning as deep an impress as his other efforts have 
imparted to our growth in other ways. 

On the death of Bishop Moore, he preached a sermon in 
which he expounded the faith as to the state of the departed 
between death and judgment. This he afterward published 
with additions by which it was expanded into a dissertation. 
When we reflect upon the feeble rubric with which our Amer- 
ican Prayer-book is disfigured to this day, as touching the 
Article of the Creed on "the Descent into Hades," we may 
well admit the claims of Hobart to be considered a doctor of 
our Church, inasmuch as by the publication of this sermon, 
the faithful were established in the truth, and the last traces 
of ignorance and feebleness in this part of a good confession 
were obliterated. It is not to be forgotten, that, while with 
consummate tact he forbore to startle the Church with private 
opinions that gender strifes, he has yet left on record and 
commended to private devotion a legitimate prayer for the 
faithful departed, such as the Church of England has never 
repudiated ; which, in fact, she has retained, ambiguously, in 
her Offices, though not more ambiguously than similar ideas 
are formulated in Holy Scripture. 

The doctrine of our regeneration in baptism was also 
very imperfectly comprehended among our people, until 
Hobart made it prominent in his teaching and in manuals of 
devotion, by which it became familiar and was woven in with 
habits of piety in the minds of young confirmants and com- 
municants. More formal and dogmatic teachers have since 
been produced, but nobody can ever displace the primary 
claims of the bishop in this matter also. For it was he who 
taught the teachers and through them the people of a new 
generation, what are the elementary principles of the doctrine 
of Christ. 

As to the Holy Eucharist, there can be no doubt that he 
shared with Seabury the views of the Scottish prelacy, if not 
those of the less discreet English Non-jurors. But, like Sea- 


bury, Bishop Hobart had learned of Him who " pleased not 
himself," and was ever ready to abate and to postpone in 
minor matters what time would take care of, provided the 
fundamentals were secured. Thus, to secure the faithful use 
of the "Ante-Communion," on all Sundays and festivals, as a 
recognition of the Eucharistic principle, he offered to concede 
to the " Low-Churchmen " of those days a rubrical abatement 
as to minor matters, in which they were wont to take liberties 
very scandalous even to Bishop White, who reproached them 
with a breach of vows. When we consider how low was the 
tone of churchmanship, everywhere, in the days of the Colo- 
nial Government, when the people were so insufficiently 
supplied with clergy, and wholly without bishops, we must 
remember that the miracle of revival was wrought by the very 
course which now excites our censure. Seabury stood out 
for the Oriental Liturgy, but did not press the " usages" (so 
called), and he conceded the disuse of the Athanasian Hymn, 
on grounds unquestionably Catholic. Moreover, he gave con- 
sent when an incongruous civil name was accepted by the 
American Church, yielding to the spirit of the American Con- 
stitution, on grounds of obedience to the magistrate. The 
amount of hatred thus allayed, and of good-will that was thus 
secured, can hardly be imagined in our days. But, in those 
days bitter feelings which the war had engendered toward 
England were added to the sectarian hatred of the " Estab- 
lished " Church and a long-cherished antipathy to bishops, as 
belonging to a peerage, as non-republicans, and as filled with 
star-chamber plots against liberty. The first duty was to dis- 
abuse a populace which had threatened to toss Bishop White 
into the river, on his arrival from England, and a laity so 
degenerate, in some places, that they were willing to accept 
an American episcopate, only on condition that no bishop 
should reside in their immediate vicinity. 

Let us put ourselves back, then, into those times and re- 
member how plausible was the anticipation of Bishop Pro- 
voost that, with the old colonial families, the Church must die 
out. Bishop Hobart's struggle was to fortify the Church in 
root principles, aud to gain a parley with the outside world 


on the maxim, " Strike, but hear." He could not have fore- 
seen the immense success of his own policy, and such amaz- 
ing success must justify his course even where it seemed too 

And this brings me to a point where, as I have promised, 
I must touch upon the secret of that decline of influence and 
prestige to which his great name has been temporarily sub- 
jected. The Church, to use the conversational language of 
one of our venerated president-bishops, has "caught more 
than she has been able to cure." Thousands have been 
brought into the Church whose antecedents were unfavorable 
to all just conceptions of her history, her true character, and 
her genuine doctrines. Such converts have been too often 
the subjects of violent reaction. New wine in unprepared 
vessels has caused them to burst. Violent changes in relig- 
ion generally tend to extremes, and the sobering and re- 
straining influences of the prayer-book have been conspicuous 
in nothing more emphatically than in the power it has exer- 
cised over thousands in checking their natural fanaticism and 
excess. Still it is true that multitudes have opened their eyes 
as upon Paradise, in emerging from a dreary Calvinism into 
her communion, and not content with crying, " It is good to 
be here," have been so inebriated with the new wine as to 
have made themselves examples of the truth, " therein is ex- 
cess." They have educated themselves into mere " aestheti- 
cism," and have fancied every caprice of taste and fancy to 
be genuine Churchmanship. Now, when the debased archi- 
tectural fashions of a former generation were reformed by our 
own, the general outcry was : " Whence came these three- 
decker abominations ;" and when the answer was that " Bishop 
Hobart introduced them " ; " so much the worse for the 
bishop," was the rejoinder, and his reputation suffered loss. 
Thousands to whom the bishop was but a name, who knew 
nothing of his work, and who little suspected that they them- 
selves would never have found their way to the Church but 
for his concessions to his times, have learned to speak slight- 
ingly of him and to associate him with the " three-deckers," 
as if that were his only contribution to American Churchman- 


ship. It was, perhaps, his only ill-advised measure, and it 
was a missionary measure merely ; directed to a particular 
end, and guided by St. Paul's prudential maxim of becoming 
** all things to all men," to gain the more. Look at the facts : 

All the churches in New York, as I recollect them from 
boyhood, and I think the same was essentially true of Phila- 
delphia, had the merit of a dignified arrangement of the altar 
and (nominal) chancel, by which the Eucharist was made the 
noblest feature of worship. Thus, the Trinity Church of that 
day had no " chancel " proper, but a grave and comely altar, 
under the great window, with ample railings, where the chil- 
dren were catechised, and where, of course, confirmation was 
administered and the Holy Communion received. But, all 
this was behind the pulpit, which stood on its graceful stem 
at the head of the mid-alley. Under it was the huge reading- 
desk, which, with the pulpit stairway, hid the altar effectu- 
ally from a large portion of the congregation. Strangers 
coming in and seating themselves near the doors could see 
nothing that went on in the chancel. Confirmations, ordina- 
tions, and other Episcopal offices were lost upon the people in 
a large measure. The bishop's sermon at Trenton, on " the 
Excellence of the Church," was little appreciated, so far as its 
liturgic expositions were concerned, because men could not 
see with their eyes " whether these things were so." The 
bishop devised a plan which would remedy this, and which 
had the merit, when the priest went to the Holy Table to be- 
gin the Ante-Communion, of making him visible at that all- 
important and noblest part of the ordinary morning service. 
In my admired and beloved old St. Paul's Chapel the clergy 
used to disappear at this crisis and give forth the Decalogue 
as a voice only ; from some of the best positions in the Church 
we could hear, but could not see them at all. 

I remember the change made at St. John's Chapel, where 
the experiment was first tried. It caused a sensation. Chil- 
dren were delighted to see the clergyman enter the pulpit from 
a door in the wall, and others were glad to find the entire 
service such as they could see and hear and enjoy. The 
" splendors " of St. Thomas's, as they astonished Churchmen 


in 1826 with new conceptions of " Gothic," sealed the success 
of the new plan.* Of its kind, the lofty pulpit of that church 
was a superb bit of architectural effect, and the chancel ex- 
hibited the ministrations to the eye with delightful impres- 
sions. Almost immediately the design was copied ; but the 
bishop was then in Europe, and was not answerable for the 
furore that followed nor for the absurdities to which it led. 
In his own parish it was not introduced any further. Trinity 
Church and St. Paul's remained as they were aforetime, until 
after his decease. But because of this, the unexampled services 
of Hobart have been decried and the merest sciolists in Cath- 
olicity have talked him down as •' good enough for his times," 
but an influence of the past. Again, I remark, that in all 
probability the single mistake was nevertheless the necessary 
precursor to all that has since been gained. It popularized 
the offices and ritual of the Church. Then it led to the study 
of the liturgic system and of antiquity ; thus, the temporary 
evil corrected itself and led us to restore, not what was the 
use of our colonial fathers, but rather " what was in the old 
time before them." 

I must think that a wise Providence was guiding and di- 
recting the Church in that day, by a way that they knew not, 
to greater results than we ourselves, as yet, have faith to per- 
ceive. If ever our imported Romanism is to be reformed and 
our millions of population assimilated as Christians, I doubt 
not this American Church is the treasure-house of God's lov- 
ing designs for such great salvation. And, I believe, no less, 
that there was a time when He " fed us with milk and not 
with strong meat ;" and that He has always raised up those 
who were able to meet the wants of our progressive stages 
and to teach us, as did our Master himself, as men were 
" able to hear it." In this great process of divine preparation 
for the wonders yet to be seen. Bishop Hobart was raised up 
as a mighty instrumentality and a great gift of God to his 

*This Church was incorrect in composition and in details, but it led to great 
advances. It was the first suggestion of open-roofs (only partially exemplified), 
and it was strikingly beautiful as a whole. It was due to the Rev. Dr. McVickar. 


If it be not altogether true, as is sometimes said, that " the 
world knows nothing of its greatest men," it is certainly true 
that the world rarely recognizes its greatest benefactors. 
There can be little doubt that the elements infused into the 
religious life of Americans by the influences that went forth 
from the lives of Seabury and Hobart have revolutionized the 
popular mind upon questions innumerable, pertaining to doc- 
trine and duty, upon the minor morals, and even upon the Con- 
stitution of the State. In this last particular, less obviously 
indeed, but, as a mere- instance, take the unpopular course of 
the American Church in the late war. Contributing most ef- 
ficiently the personal wealth, the valor, and the wise coun- 
sels of her sons to the national cause, she yet made herself 
the only religious corporation in America that maintained 
the constitutional principle of the entire separation of the 
Church from political issues, and hence became the strong- 
est bond between North and South, when the war was over. 
By the instantaneous reunion of her people in one national 
Communion, she illustrated the remark of Calhoun, that, 
even in his day, the religious estrangements of North and 
South had become as marked as other differences, save only 
in this Anglo-American Church. He recognized her, at that 
date, as the only existing religious link between the popula- 
tions separated by " Mason and Dixon's Line." 

With marvellous foresight, Bishop Hobart had maintained 
this great principle of our Constitution, when the Mayor of 
New York, very innocently, prescribed to the churches of the 
city a participation, quite proper in itself, in the solemnities 
attending the funeral of the great Governor Clinton. Nobody 
was more ready than he to honor Clinton, but he saw to 
what it must tend if the civic authorities were permitted to 
issue mandaments to his clergy. With equal intrepidity, when 
the Masonic Fraternity, at Detroit, came forth, with kindly 
intent, in their insignia, to assist at the laying of the corner- 
stone of a church, he declined the mingling of their ceremonies 
with the offices of the Church. It must have pained him 
deeply to appear ungrateful for what was intended in his 
honor, but all " entangling alliances " of the Church with the 


world were to be resisted on principle in his conscientious 
opinion, and whatever he felt to be right he never shrunk from 
enforcing at any cost of personal popularity. 

Perhaps the intensely patriotic character of Hobart would 
never have been fully understood, but for the painful incidents 
that followed his sermon on returning from his European 
tour in 1825. He had been received in England with open 
arms, as the first prelate of the American succession who had 
been seen in the mother land that imparted it. When, in the 
sermon referred to, he indulged himself, with his usual ardor, 
in stating the vast advantage we enjoy as a non-established 
Church, and in drawing vividly the contrast between the 
blessings of American republicanism and foreign monarchies, 
he was bitterly reproached in England, as if he had ungrate- 
fully returned the lavish hospitalities he there received and 
had signalized his first opportunity, in returning to his own 
land, by ungenerous reflections upon the maternal country to 
which our Prayer-Book itself recognizes our vast obligations. 
He was nobly defended, even in England, however, by the 
kindred hand and heart of the truly illustrious Hugh James 
Rose, whose early death was so great and mysterious an 
affliction to the Church of England. And, the only lasting 
memory of the controversy that was stirred up at the time, 
has been the indisputable fact that Hobart was an American 
in every bone and fibre of his nature. 

The life of Bishop Hobart remains to be written ; for the 
innumerable books and pamphlets that came forth on his de- 
cease were, necessarily, imperfect and suited only to express 
the emotions of the moment. These were, indeed, unex- 
ampled, and such as carried away all gainsaying, before the 
fact, so universally felt, that "a great man and a prince had 
fallen in Israel." It ought to be noted that his death illustra- 
ted the master-principles of his life in a striking manner, not 
only by the holy and beautiful submission with which he 
yielded his life, in the midst of his work and afar from his 
beloved home, but, also, by several minor matters not un- 
worthy of mention. His intense love of nature, and his ability 
to commune with God through its instrumentality, were strik- 


ingly instanced when he begged to be turned so that he might 
look at the setting sun, in all its splendors, as it sank upon 
his eyesight for the last time. So, when he stopped the 
officiating priest as he was about to receive the Holy Viaticum 
and insisted upon certain Liturgical proprieties, not for cere- 
monial effect, but iox practical benefit ^m his Confession of Sin, 
there was a memorable disclosure of the whole spirit with 
which he clung to the Liturgy, as the very breath of his in- 
ward life. It is further a most memorable fact, that he died a 
martyr to his convictions as to the best way of promoting 
the movement for temperance then stirring the whole country. 
He had opposed, for obvious reasons, the excesses of that 
movement, and was unwilling to subject himself, as a Chris- 
tian, to moral pledges which he regarded as superfluous in the 
light of the Baptismal vows. But, for himself, he had resolved 
to practice entire abstinence upon his official visitations, if 
not at other times, lest "the ministry should be blamed," 
and as an example and a warning to his clergy. The lime- 
stone water of the Western region of the diocese, however, 
had brought on a painful attack which rapidly became a 
virulent dysentery. At Rochester, he was warned to mingle a 
little brandy with the water used at table, but he refused. 
"Bishop," said his host, "you are already a sick man, and if 
you persist, you will die before you reach your home." ^^Then 
I will die" answered Hobart, with a smile, but very seriously : 
" I know what duty requires of me, in these times of public 
excitement, and in view of the stand I have taken." He 
would not inflict upon the Church the reproach of a dram- 
drinking bishop, and so he died in harness, a witness to the 
master-principle of his life. 

If I have too much extended this narrative it will be par- 
doned, I trust, by all who reflect that the Church has but one 
Bishop Hobart ; and that noteworthy as have been the 
services of many others of her illustrious sons, it was his 
mission, once and for all, to uplift the American Church from 
the low estate into which it had fallen and from the depen- 
dent and humiliating position that had dwarfed it in colonial 
days. So far as our dear Church is the American Church 


pre-eminently, and for the fact that it was so early brought 
into contact and influence with the thought and the organiza- 
tions of American Christianity, our lasting gratitude is due to 
the third Bishop of New York. 

Note. — For the statements here made independently of my own recollections 
and the information gained in conversation with others, I have relied chiefly upon 
the biographical memoirs of my venerated friends, Drs. Berrian and McVickar, now 
long since deceased. Much interesting reflex light has been thrown upon the 
English episode here referred to by the publication of Churton's Memoirs of Joshua 
Watson, London, 1863. 

I have said nothing of the various portraits of the bishop, although desired to 
do so, because I cannot speak of them with the certainty that several others are 
not in existence, and because I am not sure as to the artist, save only in a single 
instance. (l) There is a very interesting likeness of the bishop which must have 
been taken soon after his consecration, and which was formerly in the pos- 
session of the late Rev. John Murray Guion, of Cayuga Co., N. Y. (2) An in- 
ferior painting, which was no favorite with the bishop's family, is now in the Semi- 
nary at New York. (3) The portrait by which the bishop is popularly known was 
by Paradise. A fine engraving was made from it by Durand, and innumerable 
smaller copies have been made after that. It is an excellent map of the features, 
but fails in their expression, not only as to their fire when animated, but also as 
to their sweetness in repose. I think I have heard that the Guion portrait was by 
Jarvis ; it is certainly worthy of being copied, or made known by the burin, as it 
possesses historical interest. 


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The Rt. Rev. Benjamin Tredwell Onderdonk, D.D., fourth 
Bishop of New York, was born July 15, 1791, and bap- 
tized in Trinity Parish, New York, August 19, 1791. He was 
the son of Dr. John Onderdonk, a much-respected physician 
in the city of New York, and was brother to the Rt. Rev. 
Henry Ustick Onderdonk, D.D., sometime Bishop of Penn- 
sylvania. His wife, who at the writing of this paper still sur- 
vives him, was Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. Henry Mos- 
crop. The children of this marriage were William, Henry 
M., Benjamin T., Hobart and Elizabeth. He graduated in 
1809 from Columbia College, from which, in 18 16, he received 
the degree of M.A., and in 1826 that of S.T.D. ; and he served 

as a trustee of that institution from 1824 to 1853. In his 
twenty-second year he was ordained deacon by Bishop Ho- 
bart, by whom, also, he was admitted to the priesthood on 
attaining the canonical age. While yet a deacon he was 
made an assistant minister of Trinity Church, retaining that 
position while in priest's orders, and also during the first 
part of his episcopate until the year 1836, an arrangement re- 
sulting from the liberality of Trinity Church, rendered need- 
ful by the insufficiency of the Episcopal Fund prior to that 
date. He was consecrated Bishop of New York on the death 
of Bishop Hobart in 1830, and until 1838 his jurisdiction ex- 
tended throughout the State. The Diocese of Western New 
York being set off at that time, his jurisdiction for the remain- 
der of his episcopate covered the rest of the State, including 
both that part now known as the Diocese of New York and 
also those parts now included within the Dioceses of Central 
New York, Albany, and Long Island. In 1821 and 1822 he 
was Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the General Theo- 
logical Seminary, and from 1821 until his death he held, in 

* Chiefly an abstract from the discourse delivered at the funeral of Bishop 
Onderdonk by the Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., rector of the Church of the An- 
nunciation (New York, 1861). 


the same institution, the Chair of the Nature, Ministry and 
PoHty of the Church, now that of Ecclesiastical Polity and 
Law. Out of consideration, however, for the feelings of 
others, he refrained from exercising the duties of the pro- 
fessorship after the sentence imposed upon him in 1845, al- 
though his right to do so was not affected by that sentence, 
under the law either of the Church or of the Seminary. 

Until his consecration opened for him a wider sphere 
Bishop Onderdonk was distinguished as an able and laborious 
parish priest. His powers for work, both bodily and mental, 
and his unremitting diligence in the use of those powers, were 
alike remarkable. His visitations among those committed to 
his charge, especially the poor, the sick, and the afflicted, were 
assiduous. His catechising and preaching were constant and 
effective. Not so eloquent in popular estimation as those of 
Bishop Hobart, his discourses were, nevertheless, always ac- 
knowledged to be sound, judicious, and instructive. His teach- 
ing then and throughout his ministry was based upon the 
doctrines of the fall of man ; of his redemption, by the vol- 
untary humiliation and sacrifice of the Son of God, to the ca- 
pacity of pardon and eternal life ; of the establishment of the 
Church on earth as the means of preserving the true religion, 
and of drawing from its Head in heaven, through the minis- 
try and sacraments of His appointment, that spiritual influ- 
ence which is necessary to open to man an access to the 
Father, through the Son and by the Holy Spirit, on the pre- 
scribed conditions of the Gospel covenant. His discourses 
in the pulpit, and the many papers, expository of the doc- 
trines, usages, canons, and rubrics of the Church, which he 
constantly contributed to the press, were an expansion and 
application of these principles. Upon these principles he 
shaped his course, both as bishop of the diocese and as a 
member of the House of Bishops and of General Convention ; 
and his patient submission to the discipline of the Church was 
the legitimate fruit of the same principles. 

Unlike that of most others, the life of Bishop Onderdonk 
was divided into two distinct portions : the one distinguished 
chiefly by resolute action, the other distinguished exclusively 
by patient suffering. His active life extended from 1812 to 


1845 I ^"d its influence was important, extended, and lasting. 
Hardly less so, in its own way, was that of the remaining 
sixteen years which were passed in seclusion. 

In October, 1844, Bishop Onderdonk was at the zenith of 
his fame. At the expiration of three months from this time, 
accused of acts of immorality, not by his own diocese, but by 
the bishops of three remote dioceses, he was, by a court com- 
posed of bishops, suspended from the exercise of his ministry, 
and from the office of a bishop in the Church of God. This 
sentence was passed on the 3d of January, 1845, being Friday. 
On Sunday, the 5th of the same month, he attended the di- 
vine service at the Church of the Annunciation, and received 
at the hands of Bishop Gadsden of South Carolina, who offi- 
ciated there on that day, the sacrament of the Body and Blood 
of Christ. The sentence which on moral grounds had ad- 
judged him unworthy of the sacred ministry, did not debar 
him from the Holy Communion, thus publicly and with ex- 
press episcopal sanction administered to him ; and in the 
communion of the Church, and, by consequence, in the com- 
munion of those bishops by whom he had been condemned, 
he continued unto his life's end. 

All of the offences alleged against the bishop were alleged 
to have been committed between June, 1837, and July, 1842. 
The law under which he was tried was enacted more than two 
years after the last of these dates, in 1844.* It provided for 
sentence either of admonition, suspension, or deposition. Of 
the seventeen bishops who composed the Court six voted at 
first for admonition, three of the remaining eleven voting for 
suspension, and eight for deposition. The six, concurring 
afterwards with the three, appear to have consented to sus- 
pension to avoid deposition. The canon did not define sus- 
pension, or state whether it was to be from the ministry en- 
tirely, or from the episcopate. The sentence was that of 
suspension both from the office of a bishop and from all the 
functions of the sacred ministry. It was unlimited either by 

* Canon III. of 1844. This was the first canon ever enacted by General 
Convention for the trial of bishops. It repealed one (Canon IV. of 1841) entitled 
"on the trial of bishops," but providing only for their presentment (see the 
canon), and was itself repealed in 1856. 


term of time or condition ; nor did the canon provide for any- 
possible revocation. In the next General Convention (1847) 
it was enacted that the bishops entitled to seats in the House 
of Bishops may altogether remit and terminate any judicial 
sentence which may have been imposed by bishops acting 
collectively as a judicial tribunal, or modify the same so as to 
designate a precise period of time or other specific contin- 
gency, on the occurrence of which such sentence shall cease 
and be of no further force or effect ; * and that whenever the 
penalty of suspension shall be inflicted on a bishop, priest, or 
deacon in this Church, the sentence shall specify on what 
terms or at what time the penalty shall cease.f The sen- 
tence of Bishop Onderdonk was neither remitted nor modified. 
He remained under its operation for more than sixteen years 
(1845-1861) after the Church had provided that no such sen- 
tence should be pronounced in future on any clergyman within 
her jurisdiction ; and for nearly fourteen years (i 847-1 861) after 
the General Convention, by empowering the bishops to remit 
it, had done all that a legislative body could do for its removal. 
Of the charges on which he was condemned the bishop 
constantly maintained his innocence. He regarded his sen- 
tence as both unjust and illegal, but he made no attempt to 
oppose or evade it. An appeal to the civil courts was often 
urged upon him, and advocated by most eminent counsel, 
but it was steadfastly declined as inconsistent with his 
sense of duty to the Church. With equal firmness he con- 
stantly refused to comply with the wish of those who (either 
from unwillingness that he should ever exercise the functions 
of his office, or as a means of securing the remission of his 
sentence) desired him to resign his jurisdiction. He scrupu- 
lously conformed both to the letter and the spirit of his sen- 
tence ; and withdrawing himself as much as possible from the 
world, he waited in patient humility for the clemency which 
was never to be shown. Three ineffectual movements were 
made by memorial and formal address to induce the bishops 
to use the power vested in them for his relief. And when 
the last memorial, supported by a resolution of the conven- 
tion of his diocese was rejected by the bishops at the General 
* Canon II. of 1847. f Canon III. of 1847. 


Convention of 1859, ^^^ remaining earthly hope of his life 
was quenched. His health from this time gradually declined ; 
his age seemed visibly to increase upon him ; and it was 
not long before his final illness overpowered him. Toward 
the close of that illness he humbly professed, in answer to 
the questions proposed in the Office for the Visitation of 
the Sick, ministered to him by one of his presbyters, his 
friend, the Rev. Dr. Francis Vinton, his forgiveness and 
charity for all ; his sincere repentance of sin ; his sole hope 
in Jesus Christ his Saviour; but added in solemn earnestness, 
as he fixed his eyes upon his interrogator : " Of the crimes 
of which I have been accused and for which I have been 
condemned my conscience acquits me in the sight of God." 
This was on Friday, April 26, 1861. On the Sunday follow- 
ing he received the Viaticum at the hands of the Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Seabury, the rector of his parish church, and on 
Tuesday of the same week, April 30th, he departed this life. 
His funeral rites, solemnized in Trinity Church on Tuesday 
of the week following (such as no one who witnessed could 
ever forget), testified to the love and reverence in which he 
was held by the great body of his people, both clergy and 
laity. Watched through the night by the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Roosevelt Johnson and other loving friends, his body was on 
the following day laid to rest at Trinity Cemetery. 

Few have passed through such a fight of afflictions ; few 
have had, and few have better used, such opportunities to 
exemplify the highest graces of the Christian life, as fell to 
the lot of this venerable man. In his twofold testimony of 
action and suffering, undertaken and endured in the simple 
desire to promote the Christian edification of the clergy and 
people committed to his charge, few have better illustrated 
than he the words which our Lord applied to the Holy Bap- 
tist, and which were used as the text for the discourse deliv- 
ered at his funeral : " He was a burning and a shining light, 
and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light." 



I AM thankful to associate the name of my dear father, 
with this memoir of his Hfelong and beloved friend. Drawn 
with the discriminating hand of intimate friendship, it is so 
truly the picture of an " old master," that I do not presume 
to spoil it by any touches of a modern brush. And yet I am 
glad to add to it the tribute of my boyish and reverent recol- 
lection of Bishop Wainwright, in all the majesty of his digni- 
fied manhood and all the courtesy and charm of his character, 
as a gentleman, as a distinguished citizen, as scholar, pastor, 
and bishop. 

Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright was born in Liver- 
pool, England, on the 24th day of February, 1792. Peter 

Wainwright, his father, was an English merchant, who had 
established himself not long after the War of Independence 
in the city of Boston. 

Here he married Elizabeth, daughter of Jonathan May- 
hew, D.D., a Congregational minister. Dr. Mayhew was a 
descendant of Sir Thomas Mayhew, one of the early settlers 
of the country, and the first Governor of Martha's Vineyard. 
Pie was a Unitarian in doctrine, and bitterly opposed to Epis- 
copacy. He took an active part against its introduction into 
America ; and was engaged in an extensive controversy with 
Archbishop Seeker, the Rev. Dr. Thomas Bradbury Chandler, 
of New Jersey, and others. An anecdote related by a ven- 
erable presbyter illustrates well the relation which Dr. 
Mayhew held toward the Church, and sheds a half-prophetic 
ray upon his grandson's course. The Rev. Dr. Eaton, now 
more than forty years ago, was dining with a friend at Cam- 
bridge. In the room was a portrait of Dr. Mayhew with an 
inverted mitre in one corner. " What a pity," said the guest, 
" that Dr. Mayhew should have felt such enmity toward the 

* Extract from the memoir of Bishop Wainwright, written by Bishop Doane 
of New Jersey. 

JSia^ St-M'^/yy/ 

^- ^^^^s___y^ 


Church as to have a mitre upside down inserted in his por- 
trait ! " " Oh, well," said the lady of the house, " perhaps 
his grandson, Jonathan Wainwright, may turn it back again." 
"And wear it himself," said Dr. Eaton, happily. The grand- 
son had then lately graduated at Harvard University, and had 
no thought of entering the ministry. The first school to 
which Jonathan was sent was taught by the daughter of the 
Rev. Mr. Lewin, a Dissenting Minister in Liverpool. From 
there he went to the school of the Rev. Mr. Hughes, a clergy- 
man at Ruthven in North Wales. To his instructions and 
example he always ascribed his attachment to the Church. 
No doubt, much was also due to the influence of his excellent 
godmother, Mrs. Hartwell, with whom he often spent his 
holidays at Holyhead. 

In 1803 Peter Wainwright returned to America with his 
family. Jonathan, then eleven years old, was sent to the 
Academy at Sandwich, on Cape Cod, at first under the tui- 
tion of the Rev. Mr. Burr, and afterward of Mr. Elisha Clapp, 
under whose direction he was prepared for college. From 
the academy at Sandwich young Wainwright went, in 1808, 
to Harvard College at Cambridge, where he graduated in 
181 2. Of his college life no details have been obtained. 

It is believed that during his academic life he indulged 
the love of sacred music, which was a passion in him, by act- 
ing gratuitously as the organist of Christ Church, at which he 
worshiped. Soon after his graduation he was appointed a 
Proctor of the University and instructor in rhetoric. He 
held this office for several years and discharged its duties 
with entire acceptance. 

Not long after he had graduated, he entered the office of 
the late William Sullivan, Esq., of Boston, as a student of 
law ; but the study was not congenial to his taste, and he 
abandoned it. Determining to devote his life to the work of 
the sacred ministry, he became a candidate for holy orders, 
and pursued his theological studies, chiefly under the care of 
the Rev. Dr. Gardiner, rector of Trinity Church, Boston. 

In the year 1816 he was ordained deacon in St. John's 
Church, Providence, Rhode Island, by Bishoj 


first parish, to which he was called while yet a deacon, was 
Christ Church, Hartford, Connecticut. While there he was 
admitted to the priesthood by Bishop Hobart, who, in a 
vacancy of the diocese, had provisional charge of it ; and he 
was instituted rector of the parish by the same prelate, on 
the 29th day of May, 1818. It was his first love, and he was 
entirely happy in it ; and the more, v/hen the light of human 
endearment came in upon his hearth to brighten and to sanc- 
tify it. He was married in August, 18 18, to Amelia Maria, 
the daughter of Timothy Phelps, Esq., of New Haven. 

In the year 18 19, the Rev. Thomas Church Brownell, one 
of the assistant ministers of Trinity Church, in the city of 
New York, was chosen Bishop of the Diocese of Connecti- 
cut, which, since the death of Bishop Jarvis in 1813, had 
continued vacant. To the vacancy in Trinity Church, New 
York, thus created, Mr. Wainwright was called on the 25th 
day of November, in that year. During his connection with 
this Mother of our Churches, he declined an invitation to the 
rectorship of Grace Church, in New York. But, when the 
call was repeated, he deemed it his duty to accept it. This 
was in 1821. With all the considerations which bound him to 
the position which he held so happily, it was natural that he 
should yield to this renewed invitation to a parish second to 
none but that with which he was connected, in importance 
and influence for good. 

He was, with all his gentleness and yieldingness, a man of 
independent mind, and bold and resolute in action, however 
mild and affable in manner. He needed, to make full proof 
of his ministry, a separate parish. He had it at Grace Church, 
and he made it the scene of the most assiduous industry and 
of the widest influence. He spent here thirteen years of the 
very vigor and lustihood of his life — from twenty-nine to 
forty-two. They developed in him the fullest and best pro- 
portioned manhood. They demonstrated what a city pastor 
can do who combines sound judgment with earnestness and 
zeal. They made a mark on the whole Church, and they made 
him, in the eyes of the whole Church, a man of highest mark 
and likelihood. Very few of our clergy have ever held a 


position so elevated, so widely regarded, so variously and 
deeply influential, as Dr. Wainwright, during his rectorship 
of Grace Church. 

He had collected an extensive library, admirably chosen. 
He found or made the leisure, amid his numerous and ardu- 
ous duties, to be much among his books. He cultivated 
most ardently his love for sacred music, which was carried to 
great perfection by his choir ; and made it tell most bene- 
ficially throughout the land, in increased attention to the sub- 
ject, in his Music of the Church. His hearth was the cen- 
ter of the most refined and generous hospitality, and 
strangers of every clime were attracted about him by his cul- 
tivated tastes, his wide and varied information, his elegant 
manners, and his kind and sympathizing heart. 

At the end of those thirteen years of happiness and use- 
fulness in the rectory of Grace Church, a change passed over 
his life. The ancient parish of Trinity Church, in Boston, 
had been more than a year without a rector, and was suffer- 
ing greatly from the vacancy. The venerable Bishop of the 
Eastern Diocese was advanced in years, with gathering in- 
firmities ; there were divisions, in sentiment and action, 
among those of the same household, and there was a general 
state of unsatisfactoriness in the Church in Massachusetts. 
Under these circumstances, his prominence in the Church, his 
eminent success as a preacher and as a pastor, and his well- 
deserved reputation as a man of peace, averse to all extremes, 
and the consideration, peculiarly attractive to Boston people, 
that he had been a Boston man, directed attention strongly 
to Dr. Wainwright. 

The urgent call of the vestry of Trinity Church was 
seconded and enforced by several representations from clergy- 
men and laymen of the highest consideration in the Church. 
It seemed a call. It was certainly a sacrifice. He went. He 
was welcomed back to the haunts of his youth with the ut- 
most cordiality. His old friends rallied about him. New 
friends were gathered to them. The parish was encouraged 
and reinforced. A better organ was needed, and he was sent 
to England to procure its construction, with a most liberal pro- 


vision for his personal expenses abroad. It was the land of 
his birth. It was the land of his heart. Scarcely any one ever 
went abroad with a better preparation for the highest enjoy- 
ment. Scarcely any one ever more completely realized his 
most sanguine expectations. 

Dr. Wainwright did not remain long in Boston after his 
return from Europe. After his removal to Boston some 
changes had been introduced into the parochial arrangements of 
Trinity Church, New York, by which a more positive position 
and definite responsibility were secured to the assistant min- 
isters and a pastoral care in one or other of the chapels as- 
signed to each of them. 

The yearning for him, which was still alive and active in 
his old parishioners and friends, led to his being invited as an 
assistant minister of Trinity Church, a little more than two 
years after he had gone to Boston. He declined the invita- 
tion. But when, a year later, in January, 1838, after fuller 
conviction that the general aim of his removal to Massachu- 
setts, in the pacific influence of his character upon the unset- 
tled condition of affairs, would not be realized, the invitation 
was renewed, it was not at all to be wondered at that it was 

And great as were the regret and disappointment of his 
Boston parishioners and friends at losing him from among 
them, they acquiesced in the decision as justified by high 
considerations of duty to the Church, with the same nobility 
of spirit as had been manifested in Grace Church four years 
before. In returning to New York, to the parish which had 
brought him from his first care eighteen years before, the con- 
gregation of St. John's Chapel were more especially assigned 
to him, with general duty in Trinity Church and both the 
chapels. In this connection he continued seventeen years, 
laboring most faithfully, most assiduously, most successfully, 
for the souls committed to his care ; and foremost in every 
good word and work, whether in his parochial relations, and 
the promotion of learning and benevolence in the great city 
where his post had been appointed, or in the wider sphere of 
the diocesan or general organization of the Church. 


No one that did not live with him could imagine the vari- 
ety and extent of these labors of love. How he found time 
for them, and yet neglected no immediate pastoral duty, nor 
was wanting to any social or domestic claim, would be to any 
other than an inmate of his house, a matter of just surprise. 
It was by constant, cheerful, systematic industry, on a high 
religious principle. He was never in a hurry. He never 
seemed overburdened. But he rose early. He laid his work 
out carefully. He pursued it constantly. His heart was in 
it. It was with him, as it was with Jacob in the service of 
his love for Rachel. In the midst of all this multifarious care 
and work, how pleasant he was, how playful ! Always time 
to be happy with an old friend. Always time to be social 
with those whose claims were just upon his socialness. Al- 
ways ready to enter heart and soul into anything that made 
for Christian cheerfulness and fellowship. A more delightful 
companion in the unreservedness of familiar love, I never 

His literary labors were very numerous. He published 
many sermons and addresses by request of those at whose 
instance they were delivered. He edited many valuable 
books. He superintended with great care and labor, the 
American edition of the Illustrated Prayer Book, and he was, 
with the Rev. Dr. Coit, the chief working member of the Com- 
mittee of the General Convention to prepare the standard 
edition of the Book of Common Prayer. 

The year 1852 was a marked era in Dr. Wainwright's hon- 
orable life. The venerable Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts had resolved to celebrate their 
third jubilee (the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary) on the 
fifteenth day of June in that year. At a general meeting of 
the society on the twentieth day of February it was unani- 
mously resolved that "■ His Grace, the President, be requested 
to address a communication to the Bishops of the United 
States, inviting them to delegate two or more of their number 
to take part in the concluding services of the society's third 
jubilee year, which will end on June 15th, 1852." The 
Archbishop of Canterbury transmitted the resolutions of the 


society, enforced by his own earnest request, to the Rev. Dr. 
Wainwright, as Secretary of the House of Bishops. 

At an informal meeting of the bishops held in New York 
on the twenty-ninth day of April, the Rt. Rev. Dr. McCoskry, 
Bishop of Michigan, and the Rt. Rev. Dr. De Lancey, Bishop 
of Western New York, were requested to be present and par- 
ticipate in the solemn services proposed to be held in West- 
minster Abbey, and when resolutions of the most grateful 
love and cordial sympathy had been adopted by the bishops 
present. Dr. Wainwright, as the Secretary of the House of 
Bishops, was appointed to convey them to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, as president of the society. He went. The 
bishops sailed soon after, and were there in time. They bore 
themselves as two such bishops would, well and worthily of the 
occasion. And none rejoiced so much as they, that Dr. 
Wainwright was the sharer of their joy, or bore such testi- 
mony to the grace and dignity with which he did his part in 
the great mission of the daughter to the Mother Church. On 
every suitable occasion he made the halls of England vocal 
with his fervent Christian eloquence, and everywhere the 
honor which his office claimed, and which his person every 
way conciliated, was freely paid to him. Upon him, as well 
as upon the two distinguished bishops of our Church, the 
University of Oxford conferred the honorary degree of 

From the passage of the canon of the General Convention 
of 1850, " of the election of a provisional bishop, in the case of 
a diocese where the bishop is suspended without a precise 
limitation of time," there were several unsuccessful attempts 
to elect a provisional bishop for the Diocese of New York. 
On the first day of October of that same eventful year, 1852, 
a very short time after his return from that most honorable 
mission to our Mother Church of England, Dr. Wainwright 
was chosen to that office. How well and wisely for the 
diocese and for the whole Church, his episcopate, brief as it 
was, sufficed to show. 

The tenth day of November, 1852, the day on which Dr. 
Wainwright was consecrated, was a glorious festival. " Re- 


garded," the Church Journal says, " as the happy termination 
of diocesan contests, which had lasted with great acrimony 
for years, this occasion was honored by the presence of ten 
bishops, and for the first time since the establishment of the 
American episcopate, an English bishop united in consecrat- 
ing an American prelate. This happy commencement of re- 
union and peace, celebrated as it was with uncommon 
splendor and the united devotion of thousands, was fondly 
looked upon as the inauguration of a long episcopate." 

As no ceremonial could have been more magnificent, cele- 
brated as it was, in a company of worshipers which filled 
every standing spot in glorious Trinity, and with all that 
music could impart of sweetness and solemnity, there were 
personal relations involved in it of the most gratifying char- 
acter. The consecrator was the venerable presiding bishop 
himself, whom he had succeeded as an assistant minister of 
Trinity Church, and who had been to him, through all the 
years that followed, as a father to a son. 

Of all the bishops associated with Bishop Brownell in the 
consecration, one had been for the third part of a century his 
most immediate friend, and all the rest, but one, knit with 
him in the closest bonds of intimate affection. That one, a 
bishop of the Church of England, the Rt. Rev. Dr. Fulford, 
of Montreal ; glad to return so soon the tokens of that Catho- 
lic and Apostolic love of which Dr. Wainwright had been so 
recently the bearer to his own most reverend Metropolitan. 
It may be doubted if " the laying on of hands " was ever more 
emphatically the pouring out of hearts. How beautiful he 
was as he knelt in his meekness to receive the trust of an 
apostle ! With what a manly fullness, fervor, and solemnity 
he made his solemn promise of conformity ! 

How his heart heaved and swelled with its concluding 
words, "So help me God, through Jesus Christ !" And what 
an " Amen " went up from that subdued and melted multi- 
tude, that God might grant it all. 

Immediately after his election. Bishop Wainwright entered 
fully upon the duties of his office. He knew how long the 
diocese had been without the services of its diocesan. He 


knew how critical the moment was which introduced a bishop 
under the new canon. He knew, no doubt, that some might 
apprehend that he was not a working man. No doubt he sol- 
emnly remembered that " the night cometh, when no man can 

" Anxious to serve faithfully that diocese which, by so 
large a vote, had called him to preside over it, Bishop Wain- 
wright refused," says the Church Journal, " to moderate his 
episcopal labors by any consideration for his own health. 
This enormous diocese is too heavy a burden for even the 
most vigorous man, in the flower of his age ; and the determi- 
nation to do, what no man of his years could reasonably expect 
to perform, has hurried the devoted bishop to his grave. In 
spite of the repeated and pressing remonstrances of his 
friends ; in spite of several premonitory warnings that he was 
altogether overtasking his strength, the indefatigable prelate 
was no sooner restored from one attack of sickness than he 
pushed forward into a fresh round of labor." It might well 
be inscribed upon his monument "the zeal of Thine house 
hath eaten me up." 

He projected at once a complete visitation of the whole 
diocese, with its three hundred clergymen, before the next 
convention, a period of eleven months. And he accom- 
plished it. His whole heart was in his work. He had always 
been a laboring man. He felt himself more than ever bound 
to labor now that he was to be an example to the pastors, as 
well as to the flock. He did not consider his advanced age ; 
he did not consider the difference in the kind of work ; he 
did not consider the entire change in his manner of life ; un- 
certain hours, irregular meals, unconscious occupation, a con- 
stant drain upon his spirits and his strength. Above all, he 
did not consider what even St. Paul considered the hardest 
and the heaviest of his burdens, " the <:«r^ of all the churches." 
High and holy as his motive was, it must be owned that he 
was imprudent in his zeal. 

" He died on the Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle, 
Thursday, September 21, 1854, in the sixty-third year of his 


After all, it was a beautiful and glorious death. In the 
two and twenty months of his episcopate he had averaged 
more than one sermon a day. He had consecrated 15 
churches ; he had ordained 37 deacons and 12 priests ; he had 
confirmed 4,127 persons. And all this was as nothing to that 
which came upon him daily, " the care of all the churches." 
His work seemed just begun. And yet he had settled and 
harmonized a diocese which had been long distracted, and 
had given to the whole Church, till every eye and heart was 
filled, " assurance " of a bishop. It was a beautiful and glori- 
ous death to die. 

From the happiest home ; from the widest circle of de- 
voted and admiring friends ; from the serene and quiet duties 
of the pastoral life, in which his heart delighted, among a 
people who had called him to them five and thirty years be- 
fore, he went, at the call of duty, to the cares and toils and 
trials of the episcopate, in the largest and most laborious of our 
dioceses, and at a time when a most painful providence had 
made its trials infinitely trying and its labors immeasurably 
laborious. But he went, at the call of God and in His 
strength, and in less than two years he restored the waste 
places of Zion and set his vineyard in most perfect order, and 
the very next week expected to rejoice with his assembled 
clergy and laity in the account which he was to render to 
them with such joy, as theirs who bring the vintage home. 
But he had overtasked his strength. 

At sixty, one with peril enters on an untried course of life. 
He entered upon his with the ardor of one half his age. He 
forsook his happy home ; he divorced himself from his be- 
seeching friends ; he gave his days to labor and his nights to 
care. Again and again he was prostrated in his work ; again 
and again his friends admonished him of his danger ; again 
and again I implored him to work less that he might work 
longer and do "more. It was all in vain. The vows of God 
were on him. The zeal of His house had eaten him up. Again 
and again, when he had hardly rallied from entire prostration, 
he returned prematurely to the rescue. And, in the midst of 
the herculean labors which he had wrought and which he had 


planned, he entered, on St. Matthew's day, A.D. 1854, into 
the only rest of which his zealous heart would hear, and 
sweetly sleeps in Jesus. 

A gallant and a glorious death was his. His feet on the 
field ; his face to the foe ; his armor on ; his spear in rest ; 
the crown of life falling, 'mid fight, upon his brow. " His 
body is buried in peace ; but his name hveth for evermore." 



Horatio Potter, sixth Bishop of New York, will leave 
to posterity, when the end shall have arrived, a name to cast 
unfading luster on the annals of the diocese. It will be said 
of him, by those that come after, that, as a theologian, he 
combined the strong conviction and subjective piety of the 
evangelical school with the deeper views and powerful hold 
on the doctrinal and sacramental system of the Church which 
mark the men commonly known as Catholics. As bishop he 
was the peer, the faithful ally, and the intimate personal friend 
of some of the greatest and ablest of the prelates of the Church 
of England in one of the most momentous periods of her his- 
tory. Wise, prudent, and skillful, he piloted his own diocese 
through stormy weather and in dangerous places, and had the 

gratification of witnessing the founding and successful devel- 
opment of two new and strong dioceses born within the old 
domain. Dignified in bearing, courtly in manners, somewhat 
austere, as becomes an overseer of God's heritage ; cordial 
and delightful in the trusted society of intimate friends ; de- 
vout and earnest ; a holy man, full of prayer and good works, 
he was, to those who knew him best, the mirror of the Epis- 
copal character, and a shining example among the chief pas- 
tors of the flock of Christ. God, in His wise providence, has 
willed that he should pass his last days in the enforced seclu- 
sion of a sick room ; and, therefore, in penning this brief 
sketch of him, we throw much of it into the past tense, but 
the love and prayers of the faithful follow him into that 
sacred retirement and surround him there, while for the future 
the record is secure of a true, strong, pure, and helpful life, of 
which the honor and fame shall last, unfading, in the Church. 
He was of an old English stock. Robert Potter, first of 
the name on this side of the Atlantic, came to this country 


from Coventry, and was settled at Lynn, Mass., in 1630. In 
1639, having been cited before the authorities of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony for religious contumacy, he removed to 
Rhode Island, and was one of those who signed the compact 
for the town of Portsmouth, April 16, 1639, when it was set 
off from Newport. His name appears in the Indian deed of 
Shawmut, near Warwick, Rhode Island. In 1643 he was 
taken to Boston, with other Warwick men, and there sen- 
tenced to imprisonment for non-conformism. Among his 
descendants occur the names of men pre-eminently distin- 
guished in the communities in which they lived, amongst 
whom may be mentioned John Potter, Clerk of the General 
Court in 1661, and Stephen Potter, Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Rhode Island in 1727. In 1795 three of the family 
— Joseph, Sylvester, and Thomas — removed to New York and 
settled in Dutchess County. Joseph Potter married Ann 
Knight, by whom he had ten children ; of these, the ninth, 
Alonzo, became Bishop of Pennsylvania, and the tenth is the 
subject of this biographical sketch. 

Horatio Potter was born in Beekman, Dutchess County, 
New York, February 9, 1802. He was sent to Union Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1826. A letter to a college 
companion, dated February 24, 1827, contains the following 
good advice to students : 

"Look to your health. There is something which to the 
youthful mind looks like moral sublimity in the sacrifice of 
health and life at the very outset of our career. But a heed- 
less, unnecessary sacrifice can be neither pleasing to God nor 
beneficial to man. When studying hard, you should devote 
at least two hours a day to vigorous exercise. Without this 
you can have neither energy of mind nor strength of body. 
Beware, too, of reading hastily. Curiosity, the love of novelty, 
and the pride we take in having read a great many books, all 
conspire to hurry us on from volume to volume without giving 
us time to become masters of them. To an ardent, youthful 
mind, advancing is delightful, reviewing irksome. As you 
march on, then, be careful to leave no enemy unconquered." 


He was ordained deacon in July, 1827, and priest the fol- 
lowing year. He began his ministry in Saco, Maine, as 
appears, rather against his will, for he writes : " I did hope to 
enjoy, for a year or two, full leisure to prosecute my educa- 
tion." He shrank from the difficulties and responsibilities of 
the cure of souls. "The parochial duties are most formida- 
ble ;" but he adds, by way of consolation : *' I have heard of 
men who have done much for their minds at the same time 
that they were extensively useful in the active duties of their 
profession. By the blessing of God, I will imitate their ex- 
ample. I am ready to make the effort." 

In the year 1828 he became Professor of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy in Washington (now Trinity) College, 
Hartford, Connecticut. He took an active part in plans for 
the enlargement of the college and the erection of new build- 
ings, as appears from his correspondence with his brother, the 
Rev. Alonzo Potter, at that time rector of St, Paul's Church, 

In 1833 ^^ became rector of St. Peter's Church, in the city 
of Albany, and held that position until his election to the 
episcopate in 1854. Those twenty-one years were a term of 
steady and persevering labor, with marked success. The 
parish, one of the oldest in the State, was of especial dignity 
and importance, not only from its history, but also from its 
situation in the capital of the State, and from the fact that 
many of the most prominent personages in the political history 
of New York were, from time to time, connected with it. Dr. 
Potter acquired an enviable distinction there as a devoted pas- 
tor, an able preacher, and a man who never meddled with other 
people's affairs, but did his work quietly, " without partiality, 
without hypocrisy," and without aim at popularity or effect. 
In the year 1835 he went abroad, and traveled in England and 
on the Continent. He carried with him letters to Simeon, 
Keble, Chalmers, Bishop Skinner, of the Scottish Episcopal 
Church, and other eminent personages of the day. He was 
profoundly impressed by the aspect of the great English uni- 

** My visit to the Louvre and Tuileries and Versailles had 


almost moved me to pronounce France superior to England 
in classical taste; but Cambridge and Oxford are altogether 
unequaled by anything that I have seen, if I am to judge by 
the manner in which they excited my own mind under the 
most unfavorable circumstances. As for society, I saw none 
at either place. The university was in vacation, the weather 
was stormy, and I had neither time nor inclination for cere- 
monious visits." 

Dr. Potter's health was very delicate during his early years ; 
it continued so while he was rector of St. Peter's. Severe 
domestic affliction in the loss of children added weight to the 
burden of life at that time. In 1845 he went abroad again for 
rest and recovery. The times were full of excitement on both 
sides of the Atlantic. It was the era of the development of 
the Oxford movement in England, a movement strongly felt 
on this side of the Atlantic. The year 1845 was marked by 
the defection of John Henry Newman, an event which shook 
the souls of many English Churchmen ; in that same year oc- 
curred the suspension of Bishop Onderdonk from office, an 
event attended by great agitation and embittered controver- 
sies in the Diocese of New York. Allusion to the trying 
occurrences of the day appear in a letter now in my posses- 
sion, written at the Brunswick Hotel, Hanover Square, Lon- 
don, September 12, 1845, from which I shall venture to make 
the following extracts, taking on myself the responsibility of 
doing so. It is well-nigh on to half a century since the time 
of writing. 

" The present crisis is naturally one of so much excitement 
to you that you stand in no need of foreign stimulants. Since 
I wrote to you we have been staying several days with Mr. 
Keble, and then with Mr. Isaac Williams, author of poems, 
and works on the gospels. Both these are men of singular 
modesty, purity, and devotion. They live among the poor, 
though themselves worthy to be ranked among the most gifted 
of English minds. Were I to speak of Moberly, and Bishop 
Skinner, and Bowden, and Hook, and Dodsworth, and the 
other men with whom I have been living, you would be apt 
to say, ' Well, birds of a feather flock together ! He is taking 


the right way to have his prepossessions confirmed.' To all 
which I reply, that in seeking intercourse chiefly with this 
class of theologians I have been governed by three reasons. 
First, I know wel/ the Evangelicans already, their spirit and 
their intentions. I also know the old High Church party, the 
/ttg-/i and dry. But I was not quite certain about what may 
be called the Catholic men ; many things were imputed to 
them, they belonged to a movement, I wished to know 
whether I had judged them rightly, and what we and the 
Church had to expect from them. Second, I came away from 
home exhausted and broken ; and I had no idea of spending 
the season of recreation among a set of people with whom I 
could not sympathize, who would be constantly dealing in 
anathemas which I would think extravagant, and to which I 
could say nothing. Such men as Keble and Williams and 
Moberly, and the Primus of the Scotch Church (and a noble 
Primus he is !) I find I understand at once, and we get on 
comfortably together. How kind they have all been to me ! 
and what lessons in holiness they -have unconsciously taught 
me ! O, how little the men who revile them understand them, 
or understand the theological age upon which they are fallen ! 
Even Mr. N., who very probably may take a grievous step* (I 
say this in confidence), how little will his feelings and charac- 
ter be appreciated by his revilers in America ! Dr. Moberly 's 
account of the way in which the young men at Oxford con- 
fessed that they had found themselves silently put away by 
him and sent to Dr. P. (who is standing fast) brought the 
tears into my eyes. Even those who dissent from him and 
will not go with him regard him with inexpressible reverence 
and affection. ... I had this A. M. a very kind note 
from Dr. Pusey, inviting us to his house in Oxford ; we shall 
go to-morrow, on our way to Liverpool, and this will com- 
plete our visits. . . . As to Church matters at home I am 
tranquil, leaving all to Him who can make the folly of men 
to praise Him. Each party, I think, would soon ruin itself, 
but for the violence and blunders of the opposite. 

''Christ Church, Oxford, September i^th. We are staying 
* This letter was written about a month before Newman's secession. 


with Dr. p. Yesterday we had the Communion with him in 

the cathedral. , and I, and pray with him in his 

study five or six times a day. Such meekness and love, such 
a contrite and broken spirit, it has not before been my for- 
tune to meet. May God strengthen and sustain him !" 

The name of Dr. Potter had been mentioned several 
times, in connection with vacancies in the episcopate, long be- 
fore his election to that office in his own diocese. On these 
occasions he persistently adhered to the line which he had 
adopted of discouraging such movements and of declaring his 
wish and preference to remain a simple parish priest, united 
with his family, and at peace in his home. In Pennsylvania 
and in Connecticut strong influences might have been brought 
to bear in his behalf, but for his entire indifference and posi- 
tive refusal to give any encouragement ; and, as he expresses 
it in one of his letters, " to trouble his head about it'' But in 
the year 1854, the office which he had conscientiously refused 
to seek at length sought him ; and by the concurrent vote of 
the clergy and laity, assembled in Diocesan Convention, in 
September, he was elected provisional Bishop of New York, 
succeeding the honored and lamented Wainwright, whose 
brief but admirable episcopate of less than two years had been 
cut suddenly short by death. He was consecrated November 
22d, in Trinity Church, New York, by the Rt. Rev. T. C. 
Brownell, Bishop of Connecticut, assisted by Bishops Fulford, 
of Montreal ; Whittingham, of Maryland ; Hopkins, of Ver- 
mont ; Doane, of New Jersey; McCoskrey, of Michigan, and 
Alonzo Potter, of Pennsylvania. The day was the guarantee 
of the coming era of rest, recovery, and peace, of great devel- 
opment, and of abounding works of grace to the glory of God 
and the extension of the Church. 

Dr. Potter, elected provisional bishop, became bishop on 
the death of Bishop Onderdonk in 1861. Among the notable 
events of his administration was the subdivision of the diocese 
in 1868, by which the new Dioceses of Long Island, Albany, 
and Central New York came into existence. His influence, 
strongly felt at home in the House of Bishops, of which he 


was a distinguished member, was exerted on a much wider 
scale, through his active participation in the Lambeth Con- 
ferences, held in September, 1867, and in July, 1878. He was 
present, on both occasions, in those august assemblages of the 
Fathers of the Anglican Communion, ably representing the 
Diocese of New York in councils recalling those of the long 
ago ; councils representing one great division — alas ! that there 
are divisions — of the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. The 
friendships of earlier days were continued and strengthened 
at these periods ; new ones were formed, as the letters show. 
Among his correspondents were Bishop Wilberforce, once of 
Oxford and later of Winchester ; Bishop Selwyn, of Lich- 
field ; Bishop Jackson, of London ; Bishop Moberly and his 
predecessor. Bishop Hamilton ; Bishop Medley, of Frederic- 
ton ; Lord Stanhope, Archdeacon Sinclair, Bishop Jacobson, 
of Chester ; the Rt. Hon. Sir J. T. Coleridge, and many others 
of like fame and worth. 

This centennial history contains the evidence of the great 
growth of the diocese during the administration of its now 
venerable diocesan, and gives the particulars necessary in 
order to compute the advance in every part of the field. In 
all these things Bishop Potter took the initiative, as his ad- 
dresses to his convention prove. These were not " charges " 
in the strict sense of that word, but rather reviews of Church 
work during each preceding year, and most interesting ac- 
counts, in almost a narrative form, of the state of the diocese 
and the labors of its devoted clergy. It is needless to say that 
this annual retrospect proved a powerful stimulus to increased 
effort, and gave a practical turn to the work of the entire 
body. During his episcopate progress has been made in every 
desirable direction, but nowhere more distinctly than in efforts 
to reach the laboring classes and the poor, to popularize the 
Church, to draw the plainer sort of people into her fold, and 
to push on home missions in the city and in the rural districts. 
The day is now so far distant as to be hardly remembered 
when some were wont to cast a slur on the Church as that of 
the wealthy and fashionable; it is now one of her most 
marked signs, that she careth for the souls of the poor, and 


that they a'-e precious in her sight. The largest and wealthi- 
est parishes in the city of New York are so many centers of 
wise, well-directed, and successful action looking to the eleva- 
tion of the lower classes, the relief of the suffering, and the 
preaching Christ to the poor. It is not going too far to say 
that this marked characteristic of the work of the Church in 
this city is, under God, the result of the steady, persistent, 
persuasive, and unwearying presentation of these subjects to 
his convention, by the bishop, in those notable addresses to 
which I have referred. 

During the episcopate of Bishop Horatio Potter ecclesias- 
tical controversy has been all but unknown among us. The 
spirit of mischief, though threatening from time to time, has 
never succeeded in getting head. Questions involving obedi- 
ence to the law of the Church, and calling for discipline, have 
from time to time occurred ; in such cases the bishop has met 
them with decision and sustained the law. But his calmness, 
his sagacity, his knowledge of human nature, and his just re- 
spect for the rights of all, have enabled him to maintain, 
within his border, an envied peace. Storms have gathered, 
but they have quietly rolled by ; enemies have predicted ap- 
proaching upheavals and convulsions, but the prophecies have 
failed, till men have grown tired of repeating them. 

The scene which occurred at the General Convention in 
1865, in connection with the reunion of the dioceses which 
had been temporarily separated from each other during the 
terrible civil war, must be held in perpetual remembrance as 
one of the most striking episodes in the life of our great- 
hearted bishop. It has been described by more than one eye- 
witness. I take the following graphic and eloquent account 
from Dr. Fulton's monograph in Bishop Perry's History of 
the American Episcopal Church (vol. ii., pp. 589-90). 

There was intense desire on both sides to come together 
again, to forget the past, to be knit once more as of old, heart 
to heart, and hand to hand ; yet no one felt quite sure how 
the reunion was to be brought about. It seems that the 
Bishops of North Carolina and Arkansas had determined to 
go to Philadelphia, and be present at the general convention, 


not with the thought of taking their seats there, much less 
of claiming them, but to see what God in His Providence 
might have in store, and to consult, if opportunity might be 
found, on the general interests of the Church and the means 
of effecting a reunion. What followed is thus described by 
Dr. Fulton : 

" At the opening services of the General Convention of 
1865, the two Southern bishops modestly took seats with the 
congregation in the nave of the Church, and a thrill of deep 
emotion passed through the vast assembly when their pres- 
ence was observed, and it was whispered that the South was 
coming back. Messengers were sent to conduct them to seats 
among the other bishops in the chancel, a courtesy of which 
they were fully sensible, but which they felt it to be proper 
to decline. After the service the Bishops of New York and 
Maryland went with others to greet them, and with friendly 
violence drew them toward the House of Bishops. It was 
then, when they hesitated to enter thait house until they 
should know on what terms and with what understanding 
they were to be received, that Bishop Potter addressed to 
them the memorable words : ' Trust all to the love and honor 
of your brethren ! ' They could ask, and they desired no 
other assurance. They knew the men with whom they had 
to deal. They entered without further hesitation, and the 
House of Bishops nobly redeemed the noble pledge made by 
the Bishop of New York." 

A few words may be considered in order, by way of de- 
scription of the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
Bishop Potter's consecration. The day was Saturday, Novem- 
ber 22, 1879.* -''■" ^^^ morning at eleven o'clock divine ser- 

* Under the title of "A Blameless Bishop," the following editorial appeared in 
the New York Tribune, on the morning of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Horatio 
Potter's consecration : 

"The Protestant Episcopal Church of this diocese will this day mark in a 
proper and pious manner the twenty-fifth anniversary of the consecration of its 
present excellent head, and on Tuesday next there will be further observances. 
The whole community, without religious distinction, will be interested in this 
recognition of work well done under circumstances of peculiar delicacy and diffi- 


vice was celebrated in Trinity Church. The Bishops of Long 
Island, Western New York, and Albany were present, and an 
immense congregation filled the Church. After the Holy 
Gospel had been read and the Nicene Creed sung, an address 

culty. Bishop Potter has been temperate when rashness wouhl have been easy, 
and conciliatory when he might have been offensive. Though sometimes sorely 
tried, either by those of his clergy who went too far, or by those who did not go 
far enough in their ideas of priestly duty, he has been sparing and tenderly pater- 
nal in his rebukes. Patient under occasional provocation, he has steered his way 
between Tractarian and Tepidarean, without scandalous collision. 

"Far be it from us to intimate that Bishop Potter has been, in any offensive 
sense of the word, a trimmer. The most minute inspection of his record will dis- 
cover no great principle neglected, no true position abandoned, no rule of the 
Church conveniently disregarded. At the same time he has not been a fretful 
disciplinarian, scolding from the rising of the sun until the going down of the 
same ; infusing all the affairs of the diocese with a polemic spirit ; eagerly hunting 
for eccentricities or irregularites of ritual ; putting himself perpetually upon his 
Episcopal dignity. He has not acted as if a true soldier of the Cross must be, like 
some military martinet, a monomaniac upon the subject of pipe-clay and buttons, 
forever brandishing his crook, as if it were a drill-sergeant's baton, at the high 
who were too high, at the broad who were too broad, and at the low who would 
not come up an inch higher, and who were by no means averse to a little com- 
fortable martyrdom. If he had pleased he might have made the history of his 
administration one long series of Celebrated Cases of the ecclesiastical sort. He 
might have resolutely refused to set foot in certain sacred edifices until there had 
been a complete rearrangement of their altars. He might have absented himself 
until all the candles had been extinguished, the crucifixes taken down, and the 
vestments reduced to a plain uniformity of white and black. He might have de- 
nounced an intonation of the service, the employment of incense, and the frequent 
use of the sign of the Cross. Indeed, he might have been so afraid of Rome, and 
so sharp in the expression of his fear, as to send more than one of his churches, 
rector, wardens, and all, in that direction. On the other hand, he might have 
made matters exceedingly unpleasant for such of his clergy and of their congrega- 
tions as care for none of these things ; for those who minister wherever they can 
find a chance — in Methodist chapels or in Baptist meeting-houses — and who are 
as ostentatiously low as others are ostentatiously high. Fortunately he has been 
so uniformly amiable, and has brought to the discharge of his duties such uncom- 
mon common sense, that at the end of twenty-five years remarkable for new views 
and much religious speculation he does not stand responsible for a single schism, 
and has had hardly one important desertion. If there are those who think that 
this has been an easy thing to do, it is because they know nothing about the 

" It is for his own people to extend to Bishop Potter their particular congratula- 
tions ; but all who desire decency and order, who are scandalized by the spectacle 
of church quarrels, who love to see men consistent in creed and conduct, and who 


was presented to the bishop by a deputation representing the 
clergy and laity of his diocese, to whom he made a reply. On 
Tuesday, the 25th, a reception was given to the venerable 
diocesan in the Academy of Music. On that most interesting 
evening the house was crowded to its utmost capacity by an 
audience among the most remarkable which ever assembled 
in this city. The reception committee consisted of the Rev. 
George D. Wildes, D.D., and Messrs. Woodbury G. Langdon, 
Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Waldorf Astor, George Macul- 
loch Miller, William W. Wright, De Lancey Kane and 
Elbridge T, Gerry. Music was performed by a large orchestra 
and by the choirs of Trinity Church, Grace Church, and St. 
Thomas's Church. The addresses were as follows: 

1. A congratulatory address from the President and Cor- 
poration of Union College, Schenectady. 

2. An address from St. Peter's parish, Albany, of which 
the bishop had been so long rector. 

3. An address from the Standing Committee of the Diocese 
of Albany. 

4. A congratulatory address by the Hon. William M. 

5. An address by the Hon. John Jay, who at the same 
time presented the bishop with a very beautiful and elaborate 
piece of silver, the description of which, in its design, its sym- 
bolism, and curious and exquisitely elaborate workmanship, 
would occupy much more space than the writer has at his 

The venerable bishop, at the conclusion of these addresses, 
which were varied by appropriate selections of sacred music, 
made his response; and as he advanced to do so, the immense 
audience rose, and remained standing while he spoke to them. 

think peacemakers to be indeed blessed, will also remember in a kindly spirit this 
amiable prelate. We will not say that after him will come the deluge, but 
when at last he is called to his great reward — distant be the day ! — we do think 
that his place will be a hard one to refill. He will, however, leave the legacy of 
his example. He has shown that to patience, to wisdom and to Christian love 
nothing is impossible. He has made the way of his successor easy, if only that 
successor shall find grace to follow it." — Editor. 


A sight more impressive in its way has probably never been 
seen ; it was rendered the more affecting by the reflection 
that these were, for the most part, his own children in the 
faith, communicants of the various parishes, great numbers 
of them persons on whose heads his hands had been laid in 
confirmation, men and women who stood thus reverently be- 
fore him as their Father in God, to hear his words of affec- 
tionate greeting and to receive his pastoral benediction. The 
sight can never be forgotten by those who had the good for- 
tune to be present. 

The bishop's last public service was held in the Church of 
the Incarnation in the evening of Ascension Day, May 3, 
1883. It was at the end of a long and very fatiguing Visita- 
tion. On the Sunday preceding he had held three confirma- 
tions, though suffering from cold. An attack of pneumonia 
followed after that final service ; it left him in a state of 
prostration from which he never rallied. On the 12th of Sep- 
tember following, he addressed a communication to the 
Standing Committee, informing them that it was his own 
belief, and the opinion of his physician that, even if his life 
should be considerably prolonged, he should never have the 
physical strength necessary to endure the fatigues and expos- 
ure incident to the active duties of the Episcopal office, and 
announcing his complete withdrawal from the administration 
of the diocese. 

Since that time, the aged servant of God has remained 
quietly in his Heavenly Father's hands, resigned, patient, 
waiting for the hour of release, the time of entrance into his 
reward. *' Salutare TUUM expectabo, Domine." 

D.Applet.nnSc Co. 



Henry Codman Potter, the Assistant Bishop of the 
Diocese of New York, was born in Schenectady, N. Y., May 
25> 1835. He is a son of the late Bishop of Pennsylvania, 
and a grandson of Dr. Nott, President of Union College. 
His education was obtained chiefly at the Episcopal Academy, 
Philadelphia, and he was for a brief time engaged in mercan- 
tile life. His classical and other studies for the ministry were 
under the immediate direction of his father and Prof. G. E. 
Hare, D.D. Entering the Theological Seminary of Virginia, 
he was graduated from that institution in 1857, and during 
the same year he married. He received deacon's orders 
at his father's hands in St. Luke's Church, Philadelphia, May 
25, 1857, and was ordained in Trinity Church, Pittsburg, 
October 15, 1858, by Dr. Bowman, Assistant Bishop of Penn- 
sylvania. His first pastoral work was as the rector of Christ 

Church, Greenburg, Pa., and in May, 1859, he was called 
to St. John's Church, Troy, N. Y. In 1862, he was elected 
rector of Christ Church, Cincinnati; in 1863, chosen Presi- 
dent of Kenyon College, Ohio, and in the same year he was 
called to St. Paul's Church, Albany, N. Y., — all of which 
he" declined. But, after seven years' service in Troy, he 
accepted, in 1866, the position of assistant minister of Trinity 
Church, Boston. Two years later he became rector of Grace 
Church, New York, which office he filled with singular faith- 
fulness and success for fifteen years. In 1875, he was elected 
Bishop of Iowa, but declined. He received the degree of 
D.D. from Trinity College and LL.D. from Union College. 
He was secretary of the House of Bishops from 1865 to 1883, 
and also for many years was one of the managers of the 


Board of Missions. Dr. Potter's published works include 
Sisterhoods and Deaconesses at Home and Abroad, 1872 ; The 
Gates of the East — A Winter in Egypt and Syria, 1 876 ; and 
Sermons of the City, 1880. 

In 1883, Bishop Horatio Potter having asked for an as- 
sistant, the convention, which met in the autumn of that 
year, acceded to his plea of advancing age and increasing 
infirmities, and on September 27th unanimously elected 
Dr. Henry C. Potter, to the office of Assistant Bishop 
of New York. He was consecrated in Grace Church, on 
Broadway, October 20, 1883, by Bishops Smith of Kentucky, 
Williams of Connecticut, Clark of Rhode Island, Whipple of 
Minnesota, Stevens of Pennsylvania, Littlejohn of Long 
Island, and Huntington of Central New York. Other bishops 
who were present and assisted in the service were Lay of 
Easton, and Howe of Central Pennsylvania, who acted as the 
presenters. Bishop Williams was the preacher. The occa- 
sion was otherwise memorable as being the last consecration 
performed by the venerable presiding bishop, Benjamin Bos- 
worth Smith, then lacking but a few months of four-score- 
and-ten. Forty-three bishops were present, as the General 
Convention was then in session in Philadelphia. More than 
three hundred of the clergy were also present, together with 
all the students of the General Theological Seminary, and a 
large congregation, including many prominent laymen from 
all portions of the diocese. Many of these paid their personal 
respects to the new bishop at the reception extended to him 
in the evening by the rector of Trinity Church at his resi- 
dence. No. 27 West Twenty-fifth Street. By personal in- 
struments, soon after executed, the bishop resigned the entire 
charge and responsibility of the work of the diocese into the 
new bishop's hands. 


T[EaiKiQTnf (S[H](yi[E€D^pMoY. wm^-ms>B. 


An asterisk (*) added to the name of a parish indicates that no report was 
rendered although repeatedly requested by the Committee. — Editor. 


Was organized in 1697. The first church was built in 1696, 

the second in 1788, and the present edifice was begun in 1839, 

and completed in 1846. 

The rectors of the parish have been : 

William Vesey, 1697-1746. Instituted as rector, February 

6, 1697. Died, July 11, 

Henry Barclay, 1746-1764. Date of certificate of induc- 

tion, October 22, 1746. 
Died, October 28, 1764. 

Samuel Auchmuty, 1765-1777. Date of letters of institution, 

September i, 1764. Died, 
March 4, 1777. 

Date of letters of institution, 
March 20, 1777. Resigned, 
November i, 1783. 

Elected, November i, 1783. 
Did not enter. 

Date of induction, April 22, 
1784. Resigned, December 
22, i8co. 

Elected and inducted, Decem- 
ber 22, 1800. Died, Febru- 
ary 2"], 1 8 16. 

Elected and inducted, March 
11,1816. Died, September 
12, 1830. 

Elected and inducted, Oc- 
tober II, 1830. Died, No- 
vember 7, 1862. 

Elected, November 10, in- 
ducted, November II, 1862. 

Charles Inglis, 1 777-1 783. 

Benjamin Moore, 1783. 
Samuel Provoost, 1 784-1 8(X). 

Benjamin Moore, 1800-18 16. 

John H. Hobart, 1816-1830. 

William Berrian, 1 830-1 862. 

Morgan Dix, 1862. 


The clergy at present connected with the parish are : 
Morgan Dix^ S. T. D Rector. 


I. — Assigned to Duty by the Vestry. 

Sullivan H. Weston, D.D St. John's Chapel. 

Cornelius E. Swope, D.D Trinity Chapel. 

James Mulchahey, D.D St. Paul's Chapel. 

George William Douglas, D.D Trinity Church. 

//. — Assignable to duty by the Rector. 

William H. Cooke, Charles T. Olmsted, Philip A. H. Brown. 

III. — In charge of Mission Chapels. 

Thomas H. Sill St. Chrysostom's Chapel. 

Edward H. C. Goodwin St. Cornelius' Chapel. 

Arthur C. Kimber St. Augustine's Chapel. 

Louis A. Arthur Assistant Priest at Trinity Church. 

Joseph W. Hill " " " 

A.J.Thompson " " St. Paul's. 

J. R. L. Nisbett " " St. Chrysostom's. 

Olin Hallock " " St. Augustine's. 

William B. Hooper " " " 

A rectory was purchased in 1872, No. 27 West Twenty- 
fifth Street. 

St. Paul's Chapel was opened in 1766. 

St. John's Chapel was opened in 1807. 

Trinity Chapel was opened in 1855. 

St. Chrysostom's Chapel was opened in 1869. 

St. Augustine's Chapel was opened in 1877. 

Trinity Church School-house was opened in 1872, with 
extensive additions in 1875. 

St. Paul's and St. John's have been enlarged and reno- 
vated from time to time. Trinity Chapel School-house was 
completed in 1861, Dr. Berrian, rector. And the infirmary 
in Varick Street, formerly rectory of the parish, was estab- 
lished in 1874, Dr. Dix, rector. In the Convention Journal 
of the diocese for 1885, there is a tabulated statement of the 
activities of the entire parish. From the summary — for there 
is not space for the details of each chapel and congregation — 


are drawn these particulars : During the year there were 
1,230 baptisms administered, 455 received confirmation, and 
the present number of communicants is 5,396. Owing to the 
destruction of the records of the parish twice by fire, 1746 
and 1776, it is impossible to present full statistics since the 
organization of the parish. 

The wardens in 1700 were Thomas Wenham and Richard 
Willett ; in 1710, David Jamison and John Crook; in 1720, 
John Moore and John Roade ; in 1730, '40 and '50, Joseph 
Robinson and Joseph Murray; 1760, Joseph Reade and 
John Chambers ; in 1770, Joseph Reade and David Clarkson ; 
in 1780, James Desbrosses and John I. Kempe ; in 1790, John 
Jay and James Duane; in 1800 John Charlton and Robert 
Watts; in 1810, Rufus King and Anthony L. Bleecker; in 
1820, Richard Harrison and Nehemiah Rogers; in 1830, 
Nehemiah Rogers and Charles McEvers ; in 1840, Nehemiah 
Rogers and Thomas L. Ogden ; in 1850, Adam Tredwell 
and Edward W. Laight ; in i860, Wm. E. Dunscomb and 
Robert Hyslop ; in 1870, Wm. E. Dunscombe and George 
T. Strong, and in 1880, Samuel T. Skidmore and John J. 

For many years past Trinity parish has given itself chiefly 
to the extension, nurture and conservation of Church work 
in New York city. As the spiritual destitution of that part 
of the city below Canal Street has deepened year after year 
by the removal and dying out of churches and missions. Trinity 
has accepted the trust remaining on her hands, and made 
systematic and thorough provision for the immediate and 
more pressing requirements of this vast and populous pre- 
cinct. In addition to the multiplied activities of the church 
and two chapels, St. Paul's and St. John's, this region is 
treated as a missionary cure, in Three DIVISIONS, — West 
OF Broadway, from Broadway to the North River, and from 
Battery Place to Jay Street, and East of Broadway, from 
Broadway to the East River, and from Battery Place to 
Broome Street. The Third Division — German, is cared 
for in a German congregation, which meets in a room fitted 
as a chapel in Trinity Church House. In this extra pa- 


rochial mission-cure, 439 families receive pastoral care and 

To illustrate the type of parish work in church and 
chapels, and all are after much the same pattern, a rapid 
summary of the activities and organizations under way in 
Trinity Church may be of use. i. The Sunday-school with 
39 teachers and 602 scholars ; 2. The Industrial School ; 3. The 
Daily Parish School for boys; 4, The Night School; 5. The 
Ladies' Employment Society; 6. The Altar Society; 7. The 
Guilds, (a) For Boys and Young Men — (i.) Guild of St. 
Ambrose, (2.) Guild of the Holy Cross, (3.) Guild of St. John 
the Evangelist, (4.) Guild of St. Nicholas, (5.) Guild of St. 
Paul ; and (b) Guilds for Girls and Young Women — (i.) 
Guild of the Good Shepherd, (2.) Guild of St. Agnes, (3.) 
Guild of St. Mary, (4.) Guild of St. Monica; 8. Week Day 
Bible Classes ; 9. Mothers' Meetings ; 10. The Mission Cure, 
already described; 11. Trinity Church Association, which 
supervises and supports: (i.) The Mission House, 30 State 
Street, (2.) The Phj^sician and Dispensary, (3.) The Kinder- 
garten, (4.) The Training School for Girls in Household Service, 
(5.) Reading Rooms, etc., for the guilds of men and boys, (6.) 
Entertainments and Lectures for the Poor, (7.) A Seaside 
Home for Children, (8.) A Relief Bureau, and (9.) A kitchen 
garden. This association is independent of the corporation 
of Trinity Church, and in 1884 expended more than $11,000 
in its several works. The church has a choral school, where 
a thorough course in singing for men and boys is given by 
Mr. Messiter, the organist and musical director of Trinity, 
five afternoons each week. All are taught free of charge, 
and those having special talent receive instruction in vocali- 

Trinity Parish contains seven churches, as follows : 

1. Trinity Church : Broadway, head of Wall Street. 

2. St. PauVs Chapel: Broadway, between Fulton and Ve- 
sey Streets, 

3. St. Johns Chapel: Varick Street, above Beach. 

4. Trinity Chapel : Twenty-fifth Street, near Broadway. 


5. Si. Chfysostom s Chapel: Seventh Avenue, corner of 
Thirty-ninth Street. 

6. St. Augustine s Chapel: Houston Street, between the 
Bowery and Second Avenue. 

7. St. Cornelius Chapel: Governor's Island, New York 

Of these seven churches, the last three named are entirely 
free; St. Paul's Chapel also is free, with the exception of the 
few pews owned by individuals in that chapel, over which the 
vestry have no control. St. John's Chapel also is almost en- 
tirely free. No pews are sold in any of the churches of this 
parish ; while those which are rented cannot be claimed by 
the persons holding them at any time other than Sunday 
morning and afternoon, and on certain high feast days, such 
as Christmas. At all night services, all the pews are free ; 
also at all special services, and always on week days. 

The pews in Trinity Chapel are rented from year to year 
at low rates ; the highest pew rent paid in that church is 
only $85. 

Ownership of pews in Trinity Parish dates from a very re- 
mote period ; not within the memory of living man has any 
pew been sold by the corporation. The vestry are constantly 
acquiring the ownership of the pews by purchase from the 
descendants of the original possessors, or by sale on forfeit- 
ure, and thus extinguishing the property in them, for the 
purpose of facilitating the attendance of those desiring to 
avail themselves of the advantages offered by the churches. 

Three churches have occupied the site on which the present 
parish church stands ; the dates are as follows ; 

The first church was begun A.D. 1696, finished A.D. 1697, 
enlarged A.D. 1737, and destroyed by fire, A.D. 1776. The sec- 
ond church was built A.D. 1788, and pulled down to make room 
for the present one, A. D. 1839, being then in an unsafe con- 
dition. The present church was commenced A.D. 1839, 
completed in the spring of 1846, and consecrated on Ascen- 
sion Day, May 21st, of that year. 

St. Paul's Chapel was commenced May 14, A.D. 1764, 


the corner-stone being laid on that day. It was completed 
A.D. 1766, and first opened for divine service October 30th, 
of that year. In 1866 the centennial was observed with a 
three-days' festival; and in 1874 the chapel was declared 
free, and it was ordered that no pews be hereafter rented in 
it by the vestry. 

St. John's Chapel was commenced A.D. 1803, and com- 
pleted A.D. 1807. It was consecrated by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Moore, in the year in which it was completed. It has under- 
gone alteration and enlargement three times. 

Trinity Chapel was commenced A. D. 185 1, and fully com- 
pleted A. D. 1856 ; its consecration took place April 17, 1855, 
before it was quite finished. It was built for the accommo- 
dation of those of the parishioners who, having removed to 
the upper part of the city, were at such distances from the 
churches of the parish that they could not attend them with- 
out great inconvenience and difficulty. 

St. Chrysostom's Chapel is a free mission church, built in 
accordance with the provisions of an act of the Legislature, 
passed April 23, 1867. The corner-stone was laid by the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Potter, assisted by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Neely, 
on the 28th day of October, A.D. 1868; the first service was 
held in the church November 7, 1869, and the chapel was 
consecrated October 30, 1879. This is the first of a class of 
chapels intended for the accommodation of persons residing 
in districts in which there are few or no wealthy inhabitants. 
Each is regarded as a center of missionary operations, and 
they are to be within convenient reach of the class for which 
they are intended. 

St. Augustine's Chapel is a free mission church, of the 
same class as St. Chrysostom's. The corner-stone was laid 
on the 2d day of September, 1876 ; and the chapel was con- 
secrated on the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, November 
30, 1877, by the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, Bishop of the Dio- 
cese of New York. This chapel stands on East Houston 
Street, between the Bowery and Second Avenue. 

In addition to these churches, there is included in the par- 
ish the Chapel of St. Cornelius, on Governor's Island. That 


chapel was built more than twenty years ago, by the free- 
will offerings of churchmen in this city, through the exertions 
of the Rev. John McVickar, S. T. D., U. S. Chaplain at Fort 
Columbus. About the year 1866, Governor's Island was 
dropped from the list of army posts for which chaplains are 
provided, the War Department announcing as a reason for 
that step, that as the island is within the limits of the First 
Ward of the City of New York, the religious denominations 
of the city ought to feel interest enough in the spiritual wel- 
fare of the men at the post to see that they were provided 
with the ministrations of the Gospel. The post-chaplaincy 
having been discontinued, and the chapel, erected by church- 
men, being thus in jeopardy, the Corporation of Trinity 
Church made the following proposition to the War Depart- 
ment : That if the chapel should be placed at their disposal 
and under their control, they would maintain a clergyman 
there at their own cost, who should perform all the duties of 
post-chaplain. The proposition was accepted August, 1868; 
and, in consequence, the chapel of St. Cornelius is included 
among the chapels of this parish. 


In addition to the seven churches belonging to Trinity 
Parish, twenty receive aid in the shape of annual donations 
and contributions toward their support. Of these the first 
in order of importance is St. Luke's, Hudson Street, opposite 
Grove. This is, in the strict sense of the word, a mission 
church, having daily morning and evening prayer, the weekly 
Communion, a large Sunday School, a Parochial School, and 
several clergymen, one of whom resides in the Ninth Ward, 
in the midst of the poor population in that quarter of the 
town. St. Luke's Church has scarcely a wealthy person con- 
nected with it ; the people are unable to support it ; and the 
building would have been sold, and the site abandoned long 
ago, had not the Corporation of Trinity interposed to prevent 
that calamity. The allowance of $10,000 per annum to this 
church is still continued ; in consideration of which annual 


grant, and of additional assistance in enlarging the church 
and providing greater accommodations for the people of the 
district in which it is situated, St. Luke's has been made 

Next in order to be mentioned is All Saints' Church, situ- 
ated at the corner of Henry and Scammel Streets, in the 
south-eastern part of the city, and in the midst of a tenement- 
house population. This church would also have been sold 
and removed long ago, had not Trinity Vestry kept it where 
it is, and where they intend, God willing, that it shall remain. 
To this church there is made, including the payment of in- 
terest on mortgages, an allowance of about $6,000 per annum. 
The allowance was increased very considerably some years 
ago, and funds were advanced to build a parsonage close by 
the church, on the express condition that the church should 
be free, henceforth, and that the rector should reside in the 
house so provided for him. 

Among the churches aided by the corporation are the 
Church of the Nativity, Avenue C ; St. Clement's, West 
Third Street ; Holy Martyrs', Forsyth Street ; the Church of 
the Epiphany, East Fiftieth Street ; St. Peter's, Twentieth 
Street, near Ninth Avenue ; Holy Apostles', Ninth Avenue 
and Twenty-eighth Street ; St. John the Evangelist, West 
Eleventh Street ; St. Ann's, St. Ambrose's, St. Philip's, All 
Angels', and St. Timothy's, all doing mission work in poor 
districts of the town. Besides the aid extended to these and 
others, annual allowances are made to the Mission for Sea- 
men in the city and Port of New York ; to the City Mission 
Society, to enable them to support the chaplain at St. Barna- 
bas' House, 304 Mulberry Street ; to the Italian Mission in 
this city; to the Spanish Church at Santiago; to Hobart 
College, in the Diocese of Western New York ; and to St. 
James' Church, Hyde Park. St. Luke's Hospital receives 
$2,000 per annum, for which five beds are at the disposal of the 
Corporation ; to the Episcopal Fund of the Diocese, and the 
Diocesan Fund, large sums are annually paid; and the ex- 
penses of the Convention fall in large measure on the Vestry 
of Trinity Church. The donations, allowances, etc., outside 


the parish, from August i, 1879, ^^ August i, 1880, amounted 
to $42,716.01. 

Under the earh'er administration of the parish it is a mat- 
ter of history that her benefactions have been lavishly dis- 
tributed among the old parishes at their several organizations, 
and by frequent gifts and loans in times of pecuniary need 
and emergency; not to mention numerous and generous 
grants to parishes and corporations elsewhere in the State of 
New York. 



The question is frequently asked, " What do you do with 
the income of the Trinity Church property?" Without giv- 
ing the exact figures, let it suffice to say that the income for 
the year from all sources falls short of $500,000, Now with 
this income the things to be done fall under the following 
heads : 

I. — The Maintenance of Seven Churches of the 
Parish ; almost the entire maintenance of them, for the 
amount of income derived from all the pew rents when paid 
does not exceed one-twentieth of the sum expended in the 
support of these churches. Under this head are included the 
salaries of 18 Clergymen, 7 Organists, 100 Choristers, and 12 
Sextons and Assistant Sextons. 

II. — The Maintenance of a System of Daily Parish 
Schools, of which there are six, all free of charge to pupils; 
this includes the salaries of 26 teachers, male and female, and 
all the supplies requisite for about 1,000 scholars. 

III. — The Maintenance of a System of Sunday 
Schools and Industrial Schools, to each of which 
classes of schools annual appropriations are made ; during 
the past year the Industrial Schools received $3,000, and the 
Sunday Schools a much larger sum, including the cost of 
books, religious papers, leaflets, etc., and the means of hold- 
ing festivals in the holiday seasons. 

IV. — Provision for the Sick Poor of the parish, and of 
other needy persons, without regard to their parochial con- 


nections, by the maintenance of the infirmary, at 50 Varick 
Street, having thirty beds, at an annual cost of $8,000; and the 
support of five beds at St. Luke's Hospital, for which $2,000 
is paid. 

V. — Provision for the Medical Attendance on Cer- 
tain Other Sick ; the supply of medicine at a dispensary 
connected with the infirmary ; and the burial of those of the 
parish poor who die in destitute circumstances. 

VI. — The Support, to a Greater or Lesser Extent, 
of other Churches Outside the Parish. — Among these 
is one which receives $10,000 annually, and another which 
receives $6,000 annually, and sixteen more which receive 
smaller sums varying according to their needs. 

Vn. — The Aid Extended to Societies and Institu- 
tions, OTHER THAN CHURCHES ; among these are: the Sea- 
men's Mission in the Port of New York; the City Mission 
Society ; the support of a chaplain at St. Barnabas House ; 
the Italian Mission in New York ; the Church German So- 
ciety ; Hobart College at Geneva, N. Y. ; the grants and 
allowances thus made amount to between $40,000 and $50,- 
000 annually. 

VIII.— General Church Expenditures ; including, 
annual payment to Diocesan Fund ; Expenses of the Annual 
Diocesan Convention, including provision for place of meet- 
ing, service, music at opening, and refreshments during the 
session ; contribution to the support of the Bishop of the 
Diocese, by way of a subscription to his salary. 

IX. — Expenses of the Estate and Property of the 
Corporation of Trinity Church ; this includes the Office 
of the Corporation, with a Comptroller ; a Clerk and Coun- 
sel ; eight Bookkeepers, Agents, etc. The repairs and altera- 
tions required in the houses of the estate, occupying about 
750 city lots in all ; the annual taxes paid on Trinity Church 
property ; these amounted last year (taxes and water rents) to 
about $63,000. And here it is to be noted that the Church 
property is not, as some suppose, exempt from taxation ; 
on the contrary, taxes are paid on every square inch of 
ground used for secular purposes, and on every building ex- 


cepting the churches, schoolhouses, infirmary, and burial 

X. — The Keeping up of the Ancient Churchyards* 
and of Trinity Cemetery. The old burial grounds of Trinity 
Church, St. Paul's Chapel, and St. John's Chapel bring in no 
revenue, and are a continual source of expense, in keeping 
them in good order, beautifying them, repairing dilapidated 
monuments, and recutting inscriptions. Trinity Cemetery is 
also a source of very heavy expense, though a small income 
is derived from it. The estimated cost of necessary expendi- 
tures in it next year will exceed by upwards of $20,000 the 
income derived from the sale of plots. 

XI. — The Payment of Pensions to certain persons en- 
titled to that aid, such as, for example, the widows of deceased 
ministers of the parish. 

The foregoing table presents a general view of the annual 
expenses ; and placing that income at about $500,000, and 
considering the great variety of objects had in view, religious, 
educational, and charitable, in the management of this valu- 
able trust, the writer may be permitted to ask where an in- 
stance can be found in which either individual or corporation 
is doing more or better things for the community with the 
same amount of money, in the way of maintaining the Chris- 
tian religion, furnishing the means of a good education, com- 
forting and succoring the sick, relieving the needy, cultivat- 
ing the taste of the people by the refining influences of music, 
architecture, and beautiful worship, and thus promoting the 
best interests of society, and contributing toward the security 
and permanency of the institutions of our common civiliza- 


This parish was admitted at the first Convention of the 
diocese, 1785. In the Convention of 1787, Rev. John H. 
Rowland, rector, took part. Rev. Richard C. Moore was rec- 
tor in 1792, and in 1806 reported (first report to the Conven- 
tion on record): Families in number at least 300, communi- 
cants 140, and baptisms annually about 80. In 1809 Rev. 


David Moore was rector, and in 1812 there was a church and 
also a chapel. It is impossible to produce the entire list 
of rectors. In 1885 Rev. Thos. S. Yocum was rector, and 
C. L. Ferine and Nathan Britter wardens. The number of 
communicants was 100. 


This parish was organized October 26, 1766, and re- 
ceived a royal charter dated March 9, 1773. The first 
church was built and opened in the fall of 1774, the consecra- 
tion sermon being preached on Christmas Day, 1774, by the 
Rev. Samuel Provoost, afterward bishop of the diocese. * Its 
present edifice was built in 1833. The rectors and clergy 
have been: Rev. John Beardsley, \']66-\'j'j'j ; in this con- 
nection is given an extract from the record-book of the vestry : 
" December 14, 1777, by order of the Council of Safety, the 
Revd. John Beardsley was removed to New York." Rev. 
Henry Van Dyke officiated while he was still a candidate for 
orders in 1784. He was rector from 1787-1791 ; Rev. George 
H. Spieren, 1 792-1 795 ; Rev. John M. Sayrs, 1 796-1 798; 
Rev. Philander Chase, afterwards Bishop of Illinois, 1799- 
1805; Rev. Barzillai Buckley, 1806-1809; Rev. Joseph Pren- 
tice, minister in charge, February to July, 18 10; Rev. John 
Reed, D.D., 1810-1845 ; Rev. Homer Wheaton, assistant 
minister from 1842, and rector 1846-1847 ; Rev. Samuel 
Buel, D.D., 1847-1866; Rev. Philander K. Cady, D.D., 
1866-1875 ; Rev. Henry L. Ziegenfuss, vice Dr. Cady, 1874- 
1875, and rector since November i, 1885. 

There is a parish school-building of brick, two stories 
high, after plans by Upjohn, which was erected in 1857, dur- 
ing the rectorship of the Rev. Dr. Buel, at a cost of $7,000, 
by Mr. William A. Davies and his wife, and by them pre- 
sented to the parish. Also during the same rectorship steps 
were taken and matured for founding and building the memo- 
rial Church of the Holy Comforter, of which the rector was 
chief promoter and a trustee, until after the establishment of 

* This MS. discourse is in the possession of the editor of this volume. 


its first rector. And it is also memorable that under the 
same rectorship the valuable new organ was purchased, its 
present choir built, and the entire interior of the church 
renovated and decorated. 

Since organization 3,276 baptisms are recorded, and 1,022 
had received confirmation since 1846, previous to which date 
no record of confirmations exists. There are at present about 
400 communicants. The wardens in 1766 were Bartholomew 
Cromwell and Samuel Smith; in 1776, Isaac Baldwin and 
Henry Vanderburgh ; in 1786, Richard Davis and William 
Emott ; in 1796, the same; in 1806, John Davis and John 
Reade ; in 1816, James Emott and David Brookes; in 1826, 
James Emott and William Davies ; in 1836, William Davies 
and James Emott; in 1846, Hubert Van Wagenen and Isaac 
T. Baldwin ; in 1856, Thomas L, Davies and Isaac T, Baldwin ; 
in 1866, Thomas L. Davies and George M. Van Kleeck ; in 
1876, the same, and in 1886, Le Grand Dodge and Edward 
H. Parker, M.D. 

This parish has, from the beginning of its history, on ac- 
count of its commanding position and social vigor, exercised 
an active and for a long time a leading influence in church 
development throughout the county. Two important par- 
ishes have grown up at its side in Poughkeepsie without im- 
pairing its resources — in the latter instance under the sole and 
lavish beneficence of a single family, long historically and 
officially connected with Christ Church Parish. 


Was incorporated by royal charter, July 30, 1770. The first 
church edifice was built prior to 1750, and the present church 
in 1 8 19. The earliest recorded ministry was performed by 
Rev. G. H.Spierin, as minister and glebe schoolmaster, in 1790. 
May 3, 1 791, he resigned the school, and in 1793 accepted a call 
to the Parish of Christ Church, Poughkeepsie. September, 
18, 1816, Rev. Cave Jones was elected and instituted rector 
for legal purposes only. He resigned in 18 16. September 
18, 1816, the Rev. John Brown — who had been in effect 
rector from December i, 18 15 — was elected rector and 


accepted November 21, 1816. After a vigorous, successful, 
and almost unprecedented ministry of sixty-two years, he re- 
signed February 16, 1878, but was made Rector Emeritus for 
life. He died August 15, 1884. February 26, 1878, Rev. 
Octavius Applegate, who, since November 8, 1868, had been 
assistant minister with full pastoral charge, became rector 
of the parish. 

The following clergy have officiated in the parish under the 
rector as assistants in various duties: In 1810, Rev. William 
Powell ; in 1859, ^^v- C. S. Henry, D.D. ; in 1859, ^^'^' Ho- 
bart Chetwood ; in i860, Rev. J. W. Clark; in 1866, Rev. J. 
F. Potter; in 1868, Rev. Alexander Davidson ; in 1872, Rev. 
N. P.. Boss ; in 1873, Rev. J. H. Smith; in 1874, Rev. G. W. 
Hinkle; in 1876, Rev. G. D. Silliman ; in 1877, ^^v. A. C. 
Hoehing ; in 1881, Rev. Jas. Baird, D.D. ; in 1881, Rev. 
Sturges Allen, and in 1884, Rev. G. A. Rathbun. 

A rectory was purchased in April, 1884. In 1853 a Sun- 
day-school house was built. Dr. Brown, rector; and St. 
George's Mission Chapel, in 1873, by the assistant minister. 
Rev. O. Applegate. 

Since 181 5 there has been 3,138 baptisms and 1,360 have 
received confirmation. 

In 1815 there were 3 communicants; in 1825, 81 ; in 
1835,93; in 1845, 167; in 1855, 194; in 1865,259; in 1875, 
400, and at present there are 437. 

The wardens have been : In 1805, Arthur Smith and 
George Merritt ; in 181 5, David Fowler and William Taylor; 
in 1825, David Fowler and Joseph Hoffman ; in 1835, Joseph 
Hoffman and Charles Ludlow ; in 1845, Joseph Hoffman and 
Frederick Betts ; in 1855, D. G. Leonard and Homer Rams- 
dell ; in 1865, Homer Ramsdell and David Moore; in 1875, 
the same; in 1885, Homer Ramsdell and D. B. St. John. 

In 1826 galleries were put in the church and an organ pro- 
cured. In 1834 the church was enlarged, a steeple built, and 
a bell provided. In 1853 ^ further enlargement was made 
and the old organ replaced by a new one. 

The Rev. Dr. Brown reorganized the parish at New Wind- 
sor April 8, 1818, and held the rectorship twenty-nine years. 


In March, 1859, ^^^ vestry of St. George's Church, to provide 
for the increasing demand for pews, purchased a building at 
the expense of $4,000, substantially built of brick, with sit- 
tings for 400 persons ; $2,500 was expended in preparing it 
for divine service. It was consecrated May 10, 1859, with 
the title of St. John's Chapel, 

What is now St. Paul's Parish was organized the following 
year. In 1864 it was found inexpedient to continue services 
in St. John's Chapel, and the building was disposed of. 

St. George's Mission was opened in 1873, and a chapel 
built, which was enlarged in 1880. In 1874 ladies of St. 
George's Church projected a home and hospital. It was in- 
corporated by ladies of both Newburgh and New Windsor, 
January 5, 1876, and is now a flourishing institution for the 
care of the aged, sick, and injured, under the title of St. 
Luke's Home and Hospital. In 1880 and 1881 the pews of 
the church were remodeled, the chancel decorated, and a 
beautiful chancel window erected. 


This parish was organized under an Act of Incorporation 
granted by George III., dated July 23, 1770. Immediately a 
church was begun, and completed within twelve months, in 
1770-1771. The second edifice was consecrated by Bishop 
Hobart, September 3, 1826; and the third and present church 
was erected in 1871. The rectors have been Rev. Geo. H. 
Spierin, missionary at Newburgh and this church, 1 790-1793 ; 
Rev. Frederick Van Horn, 1 793-1 806; Rev. Mr. McLen, 1807- 
1808; Rev. William Powell, probably from 1810-1818; Rev. 
Samuel Phinney, 1818-1821 ; Rev. James P. Cotter, 1821- 
1822 ; Rev. J. P. Harrison, 1826-1827; Rev. Wm. H. Lewis, 
1827; Rev. Albert Hoyt, 1827-1829, until his decease; 
Rev. Nathan Kingsbury, 1829-1830; Rev. Wm. H. Hart, 
1830-1836; Rev. Robt. Shaw, 1836-1838 ; Rev. Henry W. 
Svveetzer, 1838-1842; Rev. Horace Hills, Jr., 1843-1844; 
Rev. Wm. H. Hart, 1844-1850; Rev. J. W. Stewart, 185 1- 
1856; Rev. Samuel C. Davis, 1 856-1 859 ; Rev. J. G. Jacocks, 
1859-1861 ; Rev. James W. Stewart, 1861-1869 ; Rev. Levi 


Johnston, 1869-1874; Rev. Wm. E. Snowdon, 1874-1877; 
Rev. N. F.Robinson, 1877-1879; Rev. Francis Washburn, 
1877-1882 ; Rev. W. W. de Hart, 1882-1883; and Rev. Cy- 
rus K. Capron, present rector. The first rectory was built in 
1796 ; the second in 1829, and the third in 1872. A fine par- 
ish house, including chapel, parish parlors, etc., was erected 
in 1884, during the present rectorship. Since organization, 
938 baptisms have been recorded, and 325 have received con- 
firmation. The first list of communicants in the register has 
64 names, but it is without date. In 1835 there appears to 
have been 54; in 1845, about 78 ; '^^ 1855, about 53; in 1865, 
about 66; in 1875, it is impossible to ascertain (and much 
confusion and irregularity are found through the century), and 
the present number is about 100. 

The wardens in 1785 were Dr. James G. Graham and Dr. 
David Galatian ; in 1795, Justus Banks and Andrew Graham; 
in 1805, John Antill and James G.Graham; in 1815, the 
same; in 1825, Thomas Golden and H. Y. Bogert ; in 1835, 
Nicholas J. Bogert and Jacob Y. Walden ; in 1845, 1^55 
and 1865, George Weller and George G. Graham; in 1875, 
George Weller and James Bogert, and in 1885, George Weller 
and James Stewart. Mr. Cadwallader Golden, Jr., son of 
the " Lieut.-Governor and Commander-in-chief of the Prov- 
ince of New York," was a warden up to and during the time 
of the Revolution to 1785, and, with one or more intermis- 
sions, continued for nearly ten years longer. The present 
senior warden, Mr. George Weller, Sr., became a vestryman 
in 183 1, and was elected warden in 1841, and has faithfully 
served the parish in this position continually for forty-five 

As early as the year 1732 or 1733, the Venerable Society of 
London for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
sent the Rev. Richard Charlton as their missionary in this re- 
gion, which soon embraced three missionary stations, viz. : 
at New Windsor, on the Hudson River ; at the Otter-kill, 
in Orange County, and Wallkill, in Ulster County. During 
the ministry of the Rev. Hezekiah Watkins, who, being rec- 
ommended by Dr. Johnson, of Connecticut, went to England 


for ordination, which began about 1744, "a temporary log 
house, with a fire-place in it," was erected. This building 
stood about two miles from the present location of the church. 

In the year 1770 the Rev. John Sayre, being in charge of 
the mission, which was then known as " Newburgh and parts 
adjacent," obtained " a charter of incorporation " from George 
the Third, for each church, viz., " by the name of St. George's, 
Newburgh, in the County of Ulster, St. Andrew's Church, in 
the precinct of Walkill, in the County of Ulster, and St. Da- 
vid's Church, in the County of Orange ; all dated the 30th of 
July, 1770." By a change in the limits of Ulster County St. 
George's, Newburgh, and St. Andrew's, Walden, became sit- 
uated in Orange County. Accordingly, churches were imme- 
diately begun at St. David's and St. Andrew's ; but the 
former was never completed. St. Andrew's Church is de- 
scribed as follows in the quaint historical record: Having 
raised ;^400, " they immediately set about building a church 
and a house for a sexton on ten acres of land given by Mr. 
Peter Du Bois for that purpose, and in less than twelve 
months completed a very handsome church of 56 feet by 44, 
with pulpit, reading desk, chancel, and pews, and two rows of 
large glass windows, so as to admit of galleries when wanted, 
the whole well painted." 

I will quote again from this history, written probably by 
Cadwallader Colden, Jr., on the effect of the Revolution upon, 
the Church. After speaking of Mr. Sayre's sudden departure 
just before war, he says : " The troubles that soon ensued put 
an end to all Church matters in this part of the country, for 
the pulling down and overturning the church seemed among 
many of the Dissenters the prevailing motives that often in- 
fluenced them in party matters. Indeed, it was the political 
engine of the day, consequently every Churchman was perse- 
cuted under the name of a Tory or Loyalist ; so that of the 
few that were heretofore zealous in the cause of the Church, 
most of them have either been driven entirely out of the coun- 
try, or are so reduced that it is not in their power to encour- 
age the re-establishment of Church discipline and worship, 
unless assisted by the more opulent brethren in other parts. 


Happily the church itself, or building at St. Andrews, escaped 
the depredation of the times, and remains in good condition, 
except most of the glass, that has been broken by some mis- 
chievous boys, chiefly since the war. But it serves now only 
as a monument, to show to what we were once aspiring, and 
to what we are now fallen." 

In spite of constant efforts, the services were not resumed 
after the Revolution until 1790. 

In 1826 it was resolved to erect a church edifice, to be 
called Trinity Chapel, in the village of Walden, about two 
miles from St. Andrews, the then site of St. Andrew's church. 
The new church was consecrated by Bishop Hobart, Sep- 
tember 3, 1827, and then became the parish church, and the 
old church at St. Andrews being abandoned, was afterward 

The wisdom of this change of location is proved by the fact 
that Village St. Andrews now consists of only a few houses, 
while Walden has a population of 2,500. In 1829 the parish 
sold all its property at St. Andrew's except the burying 
ground, and built a rectory in the village of Walden. The 
above-mentioned church and rectory were sold, and a beau- 
tiful brick church with a spacious rectory were built in 1871- 
1872, upon a corner lot in the center of the village. In 1884 
a fine parish house was built upon the same lot. 


No report was received from this parish, and the following 
particulars as well as those concerning Christ Church, Rye, 
are obtained chiefly from Bolton's History of the Church in 
Westchester County and from the Journals of the Convention. 
The first settlers in New Rochelle were a band of Huguenots 
or French Protestants, who had sought refuge in England in 
1681. A church was organized at the beginning of the settle- 
ment, which maintained the Articles, Liturgy, Discipline and 
Canons of the Reformed Church in France. Their first 
church was built of wood about 1692-3. The pastor who ac- 
companied them was Rev. David Bonrepos, D.D.; nothing is 
known of his ministry and it must have been of brief dura- 


tion. His successor was Rev. Daniel Bordet, A.M., a French- 
man, but a refugee, who accompanied a colony which reached 
Boston in 1686. He had received Holy Orders in London 
from Bishop Compton. He probably reached New Rochelle 
in 1695. Negotiations working towards conformity with the 
Church of England were begun, in which Rev. John Bartow, 
Colonel Heathcote and others figure. This was consummated 
in 1709, and a license to erect a church was given in 1710, and 
the building of stone began at once and was finished in 
November of the same year. It stood a little east of the 
present church. The Venerable Propagation Society extended 
its usual generous grants in books and money. In 1714, 
Queen Anne granted the royal charter for the church and 
ground, and about the same time " the town gave a house 
and three acres of land adjoining the church for the use of 
this clergyman forever." Mr. Bordet died in September, 
1722, having served the church nearly twenty-six years. Rev. 
John Bartow supplied services until a successor was ap- 
pointed, Rev. Pierre Stouppe, A.M., in 1724. A second 
church, of wood, was built during the incumbency of Rev. 
Lewis Pintard Bayard, A.M., about 1825. Still a third 
church, of elaborate Gothic design, in stone, was built but a 
few years ago. In 1761, Rev. Michael Houdin became rector ; 
in 1770, Rev. Theodosius Bartow; in 1819, Rev. Ravaud 
Kearney; in 1821, Rev. Lewis P. Bayard; in 1827, Rev. 
Lawson Carter ; in 1839, Rev. Thomas Winthrop Cook, D.D. ; 
in 1849, Rev. Richard Winstead Morgan, D.D., who retired 
in 1873; i" 1874, Rev. J. Henry Watson, and in 1876, Rev. 
Charles F. Canedy, present incumbent. 

From 1724, when the baptismal register begins, to 1853, 
108 had been baptized. The communicants, in 17C9, were 43 ; 
in 1724,45; in 1733, 35 '. in 1750.68; in 1804, 18; in 1819, 
27 ; in 1847, 46 ; in 1853, 56, and in 1855, 220. 

Under the charter, the wardens in 1762 were Jacob 
Bleecker and James De Blenz ; in 1793, Abraham Guion and 
David Guion; in 1802, Lewis Pintard and David Coutant ; 
in 1 8 II, David Coutant and Anthony Bartow ; in 182 1, An- 
thony Norroway and Herman Le Roy; in 1830, Newberry 


Davenport and Lloyd S. Daubeny ; in 1842, Peter R. Brinck- 
erhoff and Philip A. Davenport ; and in 1852, John Soulice 
and Richard Lathers. 


This parish originally comprised the townships of Rye, 
Bedford, and Mamaroneck. In 1702, Rev. John Bartow was 
licensed by the Anglican Bishop Compton to officiate as 
missionary at Rye. He was, however, transferred to West 
Chester, and Rev. Thomas Pritchow, A.M., of Welsh descent, 
who arrived at New York, in April, 1704, succeeded him. Col- 
onel Heathcote's name appears as correspondent of the Ven. 
Soc. for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The 
new clergyman was heartily welcomed. He married Anna 
Stuyvesant, granddaughter of Peter Stuyvesant, in 1704, and 
died in 1705. He was succeeded by Rev. George Morrison, a 
Scotchman, who was ordained by Bishop Compton, of Lon- 
don, and reached New York on his return in July, 1705. 

A license to erect an " English " church in Rye, bears 
date January 22, 1706. Every fourth Sunday Mr. Morrison 
preached at Bedford, he writes, adding, " and I am afraid 
without success for they are a very wilful, stubborn people in 
that town." " The town of Rye was very diligent in build- 
ing our church. It is of stone, 50 foot long, and 36 foot wide, 
and 20 foot high." He did vigorous missionary duty in all 
directions, penetrating as far as Stratford, Conn., on a baptiz- 
ing tour. After a ministry full of usefulness he died Octo- 
ber 12, 1708. Rev. Mr. Reynolds was licensed and appointed 
by the Bishop of London to take up the work in Rye, but 
he had scarcely reached his new home when his commission 
was revoked, for unknown reasons, and Rev. Christopher 
Bridge, from England, superseded him, having served a while 
in Boston and Narragansett. He did not enter upon his 
work until October, 1710. At his induction the wardens 
were Captain Joseph Theole, Captain Jonathan Hart and Cor- 
nelius Seely. The missionary died in May, 1719. His suc- 
cessor was Rev. Robert Jenney, displacing for some unex- 
plained reason Rev. Henry Barclay. He informs the Secre- 


tary of the Venerable Society that, since his admission in 1722, 
he has baptized 60 persons, and that the number of communi- 
cants is 26. The vestry, in July, 1724, issued the following 
order : " Whereas, several of ye parish have talked of build- 
ing pews in ye church, ye vestry have thought fitt to order 
that there be an ile, of five foot from ye west door to ye 
communion table, also, an ile of two feet from ye kneeling 
couch, round ye rails of ye communion table, also, an ile of 
six foot from ye south door to ye desk, also that there be a 
partition ile between each sett of pews on ye south side of ye 
church, of two foot, and that all pews be built to front ye 
desk." In 1724 it was decided by a majority of votes that "a 
drum be provided for ye church this year." Mr. Jenney died 
in January, 1762, after a ministry of more than nineteen years 
at Rye. The Venerable Society appointed Rev. Mr. Colgan 
to succeed, but Rev. James Wetmore having already accepted 
the invitation of the church at Rye, the society considered it 
withdrawn. After a fruitful ministry of more than thirty 
years in the parish, he died of small-pox, May 15, 1760. 
Rev. Ebenezer Punderson, after clashing with a Mr. Palms, 
appointed by the "Society," entered upon the field in 1762, 
having previously, after his conversion from Congregational- 
ism, rendered excellent service in Connecticut under the 
auspices of the Venerable Society. He died in 1764. 

On the 19th of December, 1764, Grace Church, Rye, re- 
ceived a charter from King George III. In June, 1765, 
Rev. Ephraim Avery was appointed to the vacant parish. 
Dying in 1776, he was succeeded by Rev. Isaac Hunt, ordained 
by the Bishop of London. He died in 1809. Meanwhile, 
the great political change having been consummated, Mr. 
Andrew Fowler, a layman, read prayers and sermons on Sun- 
days, for six months at the close of the war. The parish 
was reorganized and September 5, 1787, Rev. Richard 
Channing Moore was elected rector. During this rectorship 
the second church was erected, displacing the old stone build- 
ing. Raised to the Bishopric of the Diocese of Virginia in 
1 8 14, he was succeeded by Rev. David Foote, and upon his 
decease, Rev. John Jackson Sands was elected rector in 1793. 


In 1796, Rev. George Ogilvie became rector ; in 1797, Rev. 
Samuel Haskell; in 1801, Rev. Evan Rogers, who died in 
1809. In June, 1809, Rev. Samuel Haskell again became 
rector, and was followed by Rev. William Thompson in 
1823. His successor was Rev. John Murray Forbes, in 1830; 
in 1832, Rev. W. M. Carmichael; in 1834, Rev. Peter S. 
Chauncy; in 1849, Rev. Edward C. Bull; in 1859, Rev. John 
Campbell White; a vacancy in 1864; in 1865, Rev. Reese 
Alsop ; in 1873, Rev. Chauncey B. Brewster; and in 1882, 
Rev. Walter Mitchell, who resigned at Easter, 1886. 

The corporate name appears to have been changed after the 
reorganization at the close of the war. The wardens in 
1695 were George Lane and John Brondig ; in 1710, Joseph 
Theole and Jonathan Hart; in 1720, John Haight and Isaac 
Denham ; in 1730, Daniel Purdy and John Glover; in 1740, 
Daniel Purdy and John Thomas; in 1750, Jeremiah Fowler 
and Joseph Sherwood ; in 1760, William Willett and Jonathan 
Brown; in 1770, Joshua Purdy and Benjamin Griffen ; in 
1780, Peter Jay and Isaac Purdy; in 1790, the same; in 1800, 
John Haight and Isaac Purdy; in 1810, John Guion and 
Jonathan Purdy; in 1820, the same; in 1830, David and 
Hackaliah Brown; in 1841, Peter Jay and Hackaliah Brown, 
and in 1852, John C. Jay and John A. Dix. 


No report having been received, the following particulars 
are gathered from Bolton's History, and the Convention 
Journals. This parish was organized under the statute of 
the State, March 12, 1787. It had been the field of mission 
labor since 1700. Among the missionaries were Rev. Thomas 
Standard, who died in 1760, Rev. John Milne, and Rev. 
Samuel Seabury, afterwards Bishop of Connecticut. He writes 
to the Secretary of the Venerable Society, December 3, 1767, 
in the second year of his pastorate, as follows : " At East 
Chester, which is four miles distant, the congregation is gen- 
erally larger than at Westchester. The old church in which 
they meet, as yet, is very cold. They have erected and just 
completed the roof of a large, well-built stone church, on 


which they have expended, they say, ^^700 currency; but 
their ability seems exhausted and I fear I shall never see it 
finished. I applied last winter to His Excellency, Sir Henry 
Moore, for a brief in their favor, but the petition was rejected." 
The rectors have been, 1702, Rev. John Bartow ; 1727, Rev. 
Thomas Standard; 1761, Rev. John Milner ; 1766, Rev. 
Samuel Seabury ; 1799, Rev. Isaac Wilkins; 1817, Rev. 
Ravaud Kearney; 1826, Rev. Lawson Carter; 1836, Rev. 
John Grigg; 1837, Rev. Robert Bolton; 1846, Rev. Edwin 
Harwood ; 1847, R^v. Henry E. Duncan, and in 1852, Rev. 
William S. Coffey, present incumbent. In 1728, there were 
30 communicants ; in 1817, 48 ; in 1847, 35 • i^ 1853, 46, and 
in 1885, "j^. The present wardens are A. H. Dunscombe and 
Stephen P. Hunt. 

The original church remains in use. It suffered desecration 
during the Revolution, was turned into a court-house, bar- 
racks, and hospital ; was stripped and pillaged of every ves- 
tige of wood, but has been generously and thoughtfully re- 
stored and is among the most interesting edifices of the 
colonial period. 


This parish was incorporated first under royal charter, 
and subsequently, October 13, 1785. The church edifice 
was built and opened in September, 1767. On account of 
the destruction and loss of the earlier records it is impossible 
to present any complete statistics of clerical acts in the 

At present there are about 50 communicants. There has 
been unusual difficulty in collecting the statistics of this 
parish, as the rector is absent and an invalid. Mr. S. M. 
Davidson, clerk of Trinity parish, has provided the substance 
of this communication. 

Trinity Church, Fishkill, is one of the oldest church edi- 
fices in the State of New York. It was the third church 
organized in the town of Fishkill, and the first of its denomi- 
nation in Dutchess County, or anywhere above the Highlands 
on the east side of the Hudson. As originally built, it had a 


tall, tapering spire, surmounted by a ball and vane, as was 
usual a century ago. The early records are lost, but from 
the best evidence obtainable it is believed that the church 
was built about 1760. 

The first service was held by the Rev. Samuel Seabury, in 
1756. The first rector was Rev. John Beardsley, who was 
appointed by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
and accepted the charge October 26, 1767. This church was 
connected with Christ Church in Poughkeepsie for nearly fifty 
years. Rev. Mr. Beardsley was removed to New York De- 
cember 16, 1777, by order of the Council of Safety. It ap- 
pears the church was then without a pastor over nine years, 
during part of which time it was used both by the military 
and civil authorities as a hospital for the sick and wounded, 
and a meeting place for the Constitutional Convention of this 

The next rector was Rev. Henry Van Dyck, who accepted 
the rectorship January 22, 1787. He remained until the 
spring of 1791, and was succeeded by Rev. George H. Spieren, 
November 12, 1792. He in turn was succeeded by Rev. John 
J. Sayers, January 5, 1795. Mr. Sayers continued in the 
rectorship two years, and was succeeded by Rev. Philander 
Chase, afterward Bishop of Ohio and also of Illinois. Bishop 
Chase was the founder of Kenyon College, at Gambler, Ohio, 
and Jubilee College, at Robin's Nest, Illinois. Mr. Chase 
left here in 1805, and was succeeded by Rev. Barzillai Bulkley, 
August 6, 1806. 

Mr. Bulkley was succeeded in 1812 by Rev. John Brown, 
who was followed in 1816 by Rev. Mr. Ten Broeck. He re- 
mained a short time, and left, when the church had no set- 
tled minister for a number of years, being supplied through 
missionary sources until 1833, when Rev. R. B. Van Kleeck, 
D.D., was duly installed as rector. He was succeeded in 1837 
by Rev. Colly A. Foster, who was followed in 1838 by Rev. 
Richard F. Burnham. Rev. Robert Shaw succeeded Mr. 
Burnham in 1841, and was succeeded in 1844 by Rev. Wm. 
H. Hart. Mr. Hart remained about three years, and was fol- 
lowed by Rev. Christian F. Cruse, D.D., in 1847. Rev. F. 


W. Shelton succeeded Dr. Cruse in 1853, and was followed by 
Rev. John R. Livingston in 1855. Mr. Livingston served the 
church long and faithfully, and, dying in the harness, was 
succeeded in the ministry, in 1879, ^Y Rev. J. H. Hobart, 
D.D., the present incumbent. 

The wardens in 1785 were Jeremiah Cooper and Jeremiah 
Green ; in 1790, Jacob Van Voorhis and Robt. Mills; in 1800, 
Daniel C. Verplanck and Peter Mesier ; in 1810, Matthew 
Mesier and Daniel C. Verplanck; in 1820 and 1830, the 
same; in 1840, William A. Bartow and Greenleaf Street; in 
1850, Gulian C. Verplanck and Greenleaf Street ; in i860, 
Gulian C. Verplanck and William A. Bartow; in 1870, Wil- 
liam S. Verplanck and Isaac E. Cotheal ; in 1880, Isaac E. 
Cotheal and Adriance Bartow ; and in 1886, William S. Ver- 
planck and Adriance Bartow. 

The church book comprises minutes of each vestry from 
1785, and, like all old records, contains many curious entries: 

*' At a meeting of the Trustees of Trinity Church at Fish- 
kill, on the nth day of August, 1788, present, John Cook, 
Peter Mesier, Jeremiah Cooper, James Cooper, and Elbert 
Willett, Jr., the following resolution was entered into, to 

" Resolved by the vestry, all voting, that the damages this 
church received by the publick was duly appraised by James 
Weekes, Isaac Van Wyck, and Capt. Cor's Adriance. 

From the year 1776 to 1783: 

The use of the church ;^I40 o o 

" " " yard 20 o o 

Damages to the same by the publick 189 411 

;^349 4 II 

" This statement given to John Cook, to be Liquidated 
by the Publick. 

" Resolved — The compensation so obtained shall be ap- 
plyed in finishing and repairing the church so far as it will 
go, and for no other purpose whatever." 

By a resolution passed in 1789 it was ordered that the 


church should receive two shillings from the parents for every 
child baptized. 

In 1803 money was raised to repair the steeple, but if the 
work was done it does not appear to have been effectual, for 
in a few years after complaints were made that the spire was 
unsafe, and in iSiyitwas removed. The base was left stand- 
ing, and from that time to about i860 the church had a short 
tower with an ornamental balustrade. Then the building 
was repaired and this tower removed. Some years later the 
interior was consideraby changed also. The high pews were 
removed, and more comfortable ones substituted, and the 
tall pulpit, with its antiquated sounding board, which stood 
near the center of the church, was dispensed with. 

In the burying ground which surrounds the church on all 
sides except the front a great many of the early residents lie 
buried. Forty or fifty years ago, when interments were fre- 
quent in this ground, it was no unusual thing to dig up 
pieces of blankets, which had probably been wrapped around 
the remains of those who died in this edifice when it was 
used as a hospital. 

In September, 1865, the church celebrated its Centennial, 
when interesting services were held and an address was de- 
livered by Rev. Dr. Brown, who more than fifty years before 
had been its rector. 

Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck was a warden of this parish for 
more than thirty years. He was long identified with that 
early period of our literature, not unmeaningly described as 
the Hudson River School; among whom Washington Irving, 
James K. Paulding, and James Fenimore Cooper, all Church- 
men, moved with great and permanent distinction. Mr. Ver- 
planck was eminent for the solidity and elegance of his at- 
tainments. His edition of Shakespeare holds its place in the 
collections of scholars, and there are other abiding evidences 
of his accurate and recondite researches in belles-lettres and 
various departments of scholarship. He was also for awhile 
a lecturer or professor in the early years of the General Theo- 
logical Seminary, in New York City. 



This church — formerly in the parish of Christ Church, 
Rye, formed in 1694 under royal charter — was organized in 
1789 and reorganized in 1796. The first church was built in 
Northcastle, 1761, and another in Bedford, 1807. The rec- 
tors have been: Rev. William Strebeck, 1804, who officiated 
six months; Rev. Nathan Felch, 1809-1813; Rev. George 
Weller, 1814-1817; Rev. Samuel Nichols, 1818-1839; Rev. 
Alfred H. Partridge, 1839-1855 ; Rev. Edward B. Boggs, 
1 85 5-1 866, and Rev. Lea Luqueer, 1866, the present incum- 

The glebe of forty acres and house was bought in 1803. 
This house became the rectory and has been repeatedly en- 
larged. The number of baptisms recorded is 498, and 232 
have received confirmation. There is no list of communi- 
cants before 1855. In that year there were about 52 ; in 1865, 
about 70; in 1875, 75, and the present number is 94. 

The wardens in 1796 were : Charles Haight and William 
Miller; in 1806, William Miller and James McDonald; in 
1 8 16, Benjamin Isaacs and Aaron Smith ; in 1826, the same ; 
in 1836, Aaron Smith and Samuel Brown; in 1846, Samuel 
Brown and William Jay; in 1856, William Jay and Charles 
Raymond; in 1866, Charles Raymond and John I. Banks; in 
1876, John Jay and William P. Woodcock, and in 1886, the 

The glebe in Bedford was bought in 1803 with the money 
bequeathed to the church by St. George Talbot in 1767. In 
1807 the church known as St. Matthew's was completed 
under the direction of William Miller, David Olmstead, and 
Peter A. Jay. As there was difficulty in defraying the ex- 
penses that had been incurred, application was made to 
Trinity Church, New York. The appeal was courteously 
answered by a gift of $500. 


This parish was organized September 15, 1787, and the 
church edifice was built in 1753, repaired and consecrated in 


1792; repaired again in 1804, enlarged in 1849, ^^^ again en- 
larged to its present dimensions in 1872. 

The rectors have been : Rev. Andrew Fowler, 1786; Rev. 
Elias Cooper, in 1788; Rev. William Powell, 1816-1819; Rev. 
John Gregg, 1820-1823: Rev. John West, 1823-1828; Rev. 
Alex. H. Crosby, 1828-1839; Rev. Smith Pyne, 1 839-1 84 1 ; 
Rev. Henry L. Storrs, 1841-1852; Rev. Abr. Beach Carter, 
D.D., 1852-1868; Rev. Thos. A. Jagger, 1869-1870; Rev. W. 
S. Langford, 1870-1875 ;Rev. A. B. Atkins, D.D., 1875-1879; 
and Rev. James Haughton, since 1879, ^^^ present incumbent. 

The first rectory was procured in 1766, and the present 
one in 1845. During the ministry of Dr. Carter a chapel was 
erected, in 1859. 

Since 1820 there is record of 2,476 baptisms; and, since 
1829, confirmation has been administered to 1,008 persons. 
In 1806 there were 40 communicants; in 1816, 56; in 1827, 
75; in 1837,77; in 1844,94; in 1856,250; in 1865,350; in 
1875, 350; and the present number is about 500. 

The parish records previous to 1820 are not in existence. 

The wardens in 1795 were: Augustus Van Cortlandt and 
William Constable; in 1805, Augustus Van Cortlandt and 
James Valentine ; in 1815, Henry White and James Archer; 
in 1825, Joseph Howland and Elijah Valentine; in 1835, 
Augustus Van Cortlandt and Joseph Odell ; in 1845, Abra- 
ham Valentine and John Bowne ; in 1855, Abraham Valentine 
and Thomas O. Farrington ; in 1865, Thomas O. Farrington 
and John Gihon ; in 1875, Henry Bowers and John T. War- 
ing; and in 1885, Sylvanus Mayo and Walter H. Paddock. 

Rev. John Bartow commenced services in this precinct in 
1703. He wrote, in 1717: " Yonkers has no Church, but we 
assemble for Divine Worship sometimes in the house of Jo- 
seph Bebts, deceased, and sometimes in a barn when empty, 
but the people begin to be in a disposition to build a Church." 

During the incumbency of his successor, the Rev. Thomas 
Standard, inducted 1725, the parish church was built. The 
next rector, Rev. John Milne, informed the Propagation So- 
ciety, in 1761, that "one of his Churches is a new edifice 
raised by the generosity of Col. Frederick Philipse who has 


given to its service a fine farm as a glebe, consisting of 200 
acres, upon which he proposes to build a good house for a 

The Rev. Harry Munro became, in 1764, the first rector 
of Yonkers or Philipseborough. He was succeeded, in I77i» 
by Rev. Luke Babcock, and he again, in 1777, by Rev. George 
Panton. During the Revolutionary War the church was used 
at intervals by both armies as a hospital, and its pulpit by 
ministers of different denominations, who made strong efforts 
to retain possession. The roof and woodwork of the original 
structure were destroyed by fire in May, 1791. The instru- 
ment of consecration in 1792, signed by Bishop Provoost, is 
now in the possession of the parish. 


This parish was organized by royal charter granted by 
George HI., King of Great Britain, May 12, 1762. The 
first church was erected in 1701, the second was begun in 
1855. This building was destroyed by fire in 1877 and re- 
built and consecrated in 1879. ^^^ succession of rectors 
since 1726 was: Rev. John Bartow, 1726; Rev. Theodosius 
Barton, 1792-1794; Rev. John Ireland, 1794-1797; Rev. Isaac 
Wilkins, D.D., 1798-1830; Rev. William Powell, 1830-1849; 
Rev. Charles D. Jackson, 1849-1871 ; Rev. Christopher B. 
Wyatt, D.D., 1871-1879, and since 1881 the present incum- 
bent. Rev. Joseph H. Johnson. A rectory was procured 
about 1850. St. Peter's chapel was erected in 1867, during 
the rectorship of Rev. Dr. Jackson. The parish records of 
this venerable corporation are so lost or perished, that no sta- 
tistics can be given of the baptisms, confirmations, or com- 
municants. The present number is 230. 

The only names of wardens reported are Caleb Heathcote 
and Josiah Hunt, in 1701. 

The first church edifice was built in 1701 of wood, twenty- 
eight feet square, with a pyramidal roof with a bell turret ris- 
ing from the apex. The cost was ;^40. 

This church was sold in 1788, and in 1790 another build- 
ing was erected at a cost of ;^336. It was destroyed by fire 


in 1855. A new church was begun in 1855 at an outlay of 
$60,000. It was built of sandstone with a tower which con- 
tained three keyed bells, D, B, and G, weighing respectively, 
754, 908, and 1,222 pounds. And this was in turn destroyed 
by fire on the evening of January 22, 1877. The present 
church was afterwards erected and consecrated July 12, 
1879. Among the early rectors, and following Mr. Bartow, 
was Rev. Samuel Seabury, who afterwards became the first 
Bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United 
States. The communion service consists of a chalice and 
paten, and was presented to the parish by Queen Anne, 1706. 


This parish was organized under a royal charter of George 
in., which was received August 10, 1770. The parish was 
received into union with the Convention in 1791. This parish 
is closely associated with the history of the Van Cortlandt 
family and Cortlandt manor. The Rev. James Watrous, of 
Rye, held services here as early as 1744, and in 1761 Rev. 
Wm. Dibble oflficiated. As early as 1750, the people had 
given six acres of land for the foundation of a parish. The 
church, which is still in existence, was begun in 1766, and 
consecrated August 9, 1767, by Rev. John Ogilvie, D.D. 
This old parochial church now stands on the summit of a 
high knoll, a little out of the village. The chapel of St. 
Peter's, which was built in 1838 as auxiliary to the mother 
church, is a handsome Gothic structure of wood, standing 
near the center of the village. Among the principal benefac- 
tors of the parish were Catharine Van Cortlandt, Col. Bev- 
erly Robinson, and Susannah Philipse, his wife, the Venerable 
Propagation Society, Gen. and Col. Pierre Van Cortlandt, 
Nicholas Cruger, Isaac Seymour, Col. John Williams, and 
the Corporation of Trinity Church, New York. 

The rectors have been, in 1771, Rev. John Doty; in 1775, 
Rev. Bernard Page; 1792, Rev. Andrew Fowler; 1794, Rev. 
Samuel Haskell; 1806, Rev. Joseph Warren; 1811, Rev. 
John Urquhart ; 181 7, Rev. Petrus Ten Broeck ; 1826, Rev. 
Edward J. Ives; 1832, Rev. James Sunderland; 1838, Rev. 


William C. Cooley; 1841, Rev. William Barlow; 1848, Rev. 
George S. Gordon; 1854, Rev. Edmund Roberts; after a 
vacancy of one or two years, Rev. John Rutherford Mat- 
thews ; in 1865, Rev. E. M. Rodman; in 1872, Rev. Francis 
R. Harison ; 1874, Rev. Wm. Fisher Lewis; in 1 881, Rev. 
N. F. Putnam; in 1883, Rev. George McClellan Fiske ; and 
in 1885, Rev. Cyrus B. Durand. 

In 1807 there were 50 communicants; in 1847, 40? i" 
1853, 50; and in 1883,228. The reports of baptisms and 
confirmations are without value. The wardens in 1770 were 
Beverly Robinson and Charles Moore; in 1790, William 
Dunning and Caleb Ward ; in 1800, Daniel Wm. Birdsall and 
Daniel Haight ; in 1810, Henry Garrison and Daniel Birdsall; 
1820, Barnard Hanlan and Henry Garrison ; in 1830, Pierre 
Van Cortlandt and Henry Garrison; in 1840, Pierre Van 
Cortlandt and Jonathan Collett; 1850, Isaac Seymour and 
Thomas Snowden ; and at present, Owen T. Coffin and Cal- 
vin Frost. 


This parish, which is identified with the history of the 
DeLanceys, is among the most interesting of the colonial 
parishes. It was organized under a royal charter, George III., 
and received into union with the Convention 1792. The 
church appears to have been erected in 1766. In 1797 this 
church was sold, and the corner-stone of a new building laid 
August 30, 18 10. Towards the cost of this church, Trinity 
Church, New York, contributed $1,000. It was consecrated 
by Bishop Hobart in 18 16. In 1842 the wardens built the 
rectory and barn. Many interesting gifts from England and 
the DeLanceys found place in the church. The rectors have 
been, in 1750, Rev. Ebenezer Dibble ; in 1764, Rev. Richard 
S. Clark ; in 1768, Rev. Epenetus Townsend ; in 1790, Rev. 
David Perry, M.D. ; in 1804, Rev. George Strebeck ; in 1810, 
Rev. Nathan Felch ; in 1816, Rev. George Wells; in 1820, 
Rev. Samuel Nichols ; in 1829, Rev. Hiram Jeliff; in 1835, 
Rev. Alexander Eraser; in 1841, Rev. David Short ; in 1842, 
Rev. Albert P. Smith; in 1847, R^v. Nathan W. Monroe ; in 


1848, Rev. Orsamus H. Smith ; and in 185 1, Rev. John Wells 
Moore; vacancy in 1855 and until 1862, when Rev. R. Tre- 
vett, D.D., was rector; vacancy in 1865 ; in 1872, Rev. R. C. 
Russell, who was rector in 1883. There is no report to the 
Convention accessible since that date. The wardens in 1765- 
85 were John Wallace and Ebenezer Lobdell ; in 1800, James 
Bailey and Benjamin Close; in 1810, Benjamin Close and 
Joshua Purdy; in 1820, Eperetus Wallace and Joshua Purdy ; 
in 1830, Joshua Purdy and Richard Sherwood ; in 1840, 
Joshua Purdy and Samuel Field ; and in 1850, Samuel Field 
and John Hanford. No additional data are obtainable. 


This parish was organized New York, October 10, 
1799. The corner-stone of the church was laid April 25, 
1795, and consecrated May 9, 1799. The rectors have been 
Rev. John Callahan, elected February 15, 1800, and died 
April 14th of that year; Rev. Wm. Harris, 1801-1816; Rev. 
Wm. Creighton, 1816-1836; Rev. Henry Anthon, 1837-1861 ; 
Rev. Alexander H. Vinton, 1861-1869; and Rev. J. H. 
Rylance, D.D., since March, 1871, rector and present incum- 
bent. A rectory was built in 1839. St. Mark's memorial 
chapel and schools was erected in 1884 on Tompkins Square 
and Tenth Street, during the present rectorship. The num- 
ber of baptisms recorded is 2,268. No statistics of confirma- 
tions or communicants by decades are presented. The pres- 
ent number is about 557. The wardens in 1799 were Francis 

B. Winthrop and Peter Stuyvesant ; in 1809, Mangle Min- 
thorn and William Ogden ; in 18 19, the same ; in 1829, Nich- 
olas Fish and Edward Lyde ; in 1839, John C. Lawrence and 
Gerardus Clark; in 1849, Wheaton Bradish and Michael 
Ulshoeffer ; in 1859, the same; ^^ 1869, Hamilton Fish and 
Henry B. Renwick ; in 1879, the same; and in 1886, Peter 

C. Schuyler and William Remsen. 

In the Bouwery, or, as we would say now, upon the farm, 
Governor Stuyvesant built a chapel wherein his family and 
neighbors might worship according to the rites of the Dutch 
Reformed Church. A great many years after, the chapel, hav- 


ing fallen to ruin, was pulled down, and upon the same spot 
was erected a new church : St. Mark's Church in the Bowery. 

When the chapel referred to was built is not known, but 
it was in use in 1660, for in that year the Rev. Henry Selyns 
arrived from Holland to take charge of the church in Breuk- 
elen (Brooklyn), and Governor Stuyvesant made arrangements 
which secured part of his services for the chapel in the Bow- 
ery. The chapel seems to have been without a regular pas- 
tor after that, but it was doubtless cared for during the 
life of the governor by the clergy of the Dutch Reformed 
Church of New Amsterdam. Governor Stuyvesant died in 
1682, and was buried beneath the chapel in a vault, which was 
repaired and enlarged at the building of the present church, 
and has continued to this time to be the sepulchre of the 
Stuyvesant family. His widow, who died in 1687, left the 
chapel in charge of the Dutch Church in New York ; but it 
appears to have fallen into disuse, and the bequest went by 

More than a century later Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, the 
Governor's great grandson, who was a member of the corpora- 
tion of Trinity Church, offered to the vestry of that church the 
site of the chapel, 150X 190 feet, and ^800 toward the build- 
ing of a Protestant Episcopal church upon the same spot. 
The offer was accepted, and a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Stuyvesant, Hugh Gaine, and John Jones, was appointed to 
ascertain what aid could be secured for building the church. 
On January 19, 1795, the vestry took definite steps to raise 
i^5>ooo for the purpose, and Messrs. Stuyvesant, Carmer, 
Gaine and Van Horn were appointed to superintend the con- 
struction. The church was finished on May 9, 1799, and con- 
secrated on the same day by the bishop of the diocese, the 
Rt. Rev. Samuel Provoost. 

On the 27th of August following, the vestry of Trinity 
Church appointed Messrs. Petrus Stuyvesant, Francis Bayard 
Winthrop, Gilbert Colden Willett, Mangle Minthorne, Martin 
Hoffman, William A. Hardenbrook, and George Rapelye 
trustees, and conveyed to them for the corporation of the 
new parish, whenever it should be formed, the church and 


surrounding land. On the i8th of October it was decided 
that the church should be known in law as The Protestant 
Episcopal Church of St. Mark's in the Bowery in the 
City of New York. The first election of wardens and ves- 
trymen was also held, and Easter Tuesday fixed as the day 
for holding subsequent annual elections. The wardens elected 
were Petrus Stuyvesant, Francis B. Winthrop ; vestrymen, 
Gilbert C. Willett, Martin Hoffman, Wm. A. Hardenbrook, 
Mangle Minthorne, Wm. Ogden, George Turnbull, Nicholas 
W. Stuyvesant, James Cummings. At the first meeting of 
the vestry on November 5th, Peter G. Stuyvesant was elected 
clerk of the vestry, and Martin Hoffman treasurer, but the 
latter declined to act, and Mr. Hardenbrook was appointed. 

It appears that, owing to the small amount of money ob- 
tained for pew rent, the vestry was forced to apply to Trinity 
Church for aid. At this time, it is recorded, pew rent in St. 
Paul's and St. George's was only five dollars a year. Thirty- 
five years later. May, 1837, thirty-one pews were sold for 
$I3»735' Trinity responded by making a grant of thirty lots 
of city property, then yielding an annual revenue of $1,250. 
Attached to a legal opinion connected with this grant appears 
the signature of one of America's greatest statesmen, Alexan- 
der Hamilton. 

Up to October, 1802, it seems that the church was with- 
out a parsonage, for the records show that on the 27th of 
that month Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, whose generosity had 
been the means of founding the church itself, conveyed 
" certain lots in Eleventh Street as a site for a parsonage," 
and by December 6th $1,900 had been subscribed towards 
building it. The parsonage built upon these lots continued 
to be the rector's home until October, 1840, when " St. 
Mark's Rectory," corner of Tenth Street and Second Avenue, 
was finished. In 1836 a move was made to sell the old par- 
sonage, or exchange it for other premises closer to the church, 
but it was found that by the terms of the deed either recourse 
was impossible. In 1839 the erection of the rectory was be- 
gun, and on its completion the vestry voted $1,500 for the 
purchase of furniture. 


In August, 1803, less than a year after the foregoing dona- 
tion, Mr. Stuyvesant gave the church a lot, 242 x 190 feet, 
for a cemetery. This lot still forms a part of the burial-place 
of the church. On July 20, 1804, the vestry appropriated 
pew No. 9 for the use of Mr. Stuyvesant and his family, rent 
free, for ever. Another notable gift of the Stuyvesant family 
requires mention. In 1835 Mr. Peter G. Stuyvesant, by a 
gift of $25,000, founded the " St. Mark's Church in the 
Bowery Professorship " in the General Theological Seminary 
of this city. 

The first communion service was purchased in 1805 with 
a gift of $83.34 from Mr. Ten Eyck and $20 from Mr. Har- 
denbrook. Those who view the fine steeple of St. Mark's, 
and are accustomed to see churches and steeples built to- 
gether in the present day, will learn with a feeling akin to 
incredulity that it was not built for more than a quarter of a 
century after the church. In 1826 the vestry resolved to 
erect a steeple of stone or brick, provided the expense did not 
exceed $5,000. 


In the year 1793, William Post and one hundred and 
seventy-two other members of Trinity Parish presented a 
petition to the vestry that the Rev. Joseph Pilmore might be 
called as an assistant minister, and a Sunday evening lecture 
established. This petition having been refused, the petition- 
ers proceeded in the same year to organize a new parish, 
under the name of Christ Church, and to call the Rev. Joseph 
Pilmore as its rector. Owing, however, to some misunder- 
standing between the officers of the parish and the ecclesias- 
tical authority of the diocese, the parish was not admitted 
into union with the Convention until 1802. 

Christ Church erected its first house of worship on the 
north side of Ann Street, between William and Nassau, in 
1793 ; its second, on Anthony (now Worth) Street, a few 
doors west of Broadway, in 1822; its third (now occupied by 
St. Ann's Church for deaf mutes), on Eighteenth Street, in 
1854. The building which the parish now occupies, on the 


corner of Fifth Avenue and Thirty-fifth Street, was acquired 
from the Baptists, in exchange for its property on Eighteenth 

Rectors of Christ Church : Rev. Joseph Pilmore, D.D., 
1793-1804; Rev. Thomas Lyell, D.D., 1804-1848; Rev. 
Charles Halsey, October, 1848, to May, 1855 ; ^^v. Frederick 
S. Wiley, 1855-1862; Rev. Ferdinand C. Ewer, D.D., Novem- 
ber, 1862, to November, 1871 ; Rev. Hugh Miller Thompson, 
D.D., January, 1872, to November, 1875 ; Rev. William A. 
McVickar, D.D., December, 1876. to September, 1877; Rev. 
J. S. Shipman, D.D., November, 1877. 

Names of wardens by decades: 1794, William Newton 
and Jeremiah Wood; 1804, Andrew R. Miller and David 
Marsh ; 1814, George Dominick and Andrew R. Miller; 1824, 
Israel Horsfield and Wm. Weyman ; 1834, Edward Hitchcock 
and Henry Fanning; 1844, William T. Beach and Ralph I. 
Bush; 1854, F. J. Austin and Gardner Ambler; 1864, S. K. 
Greene and Edward Stone ; 1874, George W. Cass and 
Edward A. Quintard ; 1884, George W. Cass and Samuel 

Number of baptisms since the organization of the parish, 
3,618. Of persons confirmed and of communicants there are 
none but recent records. Present number of communicants, 
about 350. 


Was organized June 25, 1803; the first church built about 
1804, and the present edifice in 1852. 

The succession of rectors is as follows : Rev. Frederick Van 
Home, 1 799- 1 805 ; Rev. Cave Jones, 1805-1808; Rev. Wil- 
liam Powell, 1812-1814; Rev. Evan M. Johnson, 1814-1817; 
Rev. R. F. Cadle, 18 17-1820; Rev. J. P. Cotter, 1 820-1 823 
(deposed); Rev. Reuben Hubbard, 1823-1828; Rev. Nathan 
Kingsbury, 1831-1832; Rev. J. P. F. Clarke, 1834-1837; Rev. 
Thomas Mallaby, 1837-1840; Rev. J. A. Spencer, 1841-1842; 
Rev. W. P. Page, 1842-1847; Rev. J. T. Gushing, 1848-1854; 
Rev. S. C. Thrall, 1855-1856; Rev. J. J. Robertson, D.D., 
officiating minister, 1856-1858; Rev. Albert Wood, 1858- 


1862; Rev. George C. Pennell, 1862-1863; Rev. Edmund 
Rowland, 1864-1868; Rev. W. H. de L. Grannis, 1869-1881 ; 
since 1881, Rev. Mytton Maury, the present incumbent. 

A rectory was purchased in 1865, and a chapel built in 
1869, during the ministry of Rev. Edmund Rowland. Since 
organization, about 835 have received Holy Baptism, and 495 
confirmed. The parish records are incomplete, but it appears 
that in 1812 there were 6 communicants; in 1822, 27; in 
1831, 13; in 1841, 40; in 1856, 90; in 1862, 88. The present 
number is about 120. 

For the successive decades (in part) the wardens have 
been: 1832, Henry Wisner and George D. Wickham ; 1840, 
the same ; 1850, Th. Thorne and C. F. Jackson ; i860, C. F. 
Jackson and John J. Smith ; 1869, the same ; 1880, J. J. Smith 
and George C. Miller. 

It appears from the records, that "At Decker's Corner 
near Goshen there was an Episcopal Church before the Revo- 
lution." St. James', Goshen, seems to have been the parent 
of the church at Middletown. Rev. W. P. Page, in 1843, ^^- 
cords, '* I have preached occasionally at Middletown, a village 
7 miles west of this, where there is a good prospect, I think, 
of building up the Church." The church, chapel, and rectory 
have been put in thorough repair during the present rector- 


The " Eglise des Refugees Fran§aise k la Nouvelle York " 
was organized in 1687, and in 1804 became the present 
French Church du Saint Esprit. The first church was built 
in 1688, and others followed in 1704, 1834, and in i860 the 
present edifice was provided. The rectors have been : Rev. 
Pierre Antoine Albert, 1 804-1 806 ; Rev. Henri Peneveyre, 
1813-1826; Rev. Antoine V^rren, 1828-1874; Rev. Leon 
Pons, 1 874- 1 879 ; and Rev. Alfred Victor Wittmeyer, rector 
and incumbent since 1879. ^ rectory was purchased, but has 
not been occupied by any rector recently. There is no re- 
port of baptisms and confirmations. The present number of 
communicants is about 100. The wardens have been : in 1804, 


S. Hugget and R. Harrison ; in 1814, R. Harrison and G. C. 
Anthon; in 1824 and 1834, John Pintard and Thomas 
Hamersly ; in 1844, Paul Garesche and John Grange ; in 1854, 
Louis Loubrel and G. C. Verplank ; in 1864, Juste Lanchantin 
and Thomas Guille; in 1874, J. P. Schlumpf and Thomas 
Verren; and in 1884, P. L. Lanoir and Charles Lichtenberg. 


At a meeting for the organization of St. Stephen's Church, 
New York City, held on Monday in Easter week, April 19, 
1805, the following gentlemen : Cornelius Schuyler and 
Thomas Gibbons were elected wardens, and Jacob C. Mott, 
Jordan Mott, Abraham Fowler, Isaac Emmons, Benjamin 
Clark, Benjamin Beekman, George Beck, and George Fash 
were elected vestrymen. 

On the 22d of April, 1805, the Rev. Mr. Stroebeck 
was invited to the rectorship, and, being present at the 
meeting, accepted the invitation. Mr. Stroebeck was the 
minister of a Lutheran Church in Mott Street. He and the 
mass of his congregation conformed to the Church. 

December 6, 1805, the corporation of Trinity Church 
granted to this church three thousand dollars. 

On the 26th of December, 1805, being St. Stephen's Day, 
this church was consecrated to the service of Almighty God, 
by the Rt. Rev. Benjamin Moore, Bishop of the Diocese 
of New York. The Rev. Mr. Harris, Rector of St. Mark's 
Church in the Bowery, read divine service, and the Rev. 
Cave Jones, an assistant minister of Trinity Church, 
preached from Acts, vii. 55. 

In the month of April, 1808, the vestry of Trinity Church 
presented to the corporation of St. Stephen's, in bonds and 
cash, seven thousand two hundred and fifty-four dollars and 
fifty-eight cents, to meet some special pressing demand on 
this body. In the same year Trinity Church gave to this 
church three lots of land, one situated on Greenwich Street, 
and two on Warren Street. 

April 25, 1809, the Rev. Mr. Stroebeck resigned the rec- 
torship, having occupied it about four years. 


Five days after this resignation, the Rev. Dr. Richard 
Channing Moore, then officiating in Richmond, Staten Is- 
land, was elected to the rectorship, and on the 2d of June, 
1809, he formally accepted ; the rectorship having been va- 
cant only twenty-four days. The Rev. Dr. Moore, while 
rector of this church, was elected Bishop of the Diocese of 
Virginia, and consecrated to that high office on the 1 8th of 
May, 1 8 14. 

On the 8th of June, 1814, the Rev. Dr. Feltus, then rec- 
tor of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, was elected to the rec- 
torship, and accepted the invitation. 

On October 23, 1823, the land on which the church stood 
was purchased ; till then it had been leased. 

Dr. Feltus, after an illness of four weeks, died on the loth 
of August, 1828, having been rector of St. Stephen's fourteen 

A vacancy of five months and nine days followed. On the 
8th of January, 1829, the Rev. Henry Anthon, then rector 
of Trinity Church, Utica, N. Y., was elected, and on January 
19, 1829, he accepted the rectorship, and held it about two 
years. On the 17th of January, 1831, he resigned it, having 
received an invitation to Trinity Church, in this city. 

On the 19th of January, 1831, two days after the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Anthon, the Rev. Francis L. Hawks was unani- 
mously elected rector. He was instituted on the 3d of 
March, 1831, and on December 8, 183 1, he resigned, having 
held the rectorship somewhat less than a year, and removed 
to St. Thomas' Church, on Houston Street and Broadway. 

A vacancy of six months ensued, when the rectorship 
was accepted, on June 10, 1832, by the Rev. William Jack- 
son, of Alexandria, Virginia. After somewhat less than five 
years, he resigned it, on March 25, 1837, and removed to 
Louisville, Kentucky. 

Two months passed, and, on May 18, 1837, the Rev. Jo- 
seph H. Price was elected, and on May 29, 1837, accepted 
the rectorship. He served the parish until 1866, for twenty- 
nine years, in the old edifice on the corner of Broome and 
Chrystie Streets, and, continuing the incumbent, seven years 


after it was sold, united with the Church of the Advent in 
West Forty-sixth Street, in 1873, and officiated two years 
longer, when he resigned the rectorship in October, 1875, 
and the Rev. A. B. Hart, the present incumbent, was then 
chosen to succeed him. 

The present wardens are : James Blackhurst and Francis 
C. Hall ; and the vestrymen are : Charles E. Fleming, Peter 
A. Frasse, Robert Hewitt, Edwin K. Linen, S. M. Pike,Theo. 
E. Smith, Wm, G. Stansbury, and Stephen R. Weeks. 


Was organized in 1807; the first church was built in 1806, 
and the present edifice in 1854. The rectors have been 
Rev. John N. Bartow, 1808-1810; Rev. Samuel Farmar Jar- 
vis, 1810-1819; Rev. William Richmond, 1820-1837; Rev. 
Jas. Cook Richmond, 1837-1842; Rev. Wm. Richmond, 1842, 
until his death, 1858, and Rev. Thomas M. Peters, D.D., 
since 1858 rector of the parish. Since organization, 2,722 
baptisms are recorded, and 956 have received confirmation. 
In 1815 there were 30 communicants; in 1825,20; in 1835, 
78; in 1855, 45 ; in 1865, no; in 1875, 170; in 1885, St. Mi- 
chael's, 485, and Bethlehem Chapel, 107, making the whole 
number at present 542. In 1807 the wardens were Valentine 
Nutter and Edward Dunscomb; in 1815, Valentine Nutter 
and William Rogers; in 1825, Valentine Nutter and Wil- 
liam A. Davis; in 1835, James F. De Peyster and James G. 
Russell; in 1845. James F. De Peyster and Abraham V. 
Williams; in 1855, the same; in 1865, James F. De Peyster 
and Henry Wm. Theo. Mali; in 1875, James F. De Peyster 
and David Tilden Brown, and in 1885, James F. Chamber- 
lain and William R. Peters. 


This parish was organized in 1808. The first church, 
which stood on the southwest corner of Broadway and Rector 
Street, was consecrated December 21, 1808. The present 
church, at the northeast corner of Broadway and Tenth Street, 
was consecrated March 7, 1846. The rectors have been : Rev. 


Nathaniel Bowen, D.D., 1809-1818, and afterward Bishop of 
South Carolina; Rev. James Montgomery, 1818-1820 ; Rev. 
Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright, D.D., 1821-1833, and after- 
vi^ard provisional Bishop of New York ; Rev. Thomas House 
Taylor, D.D., 1834-1867; Rev. Henry Codman Potter, D.D., 
1868-1883, when he became Assistant Bishop of New York; 
and William R. Huntington, D.D., since i884rector, and pres- 
ent incumbent. There is a rectory, built of stone, in 1848, 
and forming part of the architectural group of the church and 
its associated buildings. 

A mission chapel was built on the northwest corner of 
Madison Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street, near 1850, and 
placed under the ministry of Rev. Edwin Harwood, but it 
soon developed into a vigorous and independent parish, under 
the title of The Church of the Incarnation, now established 
on the same avenue at the northeast corner of Thirty-fifth 
Street. The mission chapel, after passing through various 
ownerships, was afterward demolished. This chapel was 
founded under the rectorship of Dr. Taylor. In 1853 Grace 
Chapel was re-established in Fourteenth Street, between Third 
and Fourth Avenues. It was destroyed by fire on the night 
of December 23, 1872. The present edifice was built on the 
same site, at a cost of $60,000, and consecrated in 1876, Dr. 
Potter, rector, and during the same rectorship Grace Church 
chantry was erected in 1878, immediately adjoining the church 
on the south, and connected with it, at a cost of $23,000, the 
gift of Miss Catharine L. Wolfe ; also Grace House, 802 
Broadway, connected with the chancel of the church, and 
containing vestry room, clergy and robing room, room for 
assistant minister, reading rooms and circulating library, was 
erected in 1880, at a cost of $35,000, also a gift from Miss 
Catharine L. Wolfe ; also Grace Memorial House, a memorial 
of his wife by Hon. Levi P. Morton, at an expenditure of 
$28,000; also the beautiful stone spire which replaced the 
former, of wood, in 1884, at a cost of $56,000, which, together 
with the cost of Grace Chapel, was provided for by subscrip- 
tions in the parish. Grace House by-the-sea, at Far Rockaway, 
Long Island, a summer home for women and children from 


city tenement houses, was erected in 1883. Besides this ex- 
penditure of $202,000 in edifices devoted to the religious and 
charitable work of the parish, during the rectorship of Dr. 
Potter, extensive alterations and improvements of the interior 
have been made, in rebuilding and decorating the chancel, 
new and costly mosaics and furniture, with a large and very 
complete organ at the south of the chancel, which has elec- 
tric communication both with an echo organ in the roof over 
the chancel and also the old organ in the gallery, all of which 
can be played from a single keyboard at the chancel organ. 
This is believed to be the first successful application of elec- 
tric action to a related series of organs. Nearly all the win- 
dows have been refurnished with admirable stained glass from 
the best foreign and American workers. 

Since organization 2,660 baptisms are recorded, and 2,593 
persons have received confirmation. In 18 10 there were 50 
communicants; in 1820, 150; in 1830, 195; in 1840,220; in 
1850 and i860, there is no report ; in 1870, 264 ; in 1880, 920, 
and the present number is 1,200. The communicants of 
Grace Chapel are 347, as reported in the last Convention Jour- 
nal. The first wardens, in 1809, were Nicholas Law and Her- 
man LeRoy; in 1820, Herman LeRoy and Wright Post; in 
1830, Edward R. Jones and James Boggs ; in 1840-1842, 
Goold Hoyt and William Bard ; in 1850-1852, David Austin 
and Luther Bradish : in i860, Luther Bradish and Robert 
Ray; in 1870-1872, Benjamin Aymeer and Adam Norrie ; 
in 1 880-1 882, Adam Norrie and Lloyd Wells, and at present, 
Charles G. Landon and Hugh Auchincloss. 

The traditions of the earlier and middle periods of its his- 
tory are associated with the celebrated artist Malibran, and the 
hardly less celebrated Julia Northall, in the choir, which ex- 
ercised a wide and permanent influence in the culture of the 
higher forms of religious music. For many years Grace Par- 
ish has been thoroughly organized for every good word and 
work, disbursing during the last ten years of Dr. Potter's rec- 
torship no less than $100,000 each year. The ratio of work 
and beneficence is not likely to fall under his successor. The 
clergy at present connected with Dr. Huntington are Rev. E. 


O. Flagg, rector's assistant ; Rev. George F. Nelson, in charge 
of Grace Chapel ; Rev. L. H. Schwab, in charge of the Ger- 
man mission and the Church of the Nativity, and Rev. H. St. 
G. Young, parish missionary. Services in the Italian language 
are regularly maintained at Grace Chapel, which is lent to the 
Italian Mission on Sunday afternoons. Among the perma- 
nently organized activities are the Sunday schools, industrial 
schools, the St. Luke's Association for special care and min- 
istrations among the sick, the Benevolent Society, Domestic 
Missionary and Relief Society, Women's Foreign Missionary 
Association, German Missionary Association, Grace House, 
with its libraries. Junior Century Club reading rooms, the 
Day Nursery in the Memorial House, and the Fresh Air Fund. 
Most of these organizations exist also in Grace Chapel. 
While passing through the press it has just transpired that, 
at the Easter Sunday Offering, Miss Catharine L. Wolfe pre- 
sented $45,000 for the purchase of St. Philip's Church edifice 
for the permanent establishment of the Italian Mission, other 
members of Grace Parish providing the expense for its reno- 
vation and proper furnishings. In his introductory note to 
the Year Book of Grace Parish for 1855, the rector writes : 
"The opportunities for usefulness of every sort, open to a 
parish church placed as ours is, are simply numberless. Much 
of the work so notably achieved during the past ten years has 
been of the nature of a preparation for doing what was wait- 
ing to be done. We have now almost every imaginable 
facility ready to hand. Pray we God, then, to give us eyes 
to see our calling and make us 

" ' Strong in will 
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.'" 


This parish grew out of a " chapel of ease," erected for 
the convenience of prominent church families who passed 
their summers at their rural country seats along the bank of 
the East River. There is, therefore, no date of organization. 
It was, however, taken into union with the Diocesan Conven- 
tion in 1 8 10, prior to which date organization must have taken 


place, and the first church was built in that year. Churches 
subsequently were erected in 1869 and in 1884. The rectors 
have been: Rev. Samuel Farmar Jarvis, 1813-1820; Rev. 
William Richmond, 1 820-1 837 ; Rev. James Cook Richmond, 
1 837- 1 842 ; Rev. John Dowdney, 1842-1847; Rev. Edwin 
Harwood, 1 847-1850; Rev. Peter Schermerhorn Chauncey, 
1851-1866, and Rev. Cornelius Bishop Smith, since 1867, 
rector and present incumbent. Since 1867 there are 576 bap- 
tisms recorded, and 349 have received confirmation ; previous 
to that year there are no data. The present number of com- 
municants is about 350. The wardens in 1810 were Peter 
Schermerhorn and Francis Bayard Winthrop ; in 1820, Peter 
Schermerhorn and Martin Hoffman ; in 1830, Edward R. 
Jones and James Boggs ; in 1840, Joseph Foulke and George 
Riblet ; in 1850, Peter Schermerhorn and Edward Jones; 
in i860, Samuel Jaudon and Frederick J. Austin; in 1870, 
Andrew D. Letson and Montgomery A. Kellogg, and in 1880, 
Thomas Rutter and Walter Sh river. 

St. James* Church was built in 1810, for the summer wor- 
ship of prominent citizens of New York, whose country seats 
were upon the bank of the East River, near by. The site 
chosen was the summit of the hill, and is now marked by 
the southwest corner of Lexington Avenue and Sixty-ninth 
Street. But Seventy-first Street marks the line of the old 
Harson's Road, which this church faced and by which it was 
approached from both sides of the island. For many years 
the parish was united with St. Michael's, near the Hudson 
River, and had the same rector. As the population increased, 
worship was held throughout the year. The church was al- 
ways the prominent landmark of Hamilton Square, now 
Lenox Hill, and old inhabitants well remember its quaint 
belfry, its willows and its shed. In 1869 a larger, but tempo- 
rary building was erected in Seventy-second Street, and oc- 
cupied for fifteen years. The present church is built in brown 
stone, is Gothic in design, and after plans by Mr. Robertson. 
It includes a deep chancel, large Sunday-school room, and 
also five separate rooms for choir, library, guild, vestry and 
Bible classes. There are 1,000 sittings, and when the plans 


are carried out, the cost of the church, including the land, 
will be nearly or quite $26o,cxx). It stands on the same Har- 
son's Road by which the congregation has come to its services 
from the beginning. The present rector began his work in 
the old church, and has the unusual experience of minister- 
ing to the same parish in three different church edifices. An 
interesting relic of Fitz-Greene Halleck was deposited in the 
corner-stone of the new church. It was the poet's prayer 
book, presented by his friend and biographer. Gen. Grant Wil- 
son, senior member of the vestry, who also contributed for 
the same purpose relics brought from the Holy Land and 
from other places of interest in the Old World and New. 
The present church was first occupied on Christmas morn- 
ing, 1884- Among the prominent members of the parish, as 
recorded on one of the three brasses in repoussi work, in the 
vestibule of the tower on Madison Avenue, maybe mentioned 
Thomas Addis Emmet, Edmund H. Pendleton, John Jacob 
Astor, William C. Rhinelander, Henry Delafield, Nathaniel 
Prime, John C. Beekman, George Jones, Henry Parish, Ed- 
ward Dunscomb, Gideon Lee and Charles Astor Bristed. 


The certificate of incorporation is dated March 13, 1810. 
The first church edifice was built in 1811, and the present edi- 
fice in 1853-1854. The rectors have been Rev. Ralph Willis- 
ton, 1805-1817, an English Lutheran minister until the parish 
was organized within the jurisdiction and authority of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church ; Rev. Thomas Brintnall, 1819- 
1837 ; Rev. William Richmond, 1837-1845 ; Rev. Richard Cox, 
1845-1859; Rt. Rev. Horatio Southgate, D.D., 1859-1872 ; 
Rev. John N. Gallaher, D.D., 1873 to July 14, 1880, when he 
resigned on account of his election as Bishop of Louisiana, and 
since April 2, 1880, Rev. Charles C. Tiffany, D.D., present in- 
cumbent. A rectory was purchased in 1867. A mission chapel 
was organized and built in 185 1, at 418 West Forty-first Street, 
now under the pastoral charge of Rev. I. C. Sturgis. In ad- 
dition to the usual Church ministration it sustains large and 
flourishing Sunday and industrial schools. The records of 


Zion Church are too defective to authorize any statement 
concerning baptisms, confirmations, and communicants since 
organization. The present number of communicants is 275. 
The wardens in i 810 were John P. Ritter and Lewis Hart- 
man ; in 1820, John Heath and John Graff; in 1830, the same; 
in 1840, John Heath and Frederick Pentz ; in 1850, Frederick 
Pentz and James Van Norden : in i860, the same; in 1870, 
James O. Smith and Robert W. Nesbit, and in 1880, Samuel 
Hawk and David Clarkson. 

In 1797 a portion of the congregation connected with a 
German Lutheran Church then established on William Street, 
after ineffectual efforts to have the services conducted in the 
English language, withdrew and built a frame church on 
Maganzine Street, now Pearl Street, which was incorporated 
July I, 1797, as an English Lutheran Church. The rapid in- 
crease of the congregation necessitated a larger church build- 
ing. Building lots were purchased on Mott Street, corner 
of Cross Street, and in 1801 a stone church was erected and 
known as the " English Lutheran Church Zion." On the 
13th of March, 18 10, that corporation was dissolved, the 
congregation, with their then pastor, having determined to 
join themselves with the Protestant Episcopal Church. The 
next day, Zion Protestant Episcopal Church was incorporated, 
the pastor having received Holy Orders. The church was 
consecrated by Bishop Moore, March 22, 18 10. The church 
was totally destroyed by fire October 31, 181 5, and its recon- 
struction was not completed until 1819, when it was conse- 
crated by Bishop Hobart, on the 19th of November. In 1850 
the erection of a church in the upper part of the city was 
agitated. Final action seems to have been determined by the 
liberal proposition of the heirs of Susan Ogden, who, through 
the Hon. Murray Hoffman, offered as a gift five lots of land 
on the southeast corner, and five lots on the southwest corner 
of Madison Avenue and Thirty-eighth Street, conditioned 
upon the building of a church. In 1853 the church on Mott 
Street was sold — it is now standing — and in 185 1 a chapel to 
Zion was built on Thirty-eighth Street; and, in 1853-1854, 
Zion Church was built, and consecrated by Bishop Wain- 


Wright, June 28, 1854. The Church of the Atonement on 
Madison Avenue was consolidated with Zion Church, March 
30, 1880, under the corporate name of The Rector, Wardens 
and Vestrymen of Zion Church, in the City of New York. 


Was organized November 20, 1811, previous to which date it 
had been a chapel of Trinity Parish. The first church was 
built in 175 1 and 1752, in Beekman Street, on a north-side 
corner. The present church was built on the west side of 
Stuyvesant Square, 1847-1848, and greatly injured by fire 
in 1865, but was rebuilt, preserving the old walls and spires. 
The rectors were: Rev. John Kewley, 1813-1816 ; Rev. James 
Milner, D.D, 1816-1845 ; Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, D.D., 1845 
-1878, at which time he was elected rector Emeritus, re- 
taining and receiving his full salary until he died in Septem- 
ber, 1885. He was succeeded by his assistant. Rev. Walter 
W. Williams, D.D., who became rector in May, 1881, and 
since January i, 1883, Rev. William S. Rainsford, present 
incumbent. The rectory was built on land adjoining the 
church, in 1852. A chapel on Sixteenth Street, and Sunday- 
school building, were provided in 1848, during Dr. Tyng's 
ministry. In May of the current year the erection of a parish 
house, a memorial of Charles Tracy, many years warden, and 
his wife Louisa, will be begun on ground adjoining the church, 
86 feet by 100, and completed, from the munificent gift of 
the heirs and family of Mr. Tracy, promising to be the most 
complete edifice of its class in the city. The parish records 
are imperfect, and do not present a complete account of 
clerical acts, as Dr. Milner's rectorship has no account of 
either baptisms or persons confirmed. However, 4,574 bap- 
tisms are recorded, and 2,262 are ascertained to have received 
this apostolic rite. The present number of communicants 
is 1,100. The wardens in 181 L were: Garritt H, Van Wagenen 
and Henry Peters ; in 1821-1831, J. De Lancey Walton and 
Edward Morewood ; in 183 1, Herbert Van Wagenen and John 
Stearns, M.D. ; in 1841, John Stearns, M.D. and Thomas 
Bloodgood ; in 1851, William Whitlock and Frederick S. 


Winston; in 1861, William Whitlock and A. Law ; in 1871, 
Samuel Hopkins and Charles Tracy, and at present, David 
Dows and J. Pierpont Morgan. 

St. George's Chapel was erected by Trinity Parish in 1752, 
and conveyed to St. George's Parish at its organization in 
1811, by the parent church, together with several lots as an 
endowment. On the accession of the present rector the 
vestry resolved, at his urgent request, to make the church 
free, and the results, not only spiritually and socially, but 
financially, have greatly exceeded their expectation. Not 
only is the church thronged to its utmost capacity, and 
services greatly multiplied and enriched with a chancel choir 
and organ, but the voluntary contributions and offertories 
reach a far larger amount than was ever realized from pew 
rentals. The parish activities are greatly multiplied and in 
most thrifty operation. There is a mission under one of the 
parish clergy placed on Avenue A, near Sixteenth Street, 
and other similar undertakings, as the Church of the Reforma- 
tion, in Stanton Street, under the care of Rev. E. F. Miles, 
M.D., receive support and co-operation from members of St. 
George's Parish. 

It may be of interest and should therefore be recorded 
here, that under Dr. Milner's rectorship the proposition of 
removal up town was first proposed. The doctor very 
strongly urged the erection of a large, free chapel up town, to 
be associated with the old church, which, according to his 
design, was still to remain down town. 


For its foundation this parish is largely indebted to the 
zeal and liberality of Samuel Bard, M.D., LL.D., President 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the University 
of the State of New York ; seconded by the efforts of Gen. 
Morgan Lewis, some time Governor of this State, and a son 
of Francis Lewis, one of the signers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence ; of Judge Nathaniel Pendleton, Judge John 
Johnston, and others. At the date of its organization it 
was the only parish on the east bank of the Hudson, for a 


considerable distance north of Poughkeepsie. There were i6 
resident communicants before the establishment of the par- 
ish. The first church edifice was built and consecrated in 
1811 before the formal incorporation as St. James' Church, 
at Hyde Park — then a part of the town of Clinton — which 
took place on March 30, 18 12, when the first vestry were 
elected, as follows : 

Wardens: Dr. Samuel Bard and Gen. Morgan Lewis. 

Vestrymen : John Johnston, Nathaniel Pendleton, Wil- 
liam Broome, William Bard, Christopher Hughes, James D. 
Livingston, Titus Button, and William Duer. 

The parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
of the Diocese, October 6, 18 12, Dr. Samuel Bard and Nathan- 
iel Pendleton being its first lay delegates. 

The following is a list of its rectors: 
1811-1817. Rev. John McVickar, D.D., resigned 1817. 
1818-1823. Rev. David Brown; resigned 1823. 
1824-1833. Rev. Samuel Roosevelt Johnson, D.D. ; resigned 

1835-1856. Rev. Reuben Sherwood, D.D., died May 11, 1856. 
1856-1860. Rev. Horace Stringfellow, D.D., resigned i860. 
1860-1876. Rev, James S. Purdy, D.D., resigned 1876. 
1876. Rev. Philander N. Cady, D.D., still incumbent. 

The rectory was built in 1835. About the year 1832, 
the then rector. Dr. Johnson, erected a school-house in the 
village of Hyde Park, about three-fourths of a mile from the 
parish church, which he presented to the parish, together 
with the lot on which it stood, in 1834. 

In 1857, during the rectorship of Dr. Stringfellow, a 
chapel was erected on the school lot, adjoining the school- 
house. The grounds were subsequently enlarged by pur- 
chase. During the same rectorship a chapel was also built 
at Staatsburgh, within the limits of the parish, which was or- 
ganized as an independent parish, April 24, 1882, under the 
title of St. Margaret's Church, Staatsburgh. 

Since the organization of St. James', 1,237 have been 
baptized, and 617 confirmed. The number of communicants 
at the beginning of each decade was: 1812, 15 ; 1820, 58; 


1830, 48; 1840, 61 ; 1853, lOl ; i860, 80; 1870, 92; 1880, 183. 

St. Margaret's, with 53 communicants, was set off in 1882. 
The present number is 168. 

The names of wardens at the beginning of each decade 
are: 18 12, Samuel Bard and Morgan Lewis; 1820, Samuel 
Bard and Morgan Lewis; 1830, Morgan Lewis and James 
Russell; 1840, John Johnston and James Russell; 1850, 
John Johnston and James Russell; i860, James Russell and 
Edmund H. Pendleton ; 1870, Christopher Hughes and Elias 
Butler ; 1880, Christopher Hughes and N. Pendleton Rogers ; 
1885, Christopher Hughes and N. Pendleton Rogers. 


This parish was organized in 1816, the first church built in 
1818, and the present edifice in 1869. 

The Rev. Henry Anthon, D.D., while in deacon's orders, 
took charge of the parish in 1816; afterwards rector of St. 
Marks in the Bowery, New York City. 

The Rev. N. T. Bruce was rector from 1820 to 1824. 

The Rev. Wm. Shelton, D.D., afterward in Buffalo, from 
1824 to 1828. 

The Rev. John Grigg, in Buffalo, from 1829 to 1835. 

The Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, afterwards Bishop of Missouri, 
from 1836 to 1837. 

The Rev. Mr. Kearney (died 1844), of Missouri, from 1837 
to 1844. 

The Rev. Mr. Bartlett and the Rev. Mr. Sherwood suc- 
ceeded temporarily. 

The Rev. John Henry Hobart, D.D., son of the bishop, 
from 1844 to 1845. 

The Rev. John McCarthy, from 1845 to 1846, a chaplain 
in our army during the Mexican war, who preached the first 
Protestant sermon in the City of Mexico. 

The Rev. Henry de Koven, D.D., from 1851 to 1854. 

The Rev. R. O. Page, from 1855 to 1856. 

The Rev. E. A. Nichols in temporary charge, summers of 
'57 and '58. 

The Rev. G. Lewis Piatt, from 1859 ^^ the present. 


The rectory was built by the Rev. Dr. de Koven in 1853. 
A new one is shortly to be erected near the new church, and 
for this $3,000 has been provided, with a site of three acres. 

The records are incomplete, there being a lapse of eleven 
years, following 1825. There are recorded 302 baptisms, and 
the confirmations of 121. 

At the beginning of the second decade there were 25 com- 
municants, at present there are 49, 

The first wardens were Lt.-Gov. Edward P. Livingston, 
of Clermont, and Dr. G. Wheeler, of Upper Red Hook. 

Their successors were John Swift Livingston, of Tivoli, 
and Clermont Livingston, of Clermont. 

Those now in office are Clermont Livingston, of Clern[iont, 
and Johnston Livingston, of Tivoli. 

The corner stone of the first church was laid by the Rev. 
Henry Anthon, July 7, 1818. This was built of wood, and 
situated a mile and a quarter east from Tivoli. It was con- 
secrated May 27, 1 8 19, by Bishop Hobart. 

The present rector. Rev. G. Lewis Piatt, laid the corner 
stone of a new Gothic stone church, June 16, 1868, near the 
river on elevated ground, presented by Eugene A. Living- 
ston and John Watts de Peyster. It was opened for divine 
service in 1869, and consecrated by Bishop Potter October 
II, 1870. The cost of the church and furnishing was about 
$22,000. It contains beautiful tablets to the memory of 
Chancellor Livingston, Lt.-Gov. E. P. Livingston, and John 
Watts, of New York City. The seating capacity is over 300. 
Under the present rector there have been 181 baptisms and 
85 have been confirmed. There is a Sunday school of 180 
scholars. This parish, with a history of seventy years, is 
the mother church in Dutchess County, north of Hyde Park. 
Its records have accounts of services in Clermont, Upper Red 
Hook, Pine Plains, and Rhinebeck. The parish now extends 
nearly seven miles along the Hudson. 



This parish was organized in 1817. The first church edi- 
fice was built in 1822-23, and consecrated by Bishop Ho- 
bart, June 17, 1823. A new and costly memorial has been 
in process of construction since 1884, and is yet incomplete. 

The first clergyman in charge was Rev. William Heath- 
cote De Lancey, deacon from June, 1821, to April, 1882. One 
month before the close of his ministry in this parish he was 
ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Hobart in Trinity 
Church, New York. During the latter part of 1822 Rev. 
William Richmond officiated Wednesday evenings, coming 
out from his parish at Bloomingdale for that purpose. His 
services were given gratuitously. From 1823 to 1837 the 
parish was in charge either of the rector of Trinity Church, 
New Rochelle, Christ Church, Rye, or Grace Church, White 
Plains, as follows: Rev. William M. Carmichael, of Rye, 1832- 
1834; Rev. Peter S. Chauncey, of Rye, 1834-1836; Rev. 
Robert W. Harris, of White Plains, 1836-1837. From this 
period the parish was served by its own rectors, as follows : 
Rev. William A. Curtis, 1 837-1 841 ; Rev. John W. Ward, 
1841-1866; Rev. Horatio Gray, 1867-1871, and from 1871, 
Rev. William White Montgomery, present incumbent. Of 
the former officiating clergy and rectors, all are deceased ex- 
cepting Rev. Dr. Harris and Rev. Horatio Gray. 

The first rectory was bought in 1844. The second is now 
in course of building. A chapel with rooms for parish work 
is now building. Rev. Wm. W. Montgomery, rector. 

The proximate number of baptisms is 781, and 288 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communi- 
cants is 134. 

The wardens have been: 1817, John Peter De Lancey 
and Peter Jay Munroe ; 1827, John Peter De Lancey and Guy 
C. Bayley ; 1837, Samuel Purdy and Monmouth Lyon ; 1847, 
Samuel Purdy and Benjamin M. Brown ; 1857, Jesse Burgess 
and Benjamin H. Purdy; 1867, Samuel G. Purdy and George 
R. Jackson; 1877, Charles H. Birney and James Stinger. 


The wardens at this date are James G. Harris and Erastus 
C. Benedict. 

The elaborate and costly stone church, now in course of 
construction, is a memorial of the late Mrs. Henrietta Con- 
stable, of New York City, for many years a summer resident 
and parishioner. She died February i, 1884. The church 
is built by her husband, James M. Constable, and her children, 
Frederick A. Constable, Mrs. Henriatta M. Arnold, and Mrs. 
Edwin H. Weatherbee. Mr. Hicks Arnold, son-in-law of 
Mrs. Constable, gives the chancel windows as memorials 
of the late Aaron Arnold and Henrietta, his wife, parents of 
Mrs. Constable, and the Baptistery windows, as memorials of 
Mrs. Constable. The clock and chime of ten bells are also 
presented by him. 


Was organized April 8, 1818. The church was built in 1848. 
The succession of rectors is as follows: Rev. John Brown, 
D.D., 1818-1847; Rev. Edmund Embury, 1848-1850; Rev. 
Reuben Riley, 1851, part of the year; Rev. Christopher B. 
Wyatt, 1858-1862; Rev. E. H. Cressey, 1 862-1 863 , Rev. 
Richard Temple, 1868-1870; Rev. Haslett McKim, 1872- 
1883; Rev. William H. Burbank, since 1883, incumbent. 
The present rectory was purchased in 1883. One was 
built in 1 861 but was sold soon after. Since organization 
170 have received baptism. There are no reports of con- 
firmations or communicants previous to 185 1. Since 1853, 
97 have been confirmed. In 185 1 there were 73 communi- 
cants ; in 1861, no record; in 1872, 87, and in 1882, after 
dropping the names of persons no longer regular communi- 
cants, there were 51. The present number is 54. The war- 
dens have been : in 1820, Thomas Ellison and Charles Lud- 
low ; in 1830, Charles Ludlow and David Humphrey; in 
1840, Thomas Ellison and Julius Hale; in 1850, Thomas 
Ellison and Christopher B. Miller; in i860, Thomas Ellison 
and Philip Verplanck ; in 1870, S. B. Caldwell and Thomas 
Ellison, and in 1880, Thomas Ellison and S. B. Musgrave. 



There is no report from this parish which was received 
into union with the Convention in 182 1. The latest Conven- 
tion report is dated 1 881, when Rev. Matthew A. Baily, M.D., 
was rector and missionary; at that time there were 24 com- 


This parish was organized in 1820 and a church built in 
1821, which constituted the nucleus for subsequent enlarge- 
ments in 1850 and in 1875. Its rectors have been Rev. 
George Upfold, first rector, 1821 ; Rev. Eevi Silliman Ives, 
(no dates); Rev. William Rollinson Whittingham, 1831 ; 
Rev. John Murray Forbes, 1834; and Rev. Isaac Henry 
Tuttle, who became rector June 30, 1850, and is present 
incumbent. A rectory was provided about the year 1823, 
now bearing the number 477 Hudson Street, adjoining the 
church. The first Sunday-school building, adjoining the 
church on the south side, 64X 32 feet, was erected about 1859. 
The second Sunday-school building, adjoining on the north 
side, 50x36 feet, and the church extension in the rear, nearly 
80x38, in 1875, were all added during the present rectorship. 
It is estimated that 6,000 baptisms have been administered. 
It is quite impossible to estimate the number of confirma- 
tions or state the number of communicants by decades. The 
present number is 460. The rector, who at this writing is 
absent, detained by domestic affliction, writes thus : " Away 
from the Church Records, I cannot give the actual statistics 
of baptisms, confirmations, and communicants ; nor could I, if 
at home, as I found on my succession to the rectorship, in 
1850, no records covering communicants and confirmations. 
As the baptisms have annually averaged 100 or more, during 
the thirty-six years of my ministry over the parish, there must 
have have been more than 6,000 baptisms since organization." 
The present wardens are Francis Pott and Alexander Mc- 

At the time of its organization, St. Luke's was the parish 


church of a quiet, rural village lying well out of town on the 
Albany Post Road. Local changes have left it in the midst 
of a dense population — of a poor, laboring population, or 
tradespeople in a small way. The tides of thrift and wealth 
have taken more central channels, leaving both the extreme 
east and west sides of the city, for the most part, literally 
missionary ground. We find that the Year Book of Trinity 
Parish, for 1884, says of St. Luke's : "This is, in the strict 
sense of the word, a mission church, having daily morning 
and evening prayer, the weekly Communion, a large Sunday 
school, a parochial school, and several clergymen, one of whom 
resides in the ninth ward, in the midst of the poor popula- 
tion in that quarter of the town. St. Luke's Church has 
scarcely a wealthy person connected with it ; the people are 
unable to support it, and the building would have been sold 
and the site abandoned long ago had not the Corporation of 
Trinity interposed to prevent this calamity. The allowance 
of $10,000 per annum to this church is still continued, in con- 
sideration of which annual grant, and of additional assistance 
in enlarging the church and providing greater accommodation 
for the people of the district in which it is situated, St. Luke's 
has been made free." Strange fortunes have overtaken its 
rectorship. The first three subsequently became bishops 
respectively of the Dioceses of Indiana, North Carolina, and 
Maryland. Two of them abandoned the Church for Rome, 
and one of these, Dr. Forbes, afterwards made his recantation, 
and was restored to his first ministry, from which he recently 
entered into rest. The following memorabilia will have 
interest for both young and aged : 

Work on the church was begun in 1821. The locality was 
then known as the village of Greenwich. Green fields 
stretched all around it. Houses were few and scattered. 
Hudson Street presented the appearance of an ordinary 
country road. Back of the church stood the old State prison. 
Trinity Church promptly gave the ground for the new church, 
and soon added two lots for the churchyard. The vestry 
projected a building of the dimensions of forty-five feet by 
fifty-five feet, and not without misgivings that they were 


attempting too much, enlarged the plan to forty-eight by 
sixty-three feet. John Heath contracted to build it for 
$7,500. Mr. Labagh, a zealous layman, prepared the corner 
stone at his own expense. At the time the stone was laid, 
only one stage, twice a day, ran from Greenwich to New 
York. The population of the city was still concentrated near 
the Battery. The ceremony of laying the corner stone was 
performed by Bishop Hobart, assisted by the rector, the Rev. 
Dr. George Upfold, and most of the clergy of the city. 
Pending the building of the church, services were held in a 
room over the watch house at Hudson and Christopher 
Streets. Greenwich soon became a favorite summer resort. 
Some enterprising Churchmen, zealous to secure for St. Luke's 
a winter congregation, induced capitalists to experiment in 
the erection of houses, which proved a success. The parson- 
age was one of the first dwellings erected in Hudson Street. 
The church became ambitious, and in the third year of its 
existence procured an organ with 3^ octaves for $250, con- 
ditional, however, on securing voluntary music and an organ- 
ist. The parish steadily increased, and in 1825 had about 100 
families. After a rectorship of eight years, the Rev. Dr. 
Upfold resigned, and accepted the charge of St. Thomas* 

The Rev. Levi S. Ives became the second rector of St. 
Luke's. During his rectorship of three years the vestry en- 
larged the church at a cost of about $5,000. At this time 
also Miss Louisa Gillingham was engaged to sing at the un- 
precedented salary of $250 a year. On June 29, 1831, the 
Rev. W. R. Wittingham, afterwards Bishop of Maryland, ac- 
cepted the rectorship of St. Luke's. He was an enthusiastic 
advocate of parochial education. Soon the walls of the large 
building now standing on the south-west corner of Hudson 
and Grove Streets began to rise, but the enterprise proved too 
costly for the means of the parish. In August, 1834, the 
Rev. John Murray Forbes was called to fill the vacant rector- 
ship. He remained in charge for sixteen years, and the con- 
gregation steadily increased. He went over to the Church of 
Rome, but subsequently returned to his former belief. 


The present incumbent, the Rev. Isaac H. Tuttle, became 
rector of St. Luke's on June 30, 1850, and the church soon 
emerged from the shadow which Mr. Forbes' defection had 
thrown over it. A large school-room as a wing on the south 
of the church was soon erected. It proved insufficient in 
size, and another large wing was subsequently built on the 
north of the church. In 1875 the church was still further 
enlarged, aided by Trinity Church, by an addition to the rear 
thirty-eight by eighty feet. The congregation of St. Luke's 
Church numbers on an average 4CX) persons, more than double 
that number being on the rolls. 


This parish was organized December 25, 1823. The first 
church was built of stone, after plans designed by Rev. Prof. 
McVickar, D.D., of Columbia College(i824-i825), and situated 
at the north-west corner of Broadway and Houston Street. 
The new church, after designs by Richard Upjohn, was built 
in the years 1 868-1 870. The corner-stone was laid in 1868 ; 
it was opened for Divine service in 1870, and consecrated 
May 15, 1883. The rectors have been; Rev. Cornelius R. 
Duffie, D.D., 1823-1827; Rev. George Upfold, M.D., D.D., 
afterwards Bishop of Indiana, 1828-183 1 ; Rev. Francis L. 
Hawks, D.D., 1831-1843; Rev. Henry J. Whitehouse, D.D., 
afterwards Bishop of Illinois, 1843-185 1 ; Rev. Edmund Ne- 
ville, D.D., July, 1852-1856, and Rev. William F. Morgan, 
D.D., from January, 1857, present incumbent. 

There is a spacious and beautiful rectory, after designs 
by Upjohn, in architectural keeping with the group of church 
buildings of which it is part. It was built in 1872 and 1873. 
Other parish buildings and mission houses are St. Thomas' 
Free Chapel, East Sixtieth Street, between Third and Sec- 
ond Avenues. The corner-stone was laid by Bishop Horatio 
Potter, October 4, 1872, and was consecrated on the Feast of 
St. Thomas the Apostle, December2i, 1872. Its cost was $25,- 
000. St. Thomas' House, East Fifty-ninth Street, adjacent to 
the Free Chapel, was built at the sole cost of Hon. and Mrs. 
Roswell P. Flower, as a memorial of their only son, deceased. 


Henry Keep Flower; $40,000 was expended in its construction. 
Mr. Charles C. Haight made the designs, which are admirably 
executed in brown stone, in what may be styled Collegiate 
Gothic; all the buildings now in use by the parish and, its 
mission works were built during the rectorship of the Rev. 
Wm. F. Morgan, D.D. 

Since organization 2,430 baptisms are recorded, and 1,643 
have received confirmation. The present number of com- 
municants is about 1,000. The wardens and vestry of Old 
St. Thomas', in 1823, were: wardens, Isaac Lawrence and 
Thomas M. Huntington, and vestry, David Hadden, John 
Duer, William B. Lawrence, Richard Oakley, John J. Lam- 
bert, Charles King, Murray Hoffman, and William B. Astor. 
At present (1886) the wardens are Daniel T. Hoag and George 
MacCulloch Miller, and the vestry are John H. Watson, 
James C. Fargo, William H. Lee, Joseph W. Harper, Jr., 
Charles Short, LL.D., Henry H. Cook, Roswell P. Flower, 
and Hiram W. Sibley. 

The present church edifice, at the north-west corner of 
Fifth Avenue and Fifty-third Street, with the rectory at the 
rear, on Fifty-third, is one of the most commanding architect- 
ural groups in the city, and was looked upon by Mr. Upjohn as 
his masterpiece. It represents, altogether, with the furnish- 
ings and grounds, a value of nearly or quite $1,000,000. The 
ground plans and treatment of interior spaces and proportions 
are strikingly bold and vigorous. The columns that support the 
nave roofing are monoliths, and the effect of a central dome 
is secured at the intersection of nave and transept, much in 
the spirit of the Florentine Gothic. The head of the cross, 
apsed, gives a chancel of impressive proportions and dimen- 
sions, which is adorned in a most reverent spirit by a series 
of cartoons by John La Farge and a reredos in old gold by 
St. Gaudens, presenting the Adoration of the Cross by cherubs 
and angels. The chancel is flanked on both sides by shal- 
lower recesses, in which the great organ, by Roosevelt, is built 
in two parts, for a double choir. This dome-like effect, under 
the lantern, is accentuated by the broad, shallow arms of the 
cross, and the great breadth of the nave, brought out by the 


partial suppression of the aisles. Indeed, there is a striking 
and edifying union of both Byzantine and Gothic suggestion. 
The sense of spaciousness is also enhanced by throwing the 
chapel, first and second floors, lying along the north side, full 
into the nave. There are not far from 2,500 sittings available 
for the congregation. The entire cost of decorating the 
chancel, including the valuable works of La Farge and St. 
Gaudens, was assumed by Mr. Charles H. Housman, a mem- 
ber of the parish, as a memorial to his mother, Mrs. Sarah A. 
Housman, who also provided the cost of the angels with 
instruments of music, after Fra Angelico, in the arched re- 
cesses above the organ, also executed by La Farge. There 
is a Meneely chime of bells in the tower, placed as a memo- 
rial of his mother by Mr. Thomas W. Walton, at a cost of 
$6,000. The cross surmounting the tower, the richly carved 
lectern, the stained-glass windows, and other valuable gifts, 
are memorials. 

The clergy in charge of St. Thomas' Free Chapel have 
been Rev. Frederick Sill, Rev. Ralph Hoyt, Rev. J. B. C. 
Beaubien, Rev. J. J. Roberts, D.D., and Rev. Robert Lowrey, 

Assistant ministers during the present rectorship have 
been Rev. Nathaniel P. Richardson, D.D., Rev. John F. But- 
terworth. Rev. John Brainard Morgan, Rev. Christopher B. 
Wyatt, D.D., Rev. Frank L. Norton, Rev. Joseph P. Jowett, 
Rev. Mytton Maury, D.D., Rev. John Anketell, Rev. Fred- 
erick Courtney, D.D., and Rev. Alexander Mackay-Smith. 


The first Divine worship at Manhattanville, according to 
the Liturgy of the Church, was by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Hobart, D.D., and the Rev. Dr. Jarvis. The services were 
held in a building used as an academy by Mr. Francis Finlay. 
In 1820, the occasional services resulted in the appointment 
of Mr. Thomas I. Croshon as a lay reader, and his services 
were continued until 1824, when he became a candidate for 
Holy Orders. 

In 1823, Rev. William Richmond performed some clerical 


duties for the congregation, and the parish was duly incor- 
porated. The Rev. William Richnmond was elected rector, 
and a resolution was passed to open a free parish school, and 
to admit all denominations. The next May (1824) Mr. Jacob 
Schiefifelin donated lots numbers 105 and 107 and ten feet of 
103 on Lawrence Street, the present site of St. Mary's 
Church, for the erection of a church edifice. 

In May, 1827, Mr, Richmond resigned, and Rev. Mr. 
Croshon succeeded him. During this year (1827) the church 
was so far completed that the pews were rented. October 
29, 1828, Rev. Wm. Richmond was unanimously elected rec- 
tor of St. Mary's, and to this date there is no record in the 
register of any baptism, confirmation, marriage, or the name 
of any person as a communicant. June i, 1829, the Rev. 
George L. Hinton was elected assistant minister, with salary 
of $100. The following April 13, 1830, Rev. Mr. Hinton re- 
signed. This year Trinity Church appropriated $300 annually 
towards the salary of the rector. In 1836, the Rev. James 
C. Richmond was elected assistant minister, and the next 
year (1837) William Richmond resigned the charge, and the 
Rev. James C. Richmond was elected rector, and so continued 
until 1840 or '41. 

In 1843 th^ Rev. William Richmond was re-elected rec- 
tor, and continued so until 1852, when he resigned, but the 
resignation was not accepted until February, 1853. In 1853 
the Rev. J. M. C. Peters was elected rector. It appears from 
the minutes that he had assisted in the parish from 1847. 

The Rev. Geo. L. Neide appears to have done some duties 
in the parish from 185 1, but in 1853 he was elected assist- 
ant minister, and continued so until 1854. In 1858 the 
Rev. Mr. Peters resigned the rectorship, and in 1859 ^^e Rev. 
Chas. F. Rodenstein was chosen rector. In 1861 the Rev. 
Mr. Rodenstein having absented himself from the parish for 
three months, the vestry declared the rectorship vacant, and 
elected the Rev. George Fox Seymour rector. In 1862 the 
Rev. Mr. Seymour resigned, and Mr. Rodenstein was re- 
elected and declined, and in November, 1862, the Rev. 
Charles C. Adams, the present rector, was elected. 


The first baptisms on the register were in 1829; the last 
one was February 21, 1886; total, 921. The first confirma- 
tion in the church was June, 1832 ; the last one was May 24, 
1885 ; total, 354. The first communicant recorded was in 
1832; the last one on the register was February, 1866; total, 

For more than twenty-three years the church has been 
supported as a free church, with weekly communion and 
daily service, by the offertory, and $200 stipend from Trinity 
Church, without pew rents, or subscriptions, or envelopes, 
and without a dollar's debt remaining. 

And the present rector cannot close his report without 
expressing his gratitude to the present wardens, R. L. 
Schieffelin and Daniel F. Tiemann, for their liberality to him- 
self and their ready help in the improvements and good 
works in the parish. 

The wardens in 1823 were: Valentine Mott and Jacob 
Schieffelin ; in 1862, Richard L. Schieffelin and James Pun- 
nett ; and in 1886, Richard L. Schieffelin and Daniel F. 

From an address by Rev. Dr. Peters, in St. Mary's, on its 
semi-centennial, December, 1873, the following particulars are 
quoted : 

" Of the families connected with the church at its organ- 
ization, two only have maintained their connection through- 
out its whole history. 

" Mr. Jacob Schieffelin, who was the founder of the 
parish, gave the land on which the church and parsonage 
were built, and a pew is yet known as the Schieffelin pew, 
and is occupied by the organ ; and a vault, containing the re- 
mains of himself and wife and several descendants, is in front 
of the church. A beautiful memorial window of husband and 
wife was erected by their son, Gen. Richard L. Schieffelin, 
shedding its light into the Schieffelin pew. 

" Gen. R. L. Schieffelin has been fifty years a member of 
the vestry, and a large part of the time senior warden, and 
since 1824 annually a delegate to the Diocesan Convention, 
and his son, Geo. R. Schieffelin, was elected vestryman in 


1870, and during the present rectorship adults and infants of 
four generations of Mr, Jacob Schieffelin have been baptized 
in the church. 

" The other family worshiping for fifty years in the 
church is a colored one named Nichols. Several members of 
the fifth generation have been confirmed during the present 

"Among the departed benefactors of the church, and the 
first on the list of communicants (1829), was Mrs. Francis 
Finlay. She had passed a half century of life when the 
church was organized, and survived several years into the 
present rectorship, and by will left several hundred dollars 
legacy to the church as an endowment for the rector's salary. 

" Mrs. Ann Fortune, who had been for more than thirty 
years a devout communicant in St. Mary's Church, at the 
time of her death also bequeathed by her will, during the 
present rectorship, $500, the interest to be devoted to the 
rector's salary. Mr. Henry Muller, formerly a Roman Cath- 
olic, became a communicant during the present rectorship, 
died in St. Luke's Hospital, and left some four hundred 
dollars as an endowment toward the rector's salary. 

" In 1885 the vestry sold lands adjoining the church for 
five or six thousand dollars, which is well invested for sup- 
port of the church. 

" St. Mary's was probably the first free church in the city. 
For a short time some pews were rented, but in 1833 the an- 
nual report to the Convention said: 'There are no pew 
rents,' and it is probable there were none after 1831. And 
for twenty-three years of the present rectorship it has con- 
tinued a free church, supported by free-will offerings. 

*' At one time the services in St. Mary's were held only on 
Sunday evening. Trinity stipend was withdrawn, and in 1842 
the whole receipts from the offertory were but $16 for the 
year. The Rev. Mr. Richmond bore all the expenses until 
the close of 1850, when the amount was $6,696, which he 
generously relinquished. 

"The church edifice was once sold for taxes, and bought 
in by Gen. R. L. Schieffelin, and presented to the vestry. 


He also obtained $1,100 from Trinity towards the assessments 
on the church, and has contributed liberally for many im- 
provements and repairs." 


Was organized March 22, 1824. The first church was com- 
pleted June 19, 1826. and the present edifice was completed 
in July, 1865. The rectors have been Rev. William Cooper 
Mead, 1824-1826; Rev. Alexander H. Crosby, 1 826-1828 ; 
Rev. John W. Curtis, 1828-1831 ; Rev. Robert Wilson Harris, 
D.D., 1831-1855; Rev. Theodore Sill Rumney, D.D., 1855- 
1870; and the present rector. Rev. Frederick B. Van Kleeck, 
since May i, 1870. Since organization there have been 1,040 
baptisms recorded, and 545 have received confirmation. The 
number of communicants in 1826 was 28; in 1834, 50; in 
1844, 51 ; in 1854,90; in 1864, 120; in 1874, 193; in 1884, 
199, and the present number is 207. By decades, the war- 
dens, in 1824, were Richard Jarvis and Allan MacDonald ; in 
1834, the same; in 1844, Joshua Horton and Richard Jarvis; 
in 1854, the same; in 1864, Joshua Horton and Elisha Hor- 
ton; in 1874, Elisha Horton and Myndert M. Fisher, and 
in 1884, Myndert M. Fisher and Eugene L. Prud'homme. 
As early as 1724, Rev. Mr. Jenney, rector of Christ Church, 
Rye, gave a portion of his time in holding services in White 
Plains. Upon the nth of April, 1784, Mr. Andrew Fowler 
collected the congregation at White Plains, and continued to 
officiate as lay reader both there and at Rye, until Rev. R. 
C. Moore (afterwards Bishop of Virginia) was appointed rec- 
tor in 1787. In January, 1788, the people of White Plains 
and Rye united in the erection of a new church edifice at the 
latter place, and the connection between the two places con- 
tinued until 1816. From 1816 to 1823 occasional services 
were held in White Plains by the neighboring clergy. 


Was organized May 27, 1824. The corner-stone was laid 
October 3, 1827; the church was completed in 1829, conse- 
crated June 5, 1828, and enlarged in 1849. ^^^ rectors have 


been : Rev. Wm. Atwater Clark, 1 824-1 837 ; Rev. Benjamin I. 
Haight, D.D., 1837-1846; Rev. Wm. E. Eigenbrodt, D.D., 
1846-1857; Rev. Edward O. Flagg, D.D., 1858-1861 ; Rev. 
Edward Cuthbert Barclay, 1861-1862; Rev. Samuel J. Cor- 
neille, 1863-1871 ; and since 1871 Rev. William N. Bunnell, 
present incumbent. A rectory was procured in 1872, by re- 
modeling the parish school-house, which was built during the 
ministry of Dr. Haight. The parish records have a break of 
seven and one-half years. They contain record of 3,102 bap- 
tisms, and of 1,103 who have received confirmation. The 
present number of communicants is about 466. There is no 
record of wardens previous to 1845. ^^ ^^^.t year John B. 
Hunter held the office ; in 1855, P- Hanford and John Miller ; 
in 1865, Wilson Small and John Mowbrey ; in 1875, Wilson 
Small and W. Plumb, and the same gentlemen in 1885. It 
should be noted that from 1824 to 1871, a period of forty- 
seven years, there were 1,914 baptisms ; while from 1871 to 
1886, a period of fifteen years, there were 1,188 baptisms ; and 
that while there were 624 persons confirmed in the forty-seven 
years after organization, there were 459 persons confirmed 
during the last fifteen years. 


No report having been received from this parish, such 
data are presented as may be gathered from the Convention 
Journals. This parish was admitted into union with the Con- 
vention in 1827. In that year Rev. Manton Eastburn ap- 
pears in the list of diocesan clergy as rector of the Church of 
the Ascension. He continued until 1843, when Rev. Gregory 
T. Bedell, D.D., became rector, his predecessor having been 
elected to the bishopric of Massachusetts. Dr. Bedell having 
been elected to the bishopric of Ohio, he was succeeded in 
1861 by Rev. John Cotton Smith, D.D., who remained in the 
rectorship until 1881. In 1882 Rev. E. Winchester Donald 
became rector and is present incumbent, and in 1885, Rev. 
H. Dyer, D.D., Rev. John F. Steen, and Rev. E. H. Van 
Winkle are mentioned as his assistants. The wardens are 
James M. Brown and D. F. Appleton. In 1885, there were 


254 baptized, 96 confirmed, and 1,206 communicants. These 
statistics include Ascension Chapel, 330 West Forty-third 
Street. Tliere is a rectory adjoining the church, and both 
are of stone. The interior of the church was remodeled last 
summer ; new chancel arrangements effected ; the side galler- 
ies removed, and the church greatly beautified. 


Was organized February 14, 1829. The first church was 
built and opened June 7, 1830, and the present edifice, No- 
vember 30, 1873. The rectors have been, Rev. George L. 
Hinton, 1 829-1 832 ; Rev. Abram Hart, 1833-1840; Rev. 
James R. Bailey (afterward Roman Catholic, and Archbishop 
of Baltimore), 184C-1842 ; Rev. R. M. Abercrombie, S.T.D., 
1846-1850; Rev. George B. Draper, S.T.D., 1850 until his 
decease in 1876; Rev. Samuel Earp, 1 877-1 879, and since 
1879, Rev. Francis Lobdell, S.T.D., present incumbent. The 
rector's assistants are Rev. H. B. Hitchings and Rev. E. H. 
Cleveland. A spacious and thoroughly appointed Sunday 
school and parish building, adjoining the church and har- 
monizing with it architecturally, was built during the rector- 
ship of Dr. Draper, as was the church. The number of bap- 
tisms recorded is 2,257, ^"^ 823 have received confirmation. 
The number of communicants in 1835 was 30; in 1845, 39 > 
in 1855, 56; in 1865, 207; in 1875, 351, and in 1885, 875. 
The present number is 895. The wardens in 1829 were 
Charles Henry Hall and John Rook; in 1835, Charles Henry 
Hall and E. R. Jones; in 1845, Jacob Lorillard and Abel T. 
Anderson; in 1885, J. W. Hartman and C. G. Bunnell; in 
1865, Edward H. Jacob and B. C. Paddock; in 1875, Miln 
P. Dayton and L. Bailey, and in 1885, Charles C. Tyler and 
Morris Wilkins. The church is a Gothic structure in gray 
stone, admirable in its proportions, after plans by Henry M. 
Congdon, and is among the most effective and completely 
appointed churches in the diocese. 



This parish was organized July 26, 1830. The corner- 
stone was laid July 29, 1830, and the church completed and 
consecrated May 5, 1831. Much pecuniary assistance was 
rendered to the parish by the Hon. Samuel Bayard, of New 
Jersey, father of its first rector. The rectors have been : Rev. 
Lewis Pintard Bayard, D.D., 1830, died September 2, 1840; 
Rev. Edward N. Mead, D.D., 1841-1847; Rev. Caleb S. 
Henry, D.D., 1 847-1 850, and Rev. Theodore A. Eaton, D.D., 
since December, 1850, rector of the parish. There are re- 
corded, 1,833 baptisms, and 775 have received confirmation. 
The present number of communicants is 175. The wardens in 
1830 were: Frederick Babcock and Benjamin Hide; in 1840, 
William S. Popham and William L Lane; in 1850, George 
Draper and Sinclair Tousey ; in i860, George Draper and 
George Buckley, Jr. ; in 1870, John Buckley, Jr., and Peter J. 
Shults, and in 1880, Eugene Dutilh and Peter J. Shults. 

When St. Clement's Church was built it was surrounded 
by the private residences of many of the most respectable and 
wealthy families of New York, some of whom were its par- 
ishioners. About thirty-seven years ago, a movement of the 
population towards the upper part of the city began, and has 
been going on ever since ; the effect of which has been to 
weaken the parish numerically and financially. The former 
homes of these families have become either factories, stores, 
restaurants, liquor saloons, or tenement houses. The present 
population consists largely of foreigners, chiefly French, Ger- 
mans, and Italians ; a class of people whom the Church can 
reach, if she reach them at all, only by missionaries speaking 
their respective languages. The vacancies in the congrega- 
tion occasioned by the death or removal of former parish- 
ioners, able to support the church, are not filled with others 
of like ability ; and it is probable that the parish would have 
long since died, but for a small endowment bequeathed to 
it, some forty years ago, by one of its communicants. At no 
time has the revenue been sufficient for the current expenses. 

These changes are the chief causes of the serious diflfiicul- 


ties under which St. Clement's is now laboring ; namely, 
diminished and constantly diminishing revenue and the de- 
preciation in value of the site of the church edifice, with no 
prospect of any change for the better in either of these re- 
respects ; while its unfavorable locality, on a narrow street, 
closely shut in by adjacent buildings, and the disturbance of 
the services by the incessant passing of the cars of both an 
elevated and a surface railway, within twenty feet of its doors, 
must prevent St. Clement's Church from ever being an at- 
tractive place of worship, and prove serious obstacles to its 
growth and prosperity. For all these reasons the outlook, as 
regards its future, is very discouraging. 


This parish was incorporated May 9, 1831. The first 
church was consecrated February 4, 1832, and the present 
edifice, February 22, 1838. The rectors have been Rev. Ben- 
jamin I. Haight, D.D., 1831-1834; Rev. Thomas Pyne, 1834- 
1836; Rev. Hugh Smith, D.D., 1836-1848; Rev. E. H. Can- 
field, D.D., 1850-1852, and Rev. Alfred B. Beach, D.D., since 

1853, and present incumbent. A rectory was built on grounds 
adjoining the church in 1839. Two large buildings for Sun- 
day school and other parish uses have been erected, one in 

1854, and the other in 1870, during the rectorship of Dr. 
Beach. The number of baptisms recorded is 5,416, and 1,648 
persons have received confirmation. The present number of 
communicants is 480. The wardens in 1831 were: Reuben 
Spencer and Clement C. Moore; in 1841, Clement C. Moore 
and James N. Wells ; in 185 1, Joseph Tucker and James N. 
Wells; in 1861, Morris Franklin and Frederick W. Welch- 
man; in 1871, James N. Wells and George P. Quackenbos, 
LL.D., and in 1881, George P. Quackenbos, LL.D., and E. 
Holbrook Cushman. 


Was organized in February, 1831, and the church was built 
during tlie same year. The succession of rectors stands as 
follows: the Rev. Reuben Sherwood, 1831-1835 ; Rev. Cicero 


S. Hawks, 1835-1837; Rev. Ravaud Kearney, 1837-1838 ; 
Rev. Hiram Adams, 1 838-1 848 ; Rev. Edwin A, Nichols, 1848- 
1856; Rev. William J. Lynd, 1856-1859 ; Rev. John Jacob 
Robertson, 1 859-1 880, and Rev. Thomas Cole, 1880, present 
incumbent. The first rectory was built in 183 1. A new one 
was provided in 1884. A Sunday-school room was added in 
1875, during the rectorship of Dr. Robertson. Since organiza- 
tion, 722 have received baptism, and 262 have been confirmed. 
The present number of communicants is 126. The wardens 
in 1 83 1 were: Henry Barclay and John W. Kearney; in 1841, 
Henry Barclay and Stephen Kellogg; in 1851, Henry Barclay 
and John W. Kearney ; 1861, Dr. John Goldsmith and Cor- 
nelius Battelle ; in 1871, Cornelius Battelle and Hobart 
Bogardus, and in 1881, the same. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1832. The rector in 1885 was Rev. C. William Camp, and 
the wardens, Charles D. Bruyn and Edward Winter ; there 
were 269 communicants. 


Was organized March 11, 1833. The first church edifice was 
opened July 3, 1834. The present edifice was completed and 
opened September 29, 1866. The rectors have been : Rev. 
Francis H. Cuming, 1833-1834; Rev. Wm. P. Custis, Au- 
gust I, 1834, and died August 21 ; Rev. Wm. H. Walter, 
1835-1838 ; Rev. Amos D. McCoy, 1839, October 1-9; Rev. 
Wm. Walton, 1839-1843; Rev. Gordon Winslow, 1844-1852; 
Rev. Charles A. Maison, 1852-1857; Rev. John W. Moore, 
1859, February 24 to September 13; Rev. Edward H. Cressey, 
D.D., 1859-1861 ; Rev. Thomas W. Punett, 1861-1875 ; 
Rev. Charles B. Coffin, 1875, ^^Y 23, died, July 9 ; Rev. Al- 
bert U. Stanley, 1875-1882, and since July i, 1882, Rev. 
Henry N. Wayne, present incumbent. 

An admirable stone rectory was built on the church 
grounds in 1866, during the rectorship of Rev. T. W. Pu- 
nett. Since organization, 1,705 baptisms are recorded, and 


664 have received confirmation. The present number of 
communicants is 276. The wardens, by decades, have been : 
Henry Drisler and Richard Gary in 1833; Archibald Gordon 
and Caleb T. Ward, in 1843 ; George Catlin and Albert Ward 
in 1853 ; Albert Ward and John T. Hedley in 1863; Albert 
Ward and Samuel Roosevelt in 1873 ; and F. U. Johnston, 
M.D., and R. W. Gordon in 1883. 

As stated above, the original title of the parish was St. 
Paul's Church, Castleton. In 1866, the then senior warden, 
Albert Ward, began the building of the second church edifice 
as a memorial to a sister. Upon its completion the corpo- 
rate name was changed to St. Paul's Memorial Church, Edge- 
water. The parish is possessed of a fine stone church, Gothic 
in design, and an admirable rectory architecturally in keeping 
— both occupying a generous plot of ground which commands 
one of the most extensive and delightful landscape views to 
be had on Staten Island. It is most advantageously placed 
in the neighborhood of a rapidly growing population, which 
will undoubtedly be greatly increased by the projected im- 
provements lately undertaken for opening up the island and 
promoting both settlement and commercial enterprise. 


Was organized May 12, 1801. The first edifice was built 
in 1833; the present in 1881, to which a recess chancel was 
added in 1885. 

During the first thirty-two years of its existence the church 
depended upon the ministrations of neighboring clergymen. 

The Rev. Hiram Jelliff was rector, 1 834-1 841 ; Sheldon 
Davis, 1841-1843; Samuel J. Evans, 1844-1846; Homer Whea- 
ton, 1 847-1 854; Samuel K. Miller, 185 5-1 862; Eugene C. Pat- 
tison, 1863-1868 ; Joseph E. Lindholm, 1869-1872 ; Henry 
N. Wayne, 1872-1874; John C. S. Weills, 1876-1878; Robert 

B. Van Kleeck, 1878; John Henry Nimmo, 1878-1881 ; John 

C. S. Weills, 1 88 1 to date. 

A rectory was purchased in 1866. There are recorded 169 
baptisms and 98 confirmed, but there are no parish records 
for the first thirty-eight years. 


In 1834 there were 13 communicants; in 1840, 24; in 1850, 
26; in i860, 22; in 1870, 18; in 1880, 19; and at present the 
number is 44. 

The wardens were: in 1801, Elijah Prindle and Ebenezer 
Benham ; in 1834, John Fitch and Elon Northrop; in 1840, 
John Fitch and Lindley Preston ; in 1850, Cyrus Hammond 
and N. H. Haviland ; in i860, the same; in 1870, Cyrus Ham- 
mond, and a vacancy; in 1880, Homer Fitch and Artemus 
E. Sackett ; and in 1886, the same. 

This is one of the oldest religious organizations in eastern 
Dutchess County, and is said to have existed under royal 
charter. The Rev. Philander Chase, subsequently Bishop of 
Ohio, and afterwards of Illinois, but then rector of Christ 
Church, Poughkeepsie, held occasional services in the vicinity 
of Lithgow in 1800 and 1801. In 1806 an acre of ground was 
deeded to the parish by David Johnston, for the erection of 
a church, and for a burial place. In 1832, under the direction 
of the Rev. G. B. Andrews, then rector of Zion's Church, 
Wappinger's Falls, a subscription was made for the erection 
of the church, which took place in 1833. This was destroyed 
by fire in 1880, and rebuilt the following year. The old site 
was enlarged, was set apart for a burying ground, and has 
been placed under the management of a Cemetery Committee, 
and all moneys received are funded and allowed to accumu- 
late as a permanent fund, the interest of which shall maintain 
the grounds in proper order. In 1882 the rectory was 
remodeled, enlarged, and improved. During the past year a 
recess chancel has been added to the church, and the vestry 
room has been more than doubled in size, and is intended as 
the rector's study, as well as a robing room. A window has 
been placed in the chancel in memory of one of the first 
wardens, Mr. John Fitch, and his wife. 


In the year 1820, Mrs. Mathew Mesier collected a few 
children for Christian instruction, and the first meeting place 
was under an apple tree which stood on the ground now oc- 
cupied by the parish building, adjoining the church. The 


corner-stone of a church was laid, and two years after was 
completed and consecrated by Bishop Onderdonk. The date 
of organization is not given. 

In 1833, the Rev. G. B. Andrews assumed charge of the 
parish, laboring with steady success until 1865, when his declin- 
ing health and burden of years led the vestry to call as his as- 
sistant Rev. Henry Y. Satterlee. August 20, 1875, Dr. Andrews 
entered into rest in his ninetieth year and the forty-second 
of his rectorship. The Rev. Mr. Satterlee was made rector 
September 3, 1875, serving with great faithfulness the spiritual 
interests of the growing parish, opening up and carrying for- 
ward many new activities which have become permanent. 
After a ministry of seventeen years, he was called to Cal- 
vary Church, New York, February 9, 1883. The present in- 
cumbent, Rev. J. Nevett Steele,, succeeded to the rectorship. 

There is a large parish building for Sunday-school and 
parish purposes. It is expected that a rectory will be built 
during the current year, as the funds are collected and plans 
are under consideration. 

Since organization there have been 1,418 baptisms, and 
782 have received confirmation. The present number of 
communicants is about 500. 

The wardens in 1833 were : Matthew Mesier and Benjamin 
Clapp ; in 1846, James Ingham and Philip Van Rensselaer; 
in 1853, Henry Mesier and Philip S. Van Rensselaer ; in 1862, 
Henry Mesier and George Barclay; in 1875, Henry Mesier 
and Josiah Faulkner ; and in 1885, Irving Grinnell and Henry 
Reese. A mission is sustained at New Hamburgh. 


This parish was organized October 14, 1833, at what was 
then named Dobb's Ferry. The church was built and con- 
secrated May 20, 1834. It was enlarged in 1854, and again 
in 1870. The rectors have been : Rev. Alexander H. Crosby, 
1833-1834; Rev. Edward N. Mead, 1834-1836; Rev. William 
Creighton, D.D., 1836-1846; Rev. Grant Heyer, 1847-1851; 
Rev. William A. McVickar, missionary in charge from July 19, 


1852, and rector, 1853-1859 ; Rev. J. Henry Williams, 1859- 
1865 ; Rev. George Bickham Reese, 1865-1885 ; and since 
July I, 1885, Rev. Jacob LeRoy has been rector, and is 
present incumbent. A rectory was purchased in 1866 and 
enlarged and improved in 1883. Zion Chapel, at Hastings- 
on-Hudson, was erected during the ministry of Rev. George 

B. Reese. The corner-stone was laid in October, 1867, and 
the building completed in the summer of 1868. The bap- 
tisms recorded are 423, and 201 have received confirmation. 
The present number of communicants is 162. The names 
of the wardens by decades, are: in 1833, Joseph Rowland 
and Oscar Irving; in 1835, Joseph Rowland and Vanbrugh 
Livingston; in 1845, Joseph A. Constant and E. W. Wal- 
grove ; in 1855, E. W. Walgrove and Robert B. Minturn ; in 
1865, Shadrach Taylor and Edwin Croswell ; in 1875, Shad- 
rach Taylor and John B. Kitching, and in 1885, Augustine 
Smith and David B. Williamson. 


Was organized November 11, 1833, and the church was built 
in 1835. The rectors have been: Rev. Edward N. Mead, 
1834-1839; Rev. Charles F. Ralsey, 1839-1846; Rev. Charles 
Tomes, 1846-1847; Rev. William F. Ralsey, 1847-1856; Rev. 
J. R. Black, 1857-1863; Rev. James I. Relm, D.D., 1863 to 
October 16, 1880, when he died, and since July 15, 1881, 
Rev. A. B. Jennings, now rector. The rectory was built in 
1864. Since organization, 921 baptisms are recorded, and 
448 have received confirmation. In 1833, there were 7 
communicants; in 1843,73; in 1853, 82; in 1863, 120; in 
1873, 178 ; in 1883, 200, and the present number is 225. 
The wardens at the organization were : Caleb Bacon and 
George W. Cartwright ; in 1844, John Strong and Samuel C. 
Nichols; in 1854, Samuel C. Nichols and John Strong; in 
1864, John Strong and Samuel C. Nichols; in 1874, Samuel 

C. Nichols and Marcius L. Cobb, and in 1884, Marcius L. 
Cobb and John W. Mulholland. 



Was organized, September 28, 1835. The first edifice was 
completed June, 1837 ; and the second was erected and con- 
secrated in 1873. 

The first rector was the Rev. T. W. Hatch, who entered 
upon his duties in June, 1836, and resigned October, 1842. 
The Rev. Mr. Hart ministered in the parish until the Rev. 
Philip E. Milledoler became rector at Easter, 1843. He re- 
signed in July, 1845, ^"^ was succeeded by Rev. Albert D. 
Traver, D.D., September, 1845, assuming the duty November 
1,1846. He resigned November I, 1866. February 24, 1867, 
Rev. Stephen H. Synnott became rector, and resigned April 
8, 1885. The present incumbent, Rev. Frank Heathfield, was 
made rector May i, 1885. 

A rectory was purchased in 1863. There is an admirable 
Sunday-school building connected with the church, erected in 
1883, during the ministry of Rev. S. H. Synnott. The state 
of the parish records makes it impossible to give the number 
of communicants by decades, and there is no existing record 
of baptisms, confirmations and communicants for the first 
eight years of parish history, i. e., from 1835 to 1843. Since 
the latter date there are 902 baptisms recorded, and 464 
have received confirmation. The present number of com- 
municants is 275, 

In 1840 the wardens were: John Delafield and George P. 
Oakley; in 1850, Samuel Currie and Jacob Bockee ; in i860, 
Samuel Currie and Elias Trivett; in 1870, Jacob Bockee, 
M.D., and Winthrop Atwill; in 1880, Jacob Bockee, M.D., 
and George B. Lent; in 1886, Joseph M. Cleaveland, M.D,, 
and Robert F. Wilkinson. 

The church is situated at the center of a populous district, 
quite a distance from any other church edifice. It stands 
overlooking a large, well-wooded square, thrown open to the 
public, the deeds for which rest in the vestry of St. Paul's. 
The church is Gothic in design, admirably built of stone, 
with sittings for 400. Several mural tablets and excellent 
stained windows adorn the interior. The large chancel window 


commemorates the life and ministry of Rev. Albert D. 
Traver, D.D., rector from 1846 to 1866. 

The Sunday-school building, which is partly two stories 
in height, and remarkable for the beauty of its windows and 
interior wood-work, will accommodate about 250 scholars, be- 
sides furnishing ample rooms for the library and the infant 
class. This is a gift to the parish from the munificent bounty 
of Mrs. Cornelia D. Atwill, who also provided a very large 
part of the cost of the new church. The ministry of the 
Rev. S. H. Synnott (1867- 1 88 5) was signalized by the erection 
of all the present edifices — a complete and beautiful pro- 
vision for all parish work. 

On the 28th of September, 1885, this parish completed 
the first half century of its existence, and on Thanksgiving 
Day of the same year Dr. Jacob Bock^e, seniorwarden, entered 
into rest. He was connected with the parish almost from its 
organization, having entered its vestry in 1844. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
of the diocese in 1835. -^t that time Rev. Charles V. Kelly 
was rector and there were 71 communicants. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Lewis P. W. Balch, who first reported as 
rector in the diocesan Journal of 1838. In the journal {or 
185 1 Rev. Samuel Cooke is first mentioned as rector and has 
remained in the position until the present. The diocesan 
report for 1885 is as follows: "Rev. Samuel Cooke, D.D., 
rector; Rev. Frederick Clampett, assistant minister. Families 
and parts of families, 240; number of souls, 1,000. Baptisms, 
7; marriages, 7; burials, 10; communicants, 450." There are 
no other data available. The old church stood near the 
lower end of Lafayette Place, east side. About ten years 
ago the parish removed to the new and costly edifice on 
Madison Avenue, corner of Forty-fourth Street. There is a 
rectory adjoining the church; both are of stone, and there is 
no debt on the estate. 



This parish was organized in 1835. The first church was 
built in 1835-6, removed and enlarged in 1841. The pres- 
ent edifice was completed in 1847, the corner-stone having 

— ^ y 

been laid Mareh 10, 1846. The rectors have been : Rev. 
Thomas C. Dapont, who officiated before the organization, 
continued as rector until 1837; Rev. Francis H. Cummings, 
1837-1838 ; Rev. Charles Jones, 1839-1842 ; Rev. Samuel L. 
Southard, 1844-1850; Rev. J. M. Wainwright, D.D., rec- 
tor elect, officiated for six months in 1850; Rev. Francis 
L. Hawks, D.D., 1851-1863 ; Rev. A. Cleveland Coxe, D.D., 
1863-1865, until his election to the episcopate of Western 
New York; Rev. E. A. Washburne, D.D., 1865, until his 
decease in 1882 ; and since 1882, Rev. Henry Y. Satterlee, 
D.D., present incumbent. A rectory was built in 1847, ^n<i 
afterwards purchased by the church in 1854. A Sunday- 
school chapel of stone was built adjoining the church in 1867, 
Dr. Washburne rector. 

A chapel was built on Twenty-third Street, east of Third 
Avenue, in 1859, during the rectorship of Dr. Hawks, and 
placed under the pastoral charge of Rev. James Souverain 
Purdy, D,D., who afterwards became rector of St. James' 
Church, Hyde Park. The chapel was sold and a new and 
costly edifice built on the same street, nearly opposite the site 
of the old chapel, during the rectorship of Dr. Washburne. 
The Rev. Wm. D. Walker assumed charge, and remained a 
most successful pastor until his elevation to the episcopate of 
the missionary jurisdiction of North Dakota, in 1883. It is 
worthy of remark that nearly one-half of the baptisms and 
confirmations reported by Calvary Church belong to the sta- 
tistics of Calvary Chapel. The number of baptisms recorded 
— of which 1,276 were at Calvary Chapel — is 2,595, and 1,587 
have received confirmation, 774 of these in Calvary Chapel. 


In 1838 there were 40 communicants; in 1840,43; in 1850, 
500 ; in i860, 630, and 70 at the chapel ; in 1879, 4375 ^^id 425 
at the chapel ; in 1880, 500, and 450 at the chapel. At pres- 
ent there are 628, and 512 at the chapel, making a total of 
1,140. These statistics are necessarily incomplete, and do 
not fully represent the clerical acts in the parish, as many 
omissions must be attributed to vacancies in the pastorate 
and deaths of rectors. In 1836 the wardens were: Henry J. 
Seaman and James F. Fitch, M.D. ; in 1846, Philip R. Kear- 
ney and Joseph D. Beers; in 1856-8, Thomas J. Oakley and 
James A. Burke; in 1866-70, George Merritt and William 
Niblo ; and afterwards, Frederick S. Winston and Daniel 

In 1884 this parish extended its missionary labors in the 
same direction, planting the Galilee Mission at 401 East 
Twenty-third Street. The first service was held November 
4th, and the work is under Rev. B. T. Hutchins, who has the 
co-operation of two lay readers. It was organized for a 
special purpose. Its services are mainly for that unfortunate 
class who, from vice and intemperance, are never seen at 
church. Results are already positive and encouraging. 

During its earlier history this parish experienced troubled 
fortunes, and it was not until the rectorship of Dr. Hawks 
that its heavy burden of debts was extinguished, and its exist- 
ence and subsequent prosperity assured. Its pulpit has been 
filled with a succession of learned and eloquent preachers, 
some of whom have gained wide celebrity. Three of them 
were afterwards raised to the episcopate, and yet another 
from the pastorate of Calvary Chapel, The parish at present 
is thoroughly organized for efficient work, and abounds with 
guilds, societies, and beneficent agencies. It has taken a 
specially active part in the promotion of the Church Temper- 
ance Society. The total expenditures of the parish, as stated 
in the last Journal of the Convention, for the last year, was 
$51,875.39, and of Calvary Chapel, $7,415.81. In a recent 
semi-centennial sermon, reviewing the history of the parish 
and forecasting its future, the rector said: "It is evident that 
if Calvary Parish is permanently to occupy its present posi- 


tion, it should have a soh'd and substantial church, worthy of 
its name, of its history, of the work it is doing, and the place 
it occupies as one of the chief parishes of the great metropolis 
of America ; and that its present house of worship should, 
within the next few years, be so modified, or reconstructed, 
or rebuilt, that we may hand down to posterity an attractive 
church edifice, which, in architectural taste and beauty, will 
not only hold its own with all the other historic parishes of 
New York, but will become, in future times, with its rich 
memories and gathered associations, like the hundreds of 
English and Continental parish churches, which for centuries 
have blessed the communities and hallowed the spot in which 
they lift their towers." 


This parish was organized August 8, 1836. The church 
was built in 1837, and has been twice enlarged — in 1857 and 
in 1868. The first rector was the Rev. William Creighton, 
D.D., from August 11, 1836, to the day of his death, April 
23, 1865. The Rev. J. Selden Spencer, who had served as 
assistant minister since May, 1853, was elected rector May 
16, 1865, and is now incumbent. A rectory was built adjoin- 
ing the church, and completed with religious observances at 
the opening in June, 1875. 

In 1858, under the rectorship of Dr. Creighton, a chapel 
with parish school building attached was built in Beekman- 
town, now called North Tarrytown, at a cost of about $10,000. 
It afterwards became a separate parish, under the name of St. 
Mark's Church, Mount Pleasant. 

The earlier records of the parish are wanting. There 
have been 655 baptisms registered. There are no records of 
confirmations previous to 1852. Since that date, 404 have 
been confirmed. The parish began with 3 communicants; the 
present number is 170. 

The wardens in 1836 were: Nathaniel B. Holmes and 
Steuben Swartwort ; in 1846, Ebenezer Irving and Nathaniel 
B. Holmes; in 1856, Nathaniel B. Holmes and Washington 
Irving ; in 1866, Nathaniel B. Holmes and George W. Morell ; 


in 1876, George W. Morell and William S. Wilson ; and in 
1885, William S. Wilson and William G. Weston. 

Christ Church and Sunnyside, the residence of Washing- 
ton Irving, were built in the same year, and that distin- 
guished author was for many years, and until his death, a 
devout and faithful parishioner of Christ Church, Tarrytown. 

The rector also desires to put on record the devoted serv- 
ices of Nathaniel B. Holmes. He was really the lay founder 
of the parish, starting it first with a Sunday-school and lay 
reading. He was faithful and loyal to his religious duties 
and opportunities to his life's end. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1837, ^"<^ h^s been served at intervals by resident and 
missionary clergy. In the report of 1853, by Rev. Sheldon 
Davis, rector, the communicants are set down as 17, and the 
church spoken of as a central point for mission work in the 
rural regions. In the report of 1885, Rev. Duncan McCulloch, 
rector, the communicants are 60, and the other statistics indi- 
cate a promise of thrift and increase. 


Was organized February 27, 1837. The first church was 
built, and consecrated by Bishop Benjamin T. Onderdonk, 
September 19, 1839. ^^ ^^^ destroyed by fire Sunday morn- 
ing, December 27, 1857. The present edifice was built in 
1858, and consecrated October 26, the same year, by Bishop 
Horatio Potter, The succession of rectors is as follows : the 
Rev. Robert Shaw, who organized the parish, February 27, 
1837, to December, 1839; Rev. George W. Fash, missionary, 
from June, 1840, to July i, 1843 ; services were held by lay 
readers until June 10, 1845, when Rev. Samuel Hawksleywas 
ordained deacon and chosen rector. He died September 2, 
1855, aged 41. Services were held by lay readers and by Rev. 
James C. Richmond, until the Rev. Samuel M. Akerly was 
appointed missionary, March 13, 1857. He was chosen rec- 
tor September 21, 1861, and resigned in June, 1875. He was 


succeeded by Rev. George Waters, August 29, 1875, and re- 
signed in October, 1876. He was succeeded, October 14, 
1876, by the present incumbent, Rev. John W. Buckmaster. 

A rectory was built in 1862 on a lot adjoining the church, 
and in 1875 a commodious shed was provided for the use of 
the parishioners. 

Since organization 210 have been baptized and 96 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communicants 
is 56. The wardens, in 1837, were: Edward Armstrong and 

Miles J. Fletcher; in 1848, Gabriel Merrittand ; in 1857, 

Andrew Oddie and John Buckley; in 1867, Leonard Carpen- 
ter and John Buckley ; in 1877, James Carpenter and Edward 
Jackson; in 1886, James Carpenter and William Armstrong. 

The first church was a small frame building, 25 by 40 feet, 
burnt after Christmas service in 1857. 1'he present edifice 
is Gothic in style, and built of brick, after designs by Richard 
Upjohn. The dimensions are 33 by 78 feet, and there are sit- 
tings for 250 people. The cost was $7,000. The rectory, 
built in 1862, cost $3,000. The church, rectory, and shed, 
costing $300, were built during the rectorship of Rev. Samuel 
M. Akerly. 


This parish was organized on the Feast of the Annunciation 
in 1838. The first church edifice was purchased from another 
corporation. The present church was erected in 1847. The 
corner-stone was laid September 12th, by Dr. Berrian, rector 
of Trinity Parish. The church was first opened for Divine 
service in August, 1847, was consecrated by Bishop Horatio 
Potter, September 30, 1855, and made a free church in 1873. 
The rectors have been : Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., 1838- 
1868, and Rev. William Jones Seabury, D.D., rector since 
1868. The following clergy have been assistant ministers: 
Rev. Arthur Cary, Rev. Thomas Preston (afterwards a Roman 
Catholic priest), Rev. James A. Upjohn, Rev. Henry Norman 
Hudson, LL.D., Rev. William Walton, D.D., Rev. Edward 
Folsom Baker, Rev. E. H. Cressey, D.D., Rev. Thomas 
McKee Brown, Rev. Nelson S. Rulison (now assistant Bishop 


of Central Pennsylvania), Rev. Henry Duyckinck, Rev. Francis 
Harrison, D.D., Rev. Charles P. Dorset, Rev. George F. 
Siegmund, D.D. (in charge of German missions), Rev. J. J. 
R. Spong, Rev. James H. H. Brown, and Rev. Charles Edgar 

A rectory was built in 1869. The vestry room was en- 
larged and a story added during the first rectorship, and a 
chapel, with society and chorister rooms, have been added 
during the present. (There is no report given of baptisms, 
confirmations, or communicants.) The wardens in 1838 were : 
Hon. Samuel Jones and Hon. Wm. H. Bell ; in 1848, Hon. 
Samuel Jones and Edward Houghton; in 1858, Benjamin A. 
Mumford and Floyd Smith ; in 1868, Floyd Smith and John 
D. Jones, and in 1878, John D. Jones and Hon. George Shea. 

The first Church of the Annunciation, now St. Ambrose, 
corner of Prince and Thompson Streets, was consecrated Octo- 
ber 2, 1839, by Bishop Benjamin T. Onderdonk. Here, on 
Sunday, January 5, 1845, two days after the date of his sus- 
pension from the episcopal office, he received Holy Commun- 
ion at the hands of Bishop Gadsden, of South Carolina, and 
from this time until his death, in i86i,he continued a regular 
attendant upon the daily and weekly services of the church. 
Rev. James Lloyd Breck, D.D., and Rev. Robert Weeks, 
were superintendents of Sunday-school in this parish, while 
candidates for orders. The Rev. Francis L. Hawks, D.D., 
occupied the pulpit as the guest of the parish, about the year 
1864-1865 ; and Rev. Joaquin de Palma officiated between 
its regular services on Sundays, in Spanish, for the Church of 
Santiago, for several years. 


This parish was organized in 1835, and the church erected 
in 1842. The rectors have been Rev. George Strebeck, 1804; 
Rev. Alexander Frazer, 1835; Rev. David H. Short, 1842; 
Rev. Samuel C. Davis, 1844; Rev. Alfred H. Partridge, 1846; 
Rev. John Wells Moore, 185 1 ; Rev. George S. Gordon, 1856; 
Rev. Charles Douglas, 1861 ; Rev. William Murphy, 1863; 
Rev. Benjamin Webb, 1865, and 1869, Rev. R. Condit Rus- 


sell, present incumbent. The record of clerical acts is defect- 
ive. Since organization 120 have received confirmation. In 
1842 there were 13 communicants; the present number is 64. 
The wardens in 1836 were: Isaac Purdy and Frederick J. 
Coffin ; in 1846, Joshua Purdy and Charles Wright; in 1856, 
Thaddeus Barlow and William Turk; the same in 1866 and 
1876; and in 1885, Thaddeus Barlow and James Hyatt. 


No report has been made from this parish, on account of 
unavoidable obstructions. It was received into union with 
the Convention in 1840. Among its rectors have been : Rev. 
E. H. Peeke, Rev. C. F. Hoffman, Rev. A. Zabriskie Gray 
(now warden of Racine College), and the present incumbent, 
Rev. Walter Thompson. The wardens are Hon. Hamilton 
Fish and Thomas B. Arden. The number of communicants 
in 1885 was 106. 


Was organized in 1839. The first church was consecrated 
November 16, 1841. The present edifice, built of stone, 
Gothic in design, and admirable for its decorations and ap- 
pointments, was consecrated July 23, 1868. The clergy have 
been: Rev. Ebenezer Williams, 1839-1844; Rev. Robert 
Shaw, 1844-1859; Rev. Charles William Morrill, 1861-1864; 
Rev. Mytton Maury, 1865-1871 ; Rev. Charles Carroll Parsons, 
1872-1874; Rev. Isaac Van Winkle, 1874, and present rector. 
A rectory was purchased in 1886. An elaborate and costly 
Sunday-school chapel, harmonizing in material and design 
with the church, and with it constituting an architectural 
group of singular beauty, was completed in July, 1874, during 
the rectorship of Rev. C. C. Parsons. Since organization 
1,022 baptisms are recorded, and 384 have received confirma- 
tion. The present number of communicants is 92. From 
1 839-1 876 the wardens were : Gouverneur Kemble (who died 
September, 1875) and Robert Parker Parrott (who died De- 
cember, 1878); 1876-1878, Robert Parker Parrott and Gouv- 


erneur Kemble, a nephew of the elder Gouverneur Kem- 
ble; and 1878-1886, Gouverneur Kemble and Charles Miller. 
Among the more munificent benefactors of the parish have 
been the late Gouverneur Kemble, Robert P. Parrott and F. 
P. James. 


Was admitted into Convention in 1841. The Rev. Charles R. 
Jones was rector at that date. In 1843 the parish had no 
rector. In 1844 Rev. Charles Aldis is first mentioned as rec- 
tor, and continued until 1847. ^^ 1849 Rev. A. B. Carter is 
recorded as rector ; in 1852, Rev. J. Pinckney Hammond ; 
in 1857, Rev. Wm. Huckel, until 1881 ; and in 1882, Rev. H. 
Kettell, D.D., present incumbent, who reported, in 1885, 205 
communicants. " The parish is in a most satisfactory condi- 
tion. The Sunday-school is crowded, and the vestry propose 
the erection of a new chapel during the coming spring. The" 
church property is in excellent condition, and has been im- 
proved by the planting of shade trees along the front of the 
church grounds. There is no debt." 


This parish was received into union with the Convention 
in 1842. The church was built by Mrs. Anna Watts, a mem- 
ber of the Rutherford-Stuyvesant family, and a member of 
Ascension Parish, New York. A rectory of stone was built 
in i860, and Mr. Archibald Russell was for many years con- 
nected with the welfare of the parish as a summer resident. 
Among the rectors have been Rev. Philip Berry, Rev, Mr. 
Smithett, Rev. Richard Temple, Rev. Henry Beers Sherman, 
and in 1885, Rev. Alexander Capron, present incumbent. In 
his report to the Convention, the number of communicants is 
set down at 25. It is also mentioned that the number of 
families resident through the year has so largely increased 
that the prospects for future growth are encouraging. 



This parish was organized in 1842, and the church erected 
in 1849. '^^^ rectors have been: Rev. Caleb Clapp, 1849- 
1871 ; Rev. J. F, Esch, 1878-1879; Rev. George F. Nelson, 
1 879-1 884; and since that year the present incumbent, Rev. 
Lawrence H. Schwab. There is a rectory, in which services 
were held before the church was built. Dating as far back as 
1834, records of clerical acts have been found in this parish. 
There have been 2,118 baptisms administered and 528 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communi- 
cants is 60. In 1852 the wardens were : Dr. James R. Chapin 
and Peter M. Swaine; in 1862, Benjamin Tanner and Peter 
M. Swaine; in 1872, John L. Smith and John Guy; and in 
1882, John Guy and George W. Church. 


Was organized in 1843, and the corner-stone of the first 
church laid September 12th. The corner-stone of the second 
and present church was laid November 10, 1869, and it was con- 
secrated September 30, 1871. The rectors have been : Rev. 
Kingston Goddard, 1844-1847; Rev. Alexander G. Mercer, 
D.D., 1847-1852 ; Rev. R. M. Abercrombie, -1853-1856; Rev. 
J. C. Eccleston, D.D., 1856-1863 ; Rev. T. K. Conrad, 1863- 
1866; and Rev. J. C. Eccleston, D.D., recalled May, 1867, 
and present incumbent. A spacious and beautiful rectory 
was provided on the church grounds in 1882, and Mercer 
Memorial Chapel, with Sunday-school buildings, were erected 
in 1884. The present number of communicants is 350. 

St. Simon's Mission to the Germans was organized by 
Rev. Dr. Abercrombie in 1854, and is now carried on as a mis- 
sion for destitute English-speaking people. The wardens of 
St. John's reported are : Charles M. Simonson and William H. 
Aspinwall in 1843, ^^^ John A. Appleton and George S. 
Scofield in 1869. 

The first edifice was a plain wooden structure, and stood 
on the west side of the street, nearly opposite the present 
grounds, which lie on the east side, and have a pleasant slope 


towards the Narrows, which lie in full view. The architect of 
the new church was Arthur Oilman. The style selected was 
Edwardian Gothic, and the material is a grayish stone. The 
plan is cruciform, the nave and transepts being wide and 
short, so that nearly all the sittings command a view of the 
chancel. The exterior and interior proportions are singularly 
harmonious, and the windows are filled with some of the best 
glass of the leading makers in London. There are few 
churches where so much really excellent glass may be found. 
These windows are nearly all memorials. Among the bene- 
factors of the parish, mention is due of John A. Appleton, 
for many years a devout parishioner, and a munificent con- 
tributor to the funds for the erection of both church and rec- 
tory. The Mercer Memorial was chiefly provided for through 
the generous consideration of the residuary legatees of the 
late Dr. Mercer. 

Since organization, although the earlier parish records are 
incomplete, 939 baptisms are registered, and 607 persons 
have received confirmation. 


This parish was organized June 18, 1843, ^"^ the church 
was erected in 1844. The rectors have been: Rev. C. D. 
Jackson, 1843-1847; Rev. Samuel Morehouse, 1 847-1 848 ; 

Rev. B. F.Taylor, 1849 1 Rev.Wm. H. Reese, 1851-1855; 

Rev. Jesse Pound, i856and died 1866 ; Rev. Wm. Henry Bean, 
1866 until his decease, in April, 1876; Rev. James R. Sharp, 
1877-1882; and since February, 1883, Rev. Wm. Wardlaw, 
the present incumbent. Since organization 325 baptisms are 
recorded, and 175 have received confirmation. The present 
number is 68, and the number has varied but little since 1854. 
The wardens in 1843 were Wm. E. Ross and Wm. Shea ; in 
1853, Wm. Shea and Thomas Piatt ; in 1863 and 1873, David 
A. Edgar and Henry H. Biddle ; and in 1883, Henry H. 
Biddle and Henry S. Sequied. Since the establishment of 
this parish, services have been held continuously and the 
work of the church carried on, although the measure of 
success of which it gave promise during the earher years 


has not been realized to the extent that its friends might 
desire. This has been owing chiefly to the want of adequate 
facilities for travel between this place and the city of New 
York. The increase of population has been very gradual, 
and the parish has suffered by the removal of many valuable 
families whose places have not been filled. Still it has 
exerted a wide and healthy influence, and maintained a firm 
hold over the affections of the people. Within the past two 
years the church edifice has been repaired and improved, and 
attendance at services and Sunday-school have largely in- 


This parish was organized in 1844, and the church edifice 
built in 1843. The rectors have been: Rev. Robert Bolton, 
1844; Rev. Alexander Shiras, 1852 ; Rev. C. W. Bolton, 1855 5 
Rev. N. E. Cornwall, 1857; Rev. M. M. Dillon, 1861 ; Rev. 
E. W. Syle, 1864; Rev. J. M. Harding, 1868 ; and since 1871, 
Rev. Charles Higbee, present incumbent. In 1863-4, Rev. 
S. S. Cheever was assistant minister. A rectory was obtained 
in 1867. A Sunday-school house was built in 1865, Rev. Mr. 
Syle, rector. Since organization 501 have been baptized, and 
187 received confirmation. At present there are 70 communi- 
cants. In 1844 the wardens were : Richard Morris and H. 
Grunzebach; in 1850, Richard Morris and Philip Schuyler; 
in i860, Philip Schuyler and W. H. LeRoy ; in 1870, R. W. 
Edgar and A. Newbold Morris; in 1880, the same; and at 
present, R. W, Edgar and C. H. de Luze. Within the last 
two years both the church building and rectory have been 
renovated and handsomely decorated. A fine stone Sunday- 
school house is about to be erected near the church, an enlarge- 
ment of which is now under consideration, as the present 
demand for pews is greater than the supply. 


This parish was organized October 10, 1842, and a church 

erected in 1843. The rectors have been : Rev. R. W. Harris, 

from 1842-1853 ; Rev. J. D. Vermilye, from 1853 until his 

death in 1864; Rev. J. W. Hyde, from 1865-1867; Rev. C 


W. Bolton, from 1867-1880; Rev. Benjamin F. Hall, from 
1881-1882; and Rev. John T. Pearce, present rector, who as- 
sumed charge October 28, 1883. The parish built a spacious 
rectory in 1870, during the rectorship of Rev. C. W. Bolton. 
There are 330 baptisms recorded, and 151 have received con- 
firmation. The present number of communicants is 44, There 
is no sufficient record of wardens to present in this connec- 
tion. The settlement in the town of North Castle, now called 
Armonck, at the time the parish was organized and its pres- 
ent church edifice erected, was called by the name of Miles' 
Square. Previous to the organization of the parish. Rev. R. 
W. Harris, its first rector, had officiated here for some time, 
it being a mission station. During that time, and up to the 
erecting a proper church, the place of worship had been an 
old log cabin, built on the site where the Methodist meeting- 
house now stands. Besides the rectors already named, there 
were other clergymen who officiated on occasions of vacan- 
cies in the rectorship. 



This parish was organized in 1844. The corner-stone was 
laid on St. James' Day, 1844, and the church completed and 
consecrated on the third Sunday in Advent, 1846. The 
pastors have been : Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, 
D.D. (founder of the parish), 1846-1859; Rev. Francis Effing- 
ham Lawrence, D.D., 1859-1879, and Rev. Henry Mottel, 
from 1879 to date. The rectory was built in 185 1. A 
schoolhouse was built in 1852, a Sister's Home in 1852 
(during Dr. Muhlenberg's pastorate), and a Home for Aged 
Women in 1867, and a Babies' Shelter, in 1871. All these 
works and charities lie within the ministry of the pastor. 
Since organization, 3,200 baptisms are recorded, and 1,800 
have been confirmed. In 1846 there were 200 communicants ; 
in 1856, 350 ; in 1866, 500; in 1876, 700, and at present, 1886, 
there are 925. 

This parish is organized under a Board of Trustees, who 
at the organization were : Robert B. Minturn, John H. Swift, 


William E, Chisholm, A. W. Reynolds, Edgar H. Richards, 
with Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg and Rev. F. E. Lawrence. The 
present board are Rev. Henry Mottet, President, Edgar A. 
Richards, George Cabot Ward, Charles W. Ogden, Francis 
McNeil Bacon, Charles Spear and Hilborne L. Roosevelt. 

This was the first free church* in this country ; the first to 
establish early communions; the first to establish weekly 
celebrations ; the first to sustain daily prayers ; the first to 
divide the services ; the first to establish a choir of men and 
boys ; the first to have a Christmas tree for poor children ; 
the first to adorn altar and font with flowers; the first with 
chancel lights at Epiphany, and the first in the Anglican and 
American Church to organize a sisterhood (1852). The 
receipts from voluntary contributions and the offertory, dur- 
ing 1885, for the support of the church, were $12,125.37, ^^<^ 
for benevolent uses, $35,460.10, making a total of $47,585.47. 

Among the organized activities of the parish are a Work- 
ing Men's Club, a Working Girls' Club, a Boys* Club, an 
Employment Society, a Missionary Society, a Sunday-school 
numbering 654 scholars, with 52 officers and teachers, and an 
Industrial School numbering 354 scholars and teachers. The 
church occupies the north-east corner of Sixth Avenue and 
Twentieth Street ; the rectory stands adjoining on Twentieth 
Street, while the Sister's House, Home for Aged, chapel and 
parish rooms are adjoining on Sixth Avenue. They are 
built of brown stone in Gothic, after Upjohn's designs, and 
constitute together a picturesque and harmonious group. 

In a communication received from Sister Anne Ayres, she 
writes : The Church of the Holy Communion was built en- 
tirely by Dr. Muhlenberg's only sister, Mrs. Mary Anna C. 

* It is necessary in this connection to refer the reader to the report of the 
Parish of the Epiphany, New York, where its organization as a free church is 
placed at 1833. If these data are correct, il appears that the Church of the 
Epiphany has a priority over the Church of the Holy Communion, of eleven years, 
as the pioneer free church. It further appears that St. Mary's, Manhattanville, 
New York, was a free church, in 1833, as was stated in the parish report to the 
Diocesan Convention of that year. In this connection the present rector writes : 
" and it is probable that there were no pew rentals, after 183 1, and for twenty- 
three years of the present rectorship it has continued a free church." 


Rogers, widow of Mr. John Rogers, and in pursuance of a 
wish of her husband's in his last illness, '* that a church might 
be erected to the glory of God where the rich and the poor 
would meet together " (as Dr. Muhlenberg had often set forth 
among his relatives in God's house they should). Mrs. 
Rogers, I believe, was left quite free in the matters of cost, 
locality, etc., her husband leaving his property to her unre- 
stricted use and disposal. She also built the rectory of the 
church. In the earlier years, indeed for many years, Mrs. 
Rogers annually gave largely to the support of the church, 
through the weekly offertory and otherwise. " The Church of 
the Holy Communion has always been supported by the 
weekly offertory," said Dr. Muhlenberg a few years before his 
decease, 1872, "but I have never thought that that should be 
exclusively the means of support for such churches. The 
offertory should give the opportunity for all to contribute ac- 
cording to their ability, but, in addition, the more wealthy 
members, because I have always repudiated the notion that 
free churches should be exclusively for the poor. Their 
fundamental idea is in the meeting of the rich and poor to- 
gether in the House of the Lord. They are practical demon- 
strations of the Christian Church as the divine brother- 

In a brief memorandum like this it is impossible to attempt 
more than the briefest outline of such a man and a life; not 
that the outline contains the subject, but may refresh remem- 
brances concerning him which few who knew him would 
willingly have passed out of household knowledge. The 
parish he created is to this day charged with his life and 
individuality. Indeed, he involuntarily left an impression of 
himself so sharply outlined in whatever movement, organi- 
zation, or body he had to do with, that it became simply 
ineradicable. His coadjutors and helpers could not help re- 
flecting him, and yet no great man left fewer imitators or 
professional followers. He was one of the most direct and 
ingenuous of men. He seemed incapable of arts and subter- 
fuges. He was always found glowing at head or heart, and, 
most frequently at both. As an educator he made the deep- 


est mark of any of his contemporaries ; and College Point 
men were among the best equipped figures of this great 
Church revival period. In many ways he was more than 
another Arnold of Rugby, and as a Christian leader and 
teacher he nowhere fell below the great Master of Rugby, in 
all that goes to building up and beautifying character. 

Dr. Muhlenberg came at a time when dialectics and logical 
developments needed the mellowing tempering of his presence 
and spirit. He gave a new and permanent impulse to a qual- 
ity of ecclesiastical aestheticism wherein all Churchmen might 
become sharers. He recognized the bare, half-fledged condi- 
tion of the young Church just freed from the dangerous 
embrace of royal nurture, and yet awkward and ungraceful in 
its republican swaddling clothes. To Dr. Muhlenberg's won- 
derful patience, perseverance, and inextinguishable enthu- 
siasm, the Church owes not a little of her widely developed 
delight in the ritual beauty of holiness. As a propagandist 
of the free church movement, in which he was an early 
pioneer, he was simple, irresistible, and irrepressible. There 
are hymns, too, of his which reach the hearts of all the people. 
A lover of all workers in the Lord's vineyard, his hand first 
went forth to welcome and succor sisterhoods and orders of 
devout women. He was the earliest efficient worker in the 
cause of congregational church music. In the Memorial 
movement, he first demonstrated the accessibility of the 
House of Bishops and the General Convention to any vigor- 
ous movement of inquiry which had an honest footing in the 
Church, and those who knew him best and most wisely will 
always think of him as the actual father of the Church Con- 
gress as an unchallenged "third estate" in the evolution of 
Church thought and purpose. He left no formulated " school " 
to distract and perplex the future ; but he did leave a vigorous 
lesson of healthy inquiry and conservative evolution which 
secures the Church for some generations to come, saved from 
the plague of stagnation. His monuments are many for a 
single life. There is the Church of the Holy Communion and 
its constantly developing utilities, all at the foot of the cross; 
there is St. Luke's Hospital, and there is St. Johnland, with 


its indefinite outreach of cheer and help, far down in the 
future. Such a personage was not a " popular man," nor the 
main-spring of a " party," nor one likely to strike hands with 
the materialism and formalism of the day. " Right dear in 
the sight of the Lord (and of the Lord's people) is the death 
of His saints." 


This parish was organized in 1833, during Epiphany-tide. 
Lots were purchased in Stanton Street and a church built. 
The corner-stone was laid by the Rt. Rev. Richard Chan- 
ning Moore, Bishop of Virginia, and the church was conse- 
crated June 28, 1834, by the Bishops of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Connecticut. This was the first free church in the 
city. The rectors have been: Rev. Lot Jones, D.D., from 
1833 to his decease, October, 1865; Rev. B. B. Leacock, 
1867-1872; Rev. Jacob Rambo, 1 872-1 873 ; Rev. U. T. 
Tracy, 1874-1884, and Rev. Alford A. Butler, incumbent, 
since May, 1884. The number of baptisms recorded is some- 
thing over 3,650, of which 3,234 are referable to the rector- 
ship of Dr. Jones, and 1,381 have received confirmation. The 
number of communicants in 1835 were 205 ; in 1845, S^i 5 i" 

1855, ; in 1865, about 360; in 1875, 175 ; in 1880, 75 ; in 

1885, 138, and the present number is 150. 

Here glimpses of the history of the parish at two different 
periods during the first rectorship will prove edifying. July, 
1845, we read that " this church, established about twelve 
years since by the Protestant Episcopal Mission Society, has 
been steadily increasing in numbers and strength : 1,221 per- 
sons have been baptized (adults, 148; children, 1,073); niar- 
riages, 312; funerals, 595; confirmation, 487; 1,015 have 
been received to the Holy Communion, of whom 511 are 
now communicants in said church." 

Again, January, 1858, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the founding of the church. Dr. Jones said : " During my 
connection with this church I have baptized 253 adults, 2,248 
children, making in all 2,501 ; married 750 couples; presented 
915 persons for confirmation; enrolled as communicants 


1,494, and attended 1,362 funerals. Our present number of 
communicants is about 400. Nine young men, confirmed 
here, have entered the ministry, and 11 others, teachers 
in our Sunday-school, confirmed elsewhere, have taken holy 
orders." At least two of the clergymen have been conse- 
crated bishops. 

During the first twelve years after organization there was 
no vestry. Elijah Guion was chairman of Superintending Com- 
mittee in 1833, and Robert Cornley in 1840. The wardens, 
in 1845, were : William T. Pinckney and Peter D. Collins; in 
1855, William T. Pinckney and John Allen, and in 1886, Ed- 
ward Black and Robert Betty. 

The parish, after the decease of the first rector, expe- 
rienced grave vicissitudes, largely owing to the changed and 
continually changing character of its neighborhood. In 1874 
an exchange of property was made, and the few remaining 
members of the Epiphany removed from Stanton Street and 
took possession of the wooden building on East Fiftieth 
Street, then under the care of the Rev. U. T. Tracy, the two 
congregations uniting under his rectorship. The frame edi- 
fice on Fiftieth Street was old, and found to be going to de- 
cay. In 1 88 1 the present edifice in East Forty-eighth Street 
was put upon the market by St. Alban's Parish, and purchased 
by the Epiphany. In April, 1884, the Rev. Mr. Tracy re- 
signed the rectorship, on account of impaired health, and in 
the following May he was succeeded by the present rector. 
It is a matter of congratulation and thanksgiving that the old 
church-site in Stanton Street is at last rescued from the peril 
of secularization, and is occupied by a large and very commo- 
dious church and parish building, which will be consecrated 
this spring, for the Parish of the Reformation. The present 
outlook for the Epiphany is encouraging, and there are to- 
kens of a revival of the old-time zeal and spiritual thrift, not- 
withstanding the close proximity of several of the largest and 
most commanding churches in the city, separated by only a 
single avenue. It seems to be firmly establishing its activi- 
ties in the great east-side population, after the example of the 
parish of a former generation. The last Feast of the Epiph- 


any was made an occasion for the solemn bringing together 
of the old and the new Epiphany, beneath the memorial mu- 
ral tablet to the memory of its first rector, which had been 
removed from the old church and unveiled that day in the 
new. Letters in lively terms of sympathy and reminiscence 
were read from Bishop Paddock, of Massachusetts, and 
Bishop Gillespie, of Western Michigan, both of whom had 
been connected with the old church, the one as assistant where 
he passed his diaconate, and the other as a parishioner and 
Sunday-school teacher. 


This parish was organized November i, 1844. The corner- 
stone was laid by Bishop McCroskey, of Michigan, May 31, 
1846. The building was subsequently enlarged by the addi- 
tion of the present chancel and transepts. The rectors have 
been: Rev. Foster Thayer, from organization to 1847; Rev. 
Robert S. Howland, D.D., from 1847-1869; Rev. John P. 
Lundy, D.D., 1869-1875, and Rev. Brady E. Backus, since 
1875, rector and present incumbent. Since organization there 
have been 3,5CX) baptisms, 1,180 persons confirmed, and the 
present number of communicants is 350. Under Dr. How- 
land's rectorship a mission chapel was purchased and main- 
tained in Twenty-ninth Street, near Ninth Avenue ; this was 
succeeded by the present Sunday-school building, adjoining 
the church. A rectory was purchased, adjoining the church, 
during the rectorship of Dr. Backus. 

The wardens have been : at organization, John Smith and 
Elias G. Drake; in 1854, John Smith and Walter Roome; in 
1864, Samuel Newby and John W. Seymour; in 1874, Wil- 
liam Barden and Daniel B. Whitlock, and at present they are 
Daniel B. Whitlock and Robert H. Goff. 

During his rectorship Dr. Howland had associated with 
him Rev. George Jarvis Geer, D.D., under whose administra- 
tions the Church of St. Timothy was subsequently organized, 
and in whose service, as rector, he died, March 16, 1865 ; Rev. 
Thomas K. Conrad, D.D., during whose ministry mission serv- 


ices were begun at the Rutgers Institute, Fifth Avenue and 
Forty-second Street, which afterwards grew into the Parish 
of the Holy Apostles, and Rev. David L. Schwartz. The 
Rev. George L. Neide also had for some time in charge the 
first mission of the parish, which was opened in Twenty-ninth 
Street, near Ninth Avenue. 

This parish had its beginning in a Sunday-school, which 
was organized July 11, 1836. The services of the young par- 
ish were held, for the first year, in the chapel of the Blind 
Asylum. After this the congregation met in the basement of 
the Martine House, No. 337 West Twenty-eighth Street. In 
a short time steps were taken toward the erection of a church, 
at an estimated cost of $12,000, which was raised by subscrip- 
tions, a gift of $5,000 from Trinity Parish, and a loan. The 
lots, comprising a plot 100 feet square, were a gift of Mr. 
Robert Ray, The church then erected became the nave 
of the present building. It was originally purposed to make 
the church free, but a resolution to this effect was afterward 
revoked. At the time of the enlargement, under Dr. How- 
land, the additions were built upon a lot originally presented 
to the parish by Mr. J. A. King, and intended as a site for a 
rectory. The entire cost of these improvements, amounting 
to about $10,000, was generously provided by the munificence 
of Dr. Howland. During the rectorship of Dr. Lundy, in 
which the growth and usefulness of the parish was ably sus- 
tained, he produced his celebrated and scholarly work on 
Monumental Christianity. 

During the present rectorship a rectory has been purchased 
on Twenty-eighth Street, adjoining the church, and the church 
property put in thorough repair, at an expense of $10,000. 
The parish owns its church building, Sunday-school building, 
rectory, and a store on Ninth Avenue, the aggregate value of 
which is $125,000, and comparatively free from debt. In a ser- 
mon preached by the reverend rector, March 21, 1866, he says: 
" This parish, notwithstanding many losses and changes in 
the neighborhood, is now, in point of means annually ex- 
pended in its charities and agencies, in its Sunday-school and 
services, in the condition of its property, in the number of 


souls reached by its ministrations, doing as good work as it 
has ever done in its history." During these ten years there 
have been baptized, infants and adults, 900; 450 funeral serv- 
ices have been held ; 375 persons have been presented for 
confirmation, and 310 marriages solemnized. The amount 
raised for parish and charitable purposes is not far from 


Was admitted into union with the Diocesan Convention 
in 1845. A church was procured in 1859, ^"^ sold in 1865. 
The rectors and clergy in charge have been : Rev. Moses 
Marens, 1845-1852, rector; Rev. Alexander S. Leonard, 
D.D., 1853-1865, rector; Rev. Frederick Sill, 1 867-1 875, 
minister in charge; Rev. Campbell Faair, 1 875-1 876, in 
charge; Rev. Z. Doty, 1876, in charge; Rev. J. W. Kramer, 
1877-1881, in charge; and Rev. B. F. DeCosta, since 1885, 
and at present in charge. There are no records of baptisms, 
confirmations, and communicants. The following gentlemen 
have served as wardens : Rev. Thomas Field Frask (no date) ; 
Anthony Barclay, 1854-1858; Thomas Field Frask, 1852- 
1872; and Robert Waller, 1873-1885. 

This parish was organized to build a church and hospital 
for British immigrants, and obtained a grant of land. Fifty- 
fourth to Fifty-fifth Street, on Fifth Avenue, in all, twenty- 
four lots. These were afterwards transferred to St. Luke's 
Hospital Association, a part of the consideration being that 
a ward, or wing, capable of holding twenty beds, should be 
known and designated as " The Ward of St. George the 
Martyr." With the exception of six years, the parish owned 
a church building in Forty-fourth Street, between Fifth and 
Sixth Avenues. The congregation has worshiped, by invita- 
tion, first in the church at the corner of Thompson and Prince 
Streets, with the Parish of " Emmanuel " ; afterwards in the 
same building, as guests of St. Ambrose Church ; and then, as 
now, with the congregation of St. John, Evangelist, in West 
Eleventh Street, corner of Waverley Place. 



This parish was organized February 8, 1845. The church 
edifice was built in 1847. (The report received is very- 
meager, presents no other dates, and no statistics of clerical 
acts.) The rectors have been : Rev. G. W. Finlow, Rev. T. 
S. Spencer, Rev. P. T. Babbitt, Rev. Alex. Capron, Rev. Geo. 
D. Silliman, Rev. Peter P. Harrower, and the present incum- 
bent, Rev. Wm. McGlathery. From the Journal of 1885, it 
appears that there are 272 communicants, and that the war- 
dens are Joseph B. Swalm and Lewis Armstrong, M.D. 


Was organized April 13, 1846, and incorporated as St. 
Peter's. Subsequently it was illegally reincorporated, Oc- 
tober 16, i860, as the Church of the Good Shepherd. Its 
proper and legal title is St. Peter's. The church edifice was 
provided April 13, 1846, by converting a store into a house 
for Divine worship. At this time, and for some years after- 
wards. Rev. Peter S. Burchan, D.D., and others served it as a 
mission. At the time of the second incorporation (i860) the 
Rev. Ephraim DeGuy became rector. After his resignation 
the parish was served irregularly, although without interrup- 
tion of services, the nominal rectors apparently being Rev. 
Samuel Hawksley and Rev. F. S. McAllister, of St. John's 
Church, Kingston. The parish register of baptisms begins 
with Rev. G, Washington West, who was rector from May 
31, 1874, to December 29th following. The Rev. Alfred 

Evan Johnson was rector from November 30, 1875, to ; 

Rev. C. H. Tomlins, July i, 1876, to June 3, 1879; ^^v. W. 
C. Maguire, December 25, 1879, to fall of 1881 ; Rev. Francis 

J. Clayton, November, 1881, to , 1882; Rev. George C. 

Hepburn, May, 1882, to fall of 1882; Rev. J. J. R. Spong, 
March, 1883, to fall of 1883; Rev. Nelson Ayres, March, 

1884, to December, 1884; Rev. Edward Ransford, May 16, 

1885, present incumbent. 

During the rectorship of Rev. W. H. Tomlins, a new 


stone church was built at Rosendale, an adjacent village, and 
consecrated September 20, 1885, by assistant Bishop H. C. 
Potter. During the present rectorship, in High Falls a new 
frame memorial church, St. John's, was built in 1885, and 
opened November 15, 1885, by Rev. Ed, Ransford, rector. 

Since the spring of 1874, 261 baptisms are recorded: 
those previous to that date are doubtless to be found in the 
register of St. John's Church, Kingston ; and since the same 
date 'j'j have received confirmation. In 1846 there were 10 
communicants, and the whole number at present, from the 
three churches which form the parish, is 69. 

The wardens were, apparently, Jacob L. Hasbrouck and 
Hector Abeel, from 1846 to i860; from i860 to 1877, Lewis 
H. Wickes and Hector Abeel. At present they are Cornelius 
Hardenbergh and Henry T. Delafield. 

The parish was originally established through the efforts 
of Dr. Lewis H. Wickes, who settled in the village in 1839, 
and married Mrs. Elizabeth Hardenbergh, mother of Major 
Cornelius C. Hardenbergh, the present senior warden and 
treasurer of the church. Mr. Hector Abeel and his sister, 
Miss Ann E. Abeel, have also been among the most faithful 
workers for the church, from the beginning down to the pres- 
ent. The interior of the Church of St. Peter, Stone Ridge, 
was made thoroughly churchly by Mrs. Moran and Mr. H. T. 
Delafield, in 1884. The mission at Rosendale prospered so 
greatly that a beautiful stone church, All Saints', was built 
in 1876, on ground presented by Mr. Cornell. It is now con- 
secrated, and in union with the Diocesan Convention. A 
memorial church, St. John's, was built in 1885, ^nd opened 
the same year through the liberality of Mrs. R. K. Delafield, 
whose sister. Miss Caroline Bard, in conjunction with Mrs. F. 
O. Norton, of High Falls, had inaugurated mission work 
among the cement workers and quarrymen in the latter vil- 
lage. In every particular this is one of the loveliest and 
most completely furnished churches in the diocese outside 
New York City. 



This church was organized July 15, 1847. Its church 
edifice was purchased of a Second Advent Society in 1854. 
The Rev. James Millett has been the only rector since organ- 
ization. About 2,800 baptisms are reported, and about 450 
have received confirmation. The number of communicants 
at each decade ranges between 80 and 90. The present num- 
ber is 75. The wardens at the first decade were : Charles A. 
Sammis and Alex. Forbes ; at the second, David J. Ottiwell 
and Charles Ottiwell ; at the third, Joseph Wiley and John 
Haw; and at the fourth, John Nedwell and John E. Ottiwell. 
The growth is constantly checked on account of the neigh- 
borhood and changes in residence and occupations. 


This parish was organized by Rev. W. F. Walker, received 
into union with the Diocesan Convention in 1847, ^"^ incor- 
porated December 10, 1855. The church was built in 1856. 
The following is the succession of rectors : Rev. W. F. Walker, 
missionary, 1846-1847 ; Rev. J. B. Gibson, D.D., incorporator 
and first rector, February, 1854, to February, 1861 ; Rev. G. 
H. Hepburn, 1861, less than one year; Rev. E. Gay, Jr., 
April, 1862, to August, 1869; Rev. Walter Delafield, D.D., 
October, 1869, to August, 1873 ; Rev. C. B. Coffin, July, 
1874, to April, 1875 ; Rev. G. W. West, September, 1875, to 
September, 1878 ; and Rev. A. T. Ashton, the present rector, 
who assumed charge November 3, 1878. 

The rectory was begun in 1877, and completed and en- 
larged in 1880. A Sunday-school building, known as Trinity 
Hall, was built in 1859 — ^^v* -D^- J- ^- Gibson, rector — and 
enlarged during the rectorship of Dr. Delafield. 

Since organization there are recorded 1,078 baptisms, and 
333 have received confirmation. In 1854, there were 35 com- 
municants; in i860, 60; in 1870,66; in 1880, 100; in 1885, 
118, the present number. It should be noted that the figures 


for the earlier years include the communicants of what is 
now St. Luke's Parish. 

The wardens before the incorporation, in 1846, were : J. 
R. Bleecker and Isaac Maquestion. Those elected at the 
date of incorporation, 1855, were: J. R. Bleecker and John C. 
Rieck ; in i860, John C. Rieck and Alwyn Ball ; in 1870, John 
Taylor and Aaron B. Reid ; in 1880, the same ; and the pres- 
ent wardens are John Taylor and James E. West. 

This is the oldest parish in Rockland County. The first 
church service was held in 1846 by Rev. W. F. Walker, who 
organized a vestry. The church was consecrated by Bishop 
Horatio Potter, June 17, 1856, the corner-stone having been 
laid by the Rev. Dr. Creighton the previous year. 

As a result and outgrowth of the missionary labors begun 
in Haverstraw and continued by the successive rectors of the 
parish, there are now in the county these churches and chari- 
ties : St. Luke's Church, Haverstraw ; St. John's Church, 
New City ; the House of Prayer, Caldwell's ; Grace Church, 
Stony Point ; the House of the Good Shepherd, Tompkins' 
Cove ; and St. John's Church, St. John. ' 

The following clergy have at various times been con- 
nected with the parish as assistants : Rev. E. A. Nichols, 
Rev. Thomas Marsden, 1866-1867, and Rev. D. G. Gunn, 


The first confirmation in Haverstraw was held by Bishop 
Wainwright in August, 1854. This was also the bishop's last 
episcopal service. A beautiful chancel window was placed in 
the church through the gifts of the bishop's family and clergy 
of the diocese in commemoration especially of this his last 
public official act. 


The early history of St. Luke's Church is but a repetition 
of the story of Trinity Church, Haverstraw. Until the 
coming of the Rev. Walter Delafield, D.D., in 1869, the two 
congregations at Benson's Corners (now West Haverstraw) 
and Warren Village (now Haverstraw) had been under the 
direction of one and the same clergyman and vestry. St. 


Luke's was incorporated as a distinct parish September 18, 
1870. Rev. Walter Delafield was chosen rector, and Messrs. 
H. D. Batchelder and John R. McKenzie, wardens. Mr. 
Delafield continued in charge until 1873. Rev. E. Gay, Jr., 
served as rector from 1874 to 1877. On Easter Day, April 
13, 1879, ^^^ Rev. A. T. Ashton, rector of Trinity Church, 
held his first service in St. Luke's, and continued in charge 
until March, 1881. Rev. John Graham was rector from 
March, 1881, to December, 1882. The rector of Trinity 
Church was then again appointed by the bishop to minister 
to the parish, and was subsequently elected rector. The fol- 
lowing are the statistics since the incorporation of St. Luke's: 
Baptisms, 88 ; confirmations, 25 ; present number of communi- 
cants, 10. The present wardens are, John Oldfield and 
Charles C. Suffren. St. Luke's is a parish but in name. It 
is now and has always been a mission, depending almost 
entirely upon the services of the successive clergymen in 
charge of Trinity Church, Haverstraw. The church building 
was purchased from the Baptist Society in 1856, and the 
parish is now indebted to Trinity Church, New York, for its 
church home. 


This parish was organized December 13, 1844, and admit- 
ted into union with the Convention in 1848. The first church 
was built in 1 846-1 847, and the present edifice in 1885. The 
rectors and clergy in charge have been : Rev. Washington 
Rodman, 1847-1867; Rev. A. H. Gesner, 1 867-1 872 ; Rev. 
Wm. V. Feltwell, 1872-1873; Rev. Robert Scott, 1874-1876; 
Rev. Edward O. Flagg, D.D., in charge, 1 877-1 881 ; Rev. 
Washington Rodman, 1881-1884; Rev. Alfred Pool Grint, in 
charge, 1884-1885; and Rev. Alfred J.Derbyshire, since June, 
1885, rector and present incumbent. There is a Sunday- 
school building. From the parish records, which are imper- 
fect, it appears that 288 baptisms have been administered 
and that 148 have received confirmation. The present num- 
ber of communicants is 70. The wardens in 1844 were : Wm. 
A. Spenser and Philip M. Lydig; in 1854, P. M. Lydig and 


J. D. Wolfe ; in 1864, J. D. Wolfe and P. M. Spofford ; in 1874, 
Wm. Simpson and Samuel M. Purdy, and in 1884, Samuel 
M. Purdy and James L. Wells. 

The credit of first establishing the church at West Farms 
is due to Miss Margaret Hunt. In 1844 Grace Church was 
incorporated, and steps were taken for the erection of a 
church edifice. The corner-stone was laid November 10, 
1846, by Rev. Hugh Smith, rector of St. Peter's Church, New 
York, and it was opened for Divine service, June 28, 1847, ^y 
Rt. Rev. W. H. De Lancey, D.D., Bishop of Western New 
York. For a period of twenty years Rev. Washington Rod- 
man was its rector, and during this period the church made 
much progress. Then followed the rectorship of Rev. A. H. 
Gesner, which was eminently beneficial to the parish. After 
this many reverses were experienced which for a time threat- 
ened its extinction. In 1884 Bishop Henry C. Potter sent 
Rev. Alfred P. Grint to take charge of the work, and during 
the ten months of his labors a fresh and strong impulse was 
given to the parish, and steps were taken towards the erection 
of a new church. 

In June, 1885, Rev. A. J. Derbyshire was sent to take 
charge, and in January, 1886, accepted the rectorship. The 
corner-stone was laid September, 1885, by the assistant 
Bishop, and the new church opened for Divine service, Feb- 
ruary, 7, 1886, on which occasion the rector was advanced 
to the priesthood. The prospect for the future is very bright 
and encouraging, as the people are working unitedly and ear- 
nestly for the welfare of the parish. 


This parish was organized in 1848. The first church was 
built in 1849, '^"d the present edifice in 1856. The rector, 
from the organization until the present, is Rev. Cornelius 
Roosevelt Duffie, D.D. There are recorded 814 baptisms, 
and 516 have received confirmation. The present number of 
communicants is about 200. The first wardens were : Hon. 
Samuel Jones and John W. Mitchell ; those now in office are 
John Dewsnap and John M. Burke. 



Was organized November i, 1848, and the church built in 
1864. During 1848, Rev. Wm. F. Walker and Rev. John 
Canfield Sterling were successively rectors; Rev. Solomon G. 
Hitchcock, 1 849-1 877 ; Rev. Joseph M. Waite, 1 878-1 883, and 
Rev. Theodore M. Peck from 1883 to 1885. At present the 
parish is without a rector. Since organization, 855 baptisms 
are recorded, and 176 as having received confirmation. The 
present number of communicants is 'jd. 

March i, 1848, Edward Marriatt and John Quackenbush 
were wardens; March, 1869, George A. Jones and Floyd 
Bailey; March, 1876, William Alexander Smith and Henry 
A. Blauvelt, and March, 1886, Henry A. Blauvelt and Floyd 

The first services in this parish were held by Rev. W. F. 
Walker in Mr. Lord's lime-kiln building in 1847, ^"^^ the Rev. 
Solomon G. Hitchcock, of Sharon, Connecticut, began his 
ministry on the first Sunday in Advent, 1849. ^^^ ^^^^ of 
labor comprised the whole of Rockland County, having been 
appointed missionary over that jurisdiction. He established 
church services in Nyack, Spring Valley, and Sufiferns, offici- 
ating occasionally at Haverstraw, and Norwood, New Jersey. 
To his efforts is also due the existence of the parishes at 
Greenwood, and at Ringwood, New Jersey. 

He discharged his duties faithfully and cheerfully; and 
the results of his judicious labors can now be seen in the 
vigorous church life of the several parishes in the county. 
The present beautiful Gothic stone church at Piermont was 
built and entirely paid for during his ministry. He entered 
into rest, September 14, 1877, after forty years* service in the 
ministry, twenty-eight of which were spent in arduous, 
self-denying labors for the people of Rockland County. 


Was organized February 26, 1849, ^^^ ^^^ church was built 
in 1850. The rectors have been : Rev. Homer Wheaton, 1848- 


1854; Rev. Sheldon Davis, 1855-1856; Rev. Louis French, 
1856-1857; Rev. O. H. Smith, 1857-1860; Rev. S. R. Miller, 
1861-1863; Rev. Eugene C. Pattison, 1863; Rev. E.Web- 
ster, 1865-1868; Rev. J. E. Lindholm, 1870-1871; Rev. S. 
R. Johnson, S.T.D., 1 872-1 873 ; Rev. Walter R. Gardiner, 
1874-1875; Rev. A. T. Ashton, 1875-1878; Rev. R. B. Van 
Kleeck, 1878-1880; and since 1882, Rev. S. Seymour Lewis, 
present incumbent. A rectory was purchased in 1876. So 
far as can be gathered from imperfect records, 178 have been 
baptized, and 105 have received confirmation. In 1855 there 
were 44 communicants; in 1865,44; in 1875, 45; in 1885, 
50, the present number. The wardens in 1850 were : Stephen 
Knibloe; in i860, the same; in 1870, Stephen Knibloe and 
Southard Hitchcock, and in 1880, C. E. Frost and John 


This parish was organized December 22, 1847. The first 
church was built in 1848, and the present edifice in 1872. The 
rectors have been: Rev. R. M. Abercrombie, 1847-1852 ; 
Rev. W. H. N. Stewart, 1852-1854; Rev. J. Howard Smith, 
1854-1870; Rev. Edward Anthon, 1871, February to April; 
Rev. W. M. Postlethwaite, 1871-1874; Rev. E.Winchester 
Donald, 1875-1882; Rev. Bishop Falkner, 1882-1883; and 
since January, 1884, Rev. H. Morton Reed, present incum- 
bent. The chapel, Bible-class and Sunday-school rooms are 
all included in the one building. The parish records, previous 
to 1871, and, indeed, 1874, are defective. Since 1871 there 
are records of 258 baptisms, and since 1874 there have been 
181 confirmed. The present number of communicants is 260. 
The wardens in 1847 were Abel T. Anderson and J. R. More- 
wood ; in 1848, Mr. Townsend and J. R. Morewood ; in 1858, 
Warren Hastings and Thomas T. Hayes ; in 1868, B. W. Van 
Voorhis and James Monteith ; and in 1878, B. W. Van Voor- 
his and Edmund S. Whitman. 



This parish was organized in 1849. The church was erected 
in 1 849-1 850, and has served as a nucleus for several enlarge- 
ments, at successive stages of church growth. The parish was 
founded by Rev. George H. Houghton, who has been its rec- 
tor from the beginning, and is present incumbent. A large 
clergy house stands on the western edge of the grounds. The 
number of baptisms recorded is 1,984, and about 1,000 per- 
sons have received confirmation. The present number of 
communicants is about 500. At the organization of the par- 
ish the wardens were Abel T, Anderson and Arent S. De 
Peyster. At present the wardens are Gerardus B. Docharty 
and Sidney S. Harris. 

In a sermon preached by the rector, on Sunday morning, 
October 3, 1885, he said : " It is thirty-seven years ago to-day 
since the first Transfiguration service was held. Great, indeed, 
is the contrast between that service and the service of to-day. 
There may be two, not more, beside myself, here to-day, who 
took part in that service. We met then in a room furnished 
to us by the venerable Obed-Edom of the Transfiguration, 
Rev. Lawson Carter, now long since gone to his rest in Para- 
dise, in whose house our ark found sanctuary until hither 
brought to this place, then but a portion of what it now is, 
to remain, if it please Him, until He comes again. A Bible, 
a prayer-book, a surplice, a pine-wood lectern — there was not 
a dollar in hand nor the promise of one — comprised all our 
possessions. We had the temporary use of a few school 
benches, and a cyphering, wheezing parlor organ. The num- 
ber of those who were venturesome enough, with an inexpe- 
rienced, not physically over-strong priest and pastor, to pro- 
pose and attempt the organizing and establishing of a new 
parish, was six." " It is five years ago to-day since, on each 
returning morning, at seven o'clock, in addition to whatever 
and to how many soever other occasions, the Lord Jesus 
Christ, in the way of His own institution and appointment, 
has been present here upon this altar, that the sacrifice of His 


death upon the cross might be pleaded, as nothing else could 
be pleaded, for the whatsoever needs of all, whether here or 
elsewhere ; and that whosoever would might be fed with the 
life-giving food of His most precious Body and Blood." 

The rector accepted the choice of the present site with 
extreme reluctance, for he had purposed a different line of 
pastoral work, among the wretched, sick and destitute, and 
had already entered into it, day and night, making Bellevue 
Hospital a central point. He says, in another place : "Belle- 
vue Hospital then not, as now, blest with clerical services, was 
counted as a peculiar charge; indeed, its every ward, almost, 
became nearly as familiar as the room in which our service 
was held ; and its sick and dying were continually comforted 
with the prayers and sacraments of the Church. Nor was 
there a street from the hospital down to Twentieth Street 
unassociated with the memory of a sorrow assuaged, a want 
supplied, or a deathbed soothed." But the present site was 
fixed upon, and, with $1,500 in hand, collected from friends 
and the handful of parishioners, " three, one-half of our pres- 
ent lots, were secured by part payment, and through the 
kindness of a friend, a portion, less than a fourth of the pres- 
ent edifice, was erected." The view was unbroken to Madi- 
son Square below, and to Murray Hill above, a crude, un- 
promising outlook, with little promise of what followed. 

But there has been constant, steady growth, root and 
branch, sometimes slow and much-hidden, but always growth. 
Little by little the church has grown, by pushing out first in 
one direction, then in another, as exigencies required or re- 
sources permitted. Things were from the outset pitched on 
a moderate scale. There was no discounting the future. The 
present bore its own burdens, and so the church grew into its 
present rambling, but picturesque and satisfactory proportions, 
nearly filling the south and west sides of the plot, which is 100 
by 175 feet, fronting on Twenty-ninth Street ; the clergy house 
occupying the west boundary, thus leaves a fair, open court 
of beautifully wooded grounds opening on the street, with its 
flagged walks, its fountain, its shade and bird-song. The 
church is much embowered, so that in the season of foliage 


it is hardly visible. Simple and unpretending without, it is 
" all glorious within," with its devout marble altar and cor- 
rect liturgic accessories at the angle where the long nave and 
its one transept meet ; its exquisite baptistry, its valuable and 
costly pictures, its richly-varied stained windows, and its 
unique memorial window, which lights the choir and organ, 
its carved and costly pulpit and furnishings, its statuary, and 
" Stations of the Cross." There is an odor of loving sacrifice 
everywhere, which makes for the visible as well as spiritual 
beauty of holiness. Much of the constant pastoral work is 
among the wretched, friendless, and fallen. Day and night 
this ministry of succor and consolation goes on. Out of a 
single, obscure Providence of the burial of a baptized man, 
grew a relation with the whole dramatic profession, full of 
confidences and generous sympathies to this day, which else- 
wise might have long slumbered undeveloped. Indeed, it was 
only a practical exemplification of the rector's favorite motto, 
which he likes to Christianize from its pagan setting, " Homo 
sum h'umani nihil a me alienum putoT 

The church is always opened from the rising of the sun 
even until the going down thereof, for public or private devo- 
tion. Always, day and night, there is access to pastoral minis- 
tration for all sorts and conditions in life. Large provision is 
made for free sittings. There are day-schools, Sunday-schools 
— one for colored children Sunday afternoon. There is an 
Altar Society, a Missionary Relief Association, the Holy Inno- 
cents' Guild, the Maternity Society, St. Anna's Guild, and 
other organized working agencies, among which the zealous 
and devout exercise their gifts of grace and faith. 

There is no debt. There is a House and Home of the 
Lord, where the rich and the poor meet together, and there 
is the beginning of an endowment fund, in anticipation of fu- 
ture requirements, already amounting to $25,000. The par- 
ish has also founded and cares for a Transfiguration Mission 
Chapel in West Sixty-ninth Street, under the ministerial 
charge of Rev. E. C. Houghton. Commenting upon the 
growth and fruitfulness of the work begun in so much weak- 
ness, the writer quotes once more from an anniversary sermon 


of the rector : " Doubtless the general zeal and faithfulness of 
the congregation have been greatly effectual, and the one idea 
of the rector, Ecclesia Dei ! Ecclesia Dei! the Church of God ! 
the Church of God ! the Church first, the Church last, the 
Church the thought by day and the dream by night, may 
have contributed somewhat to the result." 


Was organized September 3, 1849. T^^ corner-stone of a 
church edifice was laid, June 29, 1850, and completed and 
consecrated June 28, 185 1. It was burned April 2, 1882, 
rebuilt, using the same walls, and consecrated November 4, 
1883. The rectors have been: Rev. J. F. Le Baron, 1850- 
185 1 ; Rev. William W. Olssen, 1851-1871 ; Rev. Stephen F. 
Holmes, 1871-1872 ; Rev. Henry C. Webbe, 1872-1873 ; Rev. 
W. A. Holbrook, 1 874-1 877, and Rev. Francis Chase, incum- 
bent, since February i, 1879. 

A rectory was procured in i860, and Lang Memorial 
Chapel was erected in 1865, by William Bailey Lang, in mem- 
ory of his wife, Mrs. Susannah H. Lang. Both these build- 
ings were added during the rectorship of Rev. W. W. Olssen. 
There are recorded 263 baptisms, and 155 have received con- 
firmation. In 1850 there were 15 communicants ; in 1870, 73 ; 
in 1880, 81, and the present number is 78. The wardens in 
1850 were: William S. Popham and Mark Spencer; in i860, 
William H. Popham and Charles W. Carmer ; in 1870, Wil- 
liam S. Popham and James S. Connell, and in 1880, William 
S. Popham and Lewis C. Popham. 



Was organized in 1847 ^^"d incorporated in 1850. The 
church was built in 1847 ^"<^ consecrated July ist of that 
year. The rectors have been : Rev. Charles H. Hall, 1847- 
1848 ; Rev. Thomas S. Preston, part of 1848 ; Rev. J. Breck- 
enridge Gibson, 1849-1853 ; Rev. Henry E. Duncan, 1853- 
1854; Rev. Minot E. Wells, 1854-1872, and from July 14, 
1872, Rev. William Reed Thomas, still in charge. 


A rectory was procured in 1849 ^^ 'S^> ^"^ enlarged in 
1872. A school-house, of wood, was built during the rector- 
ship of Rev. J. B. Gibson. There have been 882 baptisms 
recorded, and 309 have received confirmation. The present 
number of communicants is 104. 

The founder of this parish was Professor Robert W. Weir, 
for a long period the celebrated artist — Professor of the Mili- 
tary Academy of West Point. He designed the church, and 
was so much the largest contributor, in providing for its cost, 
that it became generally known as Professor Weir's Memorial 
Church. This was not only a gift of devotion, but of sacri- 
fice ; for the professor had no private fortune, and it is gen- 
erally understood that most of the sum he received from 
the government for his picture in the Capitol at Washington 
was consecrated to this pious undertaking. The church is 
built of the stone quarried on the spot, and is Gothic in 
design. There is fascination in its rugged simplicity of exe- 
cution and the general plan harmonizes in a thoroughly pic- 
turesque way with the general landscape. This church is mem- 
orable since it is one of the earliest in that series of churches 
now so remarkable a feature of the diocese which originate 
chiefly, or altogether, in the munificence of an individual or 
family. The ground on which the church stands was given by 
the late William B. Cozzens and wife. 


This parish was organized in 1850. The first edifice for 
public services was a chapel built by Miss Verplanck, about 
1845, The present church was built in 1861. The clergy 
connected with the parish have been (missionaries) Rev. Mr. 
Smithett of Esopus, and Rev. George Waters. Rev. George 
Waters was rector, 1854-1861, and at the same time, of St. 
John's Church, Kingston ; acting rector for part of 1861, Rev. 
Richard Temple, of Esopus; 1861-1863, Rev. A. H. Ges- 
ner ; part of 1864, Rev. David Margot ; 1 864-1 866, Rev. A. 
F. Olmstead, D.D. ; 1866-1870, Rev. Foster Ely, D.D. ; 
1870-1875, Rev. J. B. Murray; 1876-1877, Rev. A. Sidney 
Dealey ; 1877-1881, Rev. F. M. S. Taylor, and since Easter, 


1882, Rev. Francis Washburn, present incumbent. A rectory 
was provided in 1861. Since 1861 there have been 592 bap- 
tisms, and 343 have received confirmation. In 1861, there 
were 56 communicants; in 1870, 134; in 1877, 116, and in 
1885, 149, the present number. From 1883 to date the 
wardens have been William G. Lounsberry and Samuel 
Dobbs. The number of families is 130, and of persons, about 
600. There are 125 scholars in the Sunday-school, 

The church property was the gift of the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal Company and extends the entire face of the 
block between Spring and Pierrepont Streets. There are two 
small debts — $3,000 in all — one on the rectory of long stand- 
ing which was reduced last year, and one on the church which 
was placed there by the vestry of 1879. ^^^ rectory is a 
handsome framed building, two stories and basement. The 
church is built of blue stone, Norman Gothic in architecture, 
and with sittings for 450. All the members of the vestry are 


This church was incorporated in 1850, and a church built 
in 1855. The rectors have been: Rev. Samuel Hawksley, 
Rev. Samuel M. Akerly, Rev. James W. Sparks, Rev. Joseph 
W. Johnson, and Rev. John W. Buckmaster. TJie parish 
records are very imperfect. So far as can be ascertained, 
there have been 75 baptisms, and 25 have received confirma- 
tion since the organization. There are, at present, 15 com- 


This parish was organized in 1849. '^^^ church was built 
in 1852. The rectors have been: Rev. Henry B. Barlow, 

1848-1850; Rev. S. P. Parker, 1850 ; Rev. H. L. E. 

Pratt, 1857 ; Rev. E. McC. Fiske, 1876-1880, and since 

1880, the present incumbent, Rev. Alfred G. Mortimer. A 
rectory was built in 1858 and school buildings in 1883, by 
Rev. Alfred G. Mortimer. St. Austin's Church School for 
Boys was established by the present rector, and Revs. G. E. 


Cranston, W. B. Frisby, Evelyn Bartow, and S. B. Lassiter, 
are assistants both in parish and educational work. For this 
latter, an adjoining estate of some acres, known as the Garner 
Place, has recently been purchased, with improvements and 
appliances becoming a school residence of the highest class. 
Owing to the defective state of the parish records, it is im- 
possible to supply additional particulars. 


Was organized July 8, 1849, ^^^^ ^^^ church erected and 
opened May i, 1850. The rectors have been : Rev. Pierre P. 
Irving, 1850-1875 ; and Rev. George D. Johnson, since 1875 
to the present. A rectory was built on the church grounds in 
1880. In 1870, Rev. P. P. Irving, rector, a spacious and well 
appointed Sunday-school building was erected, immediately 
adjoining the church. Since the organization there is a record 
of 774 baptisms, and 270 have been confirmed. The present 
number of communicants is 300. The wardens, by decades, 
were : in 1850, William I. Pendleton and David A. Comstock ; 
in i860, H. L. Routh and Beverly Robinson ; in 1870, Living- 
ston Satterlee and George N. Titus, and in 1880, Livingston 
Satterlee and N. Phelps Stokes. 


The committee has received no report from this parish, 
which was admitted into union with the Convention in 185 1. 
From the report of 1885 to the Convention, it appears that at 
that time Rev. Benjamin T. Hall was rector, and C. Elliott 
Spencer and Charles Dawson wardens. The number of com- 
municants was 39. There are no other available statistics. 


This parish was organized August 18, 1852, and the 
church was erected in 1853. The rectors have been : Rev. 
Richard S. Adams, 1852-1853; Rev. George Herbert Walsh, 
D.D., 1854-1866; and since November 4, 1866, Rev. Aaron 
F. Olmsted, D.D., the present incumbent. A rectory was 
provided in 1857, and enlarged in 1884. 


During the ministry of Dr. Walsh, a building for Sunday- 
school and lecture room was erected adjoining the church, 
December 28, 1862. Also during the same rectorship, a free 
mission chapel, with a rectory adjoining, was built in the 
neighboring hamlet of Rhinecliff, August, 1859. This chapel, 
under charge of the rector's assistant, was sustained by the 
Church of the Messiah for several years, until it was placed 
under an independent organization, at its own request, as the 
Church of the Ascension. Since organization 244 baptisms 
have been recorded, and 146 have received confirmation. 
The present number of communicants is 65. The wardens in 
1852 were: Eliphalet Piatt, M.D., and Isaac F. Van Vliet ; 
in 1865, Eliphalet Piatt, M.D., and Theophilus Gillender ; in 
1875, Lewis Livingston and Theophilus Gillender, and in 
1885, James M. DeGarmo, Ph.D., and Douglass Merritt. 

The village of Rhinebeck having been for some time past 
in its decadence, and there being four other Protestant con- 
gregations in the place, the church is barely able to hold its 
own, as the average attendance on its services and the number 
of its baptisms and communicants for some years past plainly 


This parish was organized April 19, 1852. The first 
church building was erected in 1849, ^^ ^^^ north-west corner 
of Madison Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street, as a mission 
chapel of Grace Church. The present church, at the north- 
east corner of Madison Avenue and Thirty-fifth Street, was 
opened December 11, 1864, and consecrated April 20, 1865. 
The rectors have been : Rev. Edwin Harwood, 1852- 
1854; Rev. Henry Eglinton Montgomery, D.D., 1855 until 
his decease in 1874, and since April, 1875, the present in- 
cumbent. Rev. Arthur Brooks. The rectory adjoining the 
church, on the avenue, was completed in 1869. The parish 
founded a mission chapel on Thirty-first Street, near Second 
Avenue, now known as the Church of the Reconciliation, 
although still dependent upon this church, and not in full 
union with the Convention. It was opened for Divine service 


May 3, 1861, during Dr. Montgomery's rectorship. It was 
enlarged in 1877, during the present rectorship. The house 
next to the mission chapel was bought and altered for mission 
uses in 1881. In the Church of the Incarnation, 903 baptisms 
are recorded, and 763 have received confirmation. The present 
number of communicants is 500. At the organization the 
wardens were : Murray Hoffman and Christopher F. Bowne ; 
in 1855, Murray Hoffman and John Davenport ; in 1865, S. 
M.Valentine and G. F. Nesbitt ; in 1875, D. M.Valentine 
and W. B. Clerke; and in 1885, E. M. Crawford and G. W. 

The interior of the church was burned March 24, 1882. 
The church was immediately rebuilt and enlarged by the ad- 
dition of twenty feet at the chancel and a transept at the 
north-east corner. The church was reopened December 24, 
1882, and was decorated in the summer and fall of 1885. 


Was organized April 12, 1852. The first church was com- 
pleted July 15, 1844, and consecrated by Bishop Onderdonk 
as St. Peter's Chapel, in connection with Christ Church, Rye. 
The church was enlarged in 1855, and again in 1873. 

As St. Peter's Chapel, a mission of Christ Church, Rye, it 
was under the charge of Rev. Peter S. Chauncey, D.D., 1834- 
1848 ; and Rev. Edward C. Bull, 1848 until date of incorpora- 
tion. As St. Peter's Church, the rectors have been : Rev. 
Isaac Peck, 1852-1858 ; Rev. George C. Pennell, 1858-1859; 
Rev. Samuel Hollingsworth, D.D., 1860-1872 ; Rev. Brock- 
hoist Morgan, 1872-1879; Rev. J. Garner Rosenkrantz, 1880 
until his decease, November, 1881 ; and Rev. Edward Kenney, 
B.D., May, 1882, and present rector. 

A commodious rectory, with ample grounds, was procured 
in i860, and a Sunday-school chapel, both during the rector- 
ship of Dr. Hollingsworth. 

There are no parochial statistics previous to 1858. Since 
that date 570 baptisms are recorded, and 377 have received 
confirmation. The present number of communicants is 306. 


The wardens in 1852 were; Willet Moseman and James 
H. Beers ; in i860, C. J. Swords and Philip Rollhaus ; in 1870, 
Philip Rollhaus and Augustus Abendroth ; in 1880, the same ; 
and in 1886, Hanford M. Henderson and Augustus M. 

The parish church burned to the ground — a wooden struc- 
ture — December 15, 1883, fired by a spark from a passing 
locomotive. Tho congregation have since worshiped in the 
chapel. About $13,000 are in hand towards rebuilding the 


In the absence of any response to the committee, it is at 
this moment only possible to refer to the parochial report 
made to the Convention in 1885. The parish was admitted 
to conventional union in 1853, and in 1885 Rev. Benjamin T. 
Hall was rector, and Edward C. Hoag and Junius Bard war- 
dens. The number of communicants was 35. 


Was organized July 18, 1853. The first church edifice was 
built in 1798, as chapel of St. John's Church, Yonkers. The 
church was enlarged in 1847, ^^^ the chancel added in 1867. 
The clergy in charge have been : Rev. Charles Jones, rector, 
1853-1858 ; Rev. Augustus St. Clair, minister in charge, 1859- 
1860; Rev. David Doremus, minister in charge, 1860-1861 ; 
the church was closed 1 861-1865; Rev. Angus Morrison 
Ives, minister in charge, 1 865-1 880 ; 1 880-1 881, services were 
sustained by " supplies " ; Rev. Samuel B. Moore, rector, 1881- 
1884; since that time. Rev. Charles Ferris has been in charge. 
The baptisms recorded are 188, and 78 have received con- 
firmation. In 1853 there were 15 communicants; in 1863, 
39; in 1873, 64 ; in 1883, 55 ; and the present number is 47. 
The wardens in 1853 were: John Bowne and Christian 
Dederer; in 1863, Elias C. Bowne and Christian Dederer ; 
in 1873, Elias C. Bowne and William D. Smith ; and in 1883, 
Charles R. Dusenberry and William H. Underbill. 



Was organized in February, 1853. The first church was built in 
1853, and the present edifice was built and opened November 
I, 1867. The rectors have been : Rev. Peter S. Chauncey, 
D.D,, from February i to August 30, 1853 ; Rev. Wm. J. 
Frost, 1853-1863; Rev. S. Chipman Thrall, 1863-1865 ; and 
the present incumbent, Rev. John W. Shackelford, D.D., 
since July i, 1865. Since organization there have been 729 
baptisms, and 729 have received confirmation. In 1855, 
there were 84 communicants; in 1865, 115; in 1875, 175; 
and in 1885, 250, which is the present number. 

The wardens in 1853 were: William Frost and Abraham 
Craig; in 1863, Morris O. Crawford and Elias J. Pattison ; in 
1873, Elias J. Pattison and Rufus B. Cowing; and in 1883, 
Benjamin Drake and George D. Bleythring, M.D. 

The Church of the Redeemer has suffered constantly dur- 
ing the twenty years of the present rectorship from the fluc- 
tuating character of the population. It has also suffered 
from the want of a proper, permanent church building, many 
persons of wealth and high social position preferring to wor- 
ship among their acquaintances in a stately edifice. Not- 
withstanding these drawbacks, the growth of the parish has 
been steady ; an important spiritual work has been done 
among the middle and lower classes, and there is no debt. 
The present urgent need of the parish is a permanent church 
building of brick or stone. 


Was organized as a chapel of St. Ann's Parish, Morrisania, 
July 8, 1849, but became a parish under the title of St. Paul's 
Church, Morrisania Village, May 31, 1853. The church was 
built in 1849, opened Easter Day, 1850, and consecrated June 
22, 1850, by Rt. Rev. William R. Whittingham, D.D., 
Bishop of Maryland. The rectors have been : Rev. A. B. 
Carter, both rector of St. Ann's and founder of St. Paul's ; 
Rev. Benjamin Akerly, first rector, 1853-1857 ; Rev. S. G. 
Appleton, 1858-1868; Rev. F. B. Van Kleeck, 1868-1870; 


Rev. Thomas R. Harris, 1870, and present incumbent. A 
rectory was procured in 1855. The number of baptisms 
recorded is 750, and 442 have received confirmation. In the 
first list there were 59 communicants; in i860, 105 ; in 1870, 
146; in 1880, 145; in 1885, 162, and the present number is 
162. The first wardens were : Charles Dennison and William 
A. Smith, and the present wardens are : John E. Comfort, 
M.D., and James C. Hull. 


This parish was organized June 6, 1853. 1'^^ church edi- 
fice was built by the Congregationalists. The rectors have 
been: Rev. Edwin R. T. Cook, 1853-1865; Rev. Robert G. 
Quennell, 1866-1872; Rev. William T. Egbert, 1872-1876; 
Rev. John W. Kramer, M.D., 1 876-1 880, and Rev. B. F. De 
Costa, D.D., since April, 1881, rector and present incumbent. 
A rectory, at 259 West Eleventh Street, was purchased in 
i877- There is a Sunday-school building, erected prior to the 
church. The number of recorded baptisms is 1,796, and 1,142 
have received confirmation. The present number of com- 
municants is estimated at 300. The wardens in 1853 were: 
Charles J. Folsom and Hezekiah Wheeler; in 1863, Martin 
Y. Bunn and Alexander Clinton ; in 1873, Hamilton R. Searles 
and Robert Lawson, and the same in 1883. 


This parish was received into union with the Convention 
in 1853. At that time. Rev. William Morris was officiating 
minister, and there were about 200 communicants. In i860. 
Rev. William J. Alston was the officiating minister; in 1863, 
Revs. S. N. Denison and N. S. Richardson were officiating pro- 
visionally; and Rev. John Morgan in 1864; in 1865, Rev. S. 
N. Denison was minister in charge; in 1867, Rev. B. F. De 
Costa and Rev. John Peterson, deacon, assistant; in 1872, 
Rev. William J. Alston, rector; in 1874, rectorship vacant; 
in 1875, Rev. J. S. Attwell, rector until 1882 : in 1882, Rev. 
J. Treadwell Walden, minister in charge; in 1883, Rev. Peter 


Morgan, minister in charge, and incumbent in 1885, at which 
date the number of souls was 500; and of communicants, 284. 
There are no other data accessible. In the Convention 
Journal oi 1832, mention is made of this parish and "Rev. 
Peter Williams (a colored man), rector," and reference is 
made to a yet earlier parish report. At this date there were 
203 communicants. 


This parish was organized on the first Sunday of October, 
1852. It was incorporated September 11, 1854, and received 
into union with the Convention of the diocese, October 28th 
of the same year. Having worshiped for five years in the 
small chapel of the New York University, and nearly two 
years in the lecture room of the New York Historical 
Society building, it purchased its present church and rectory 
on Eighteenth Street near Fifth Avenue, in July, 1859. 
They were originally Christ Church and rectory but had 
passed into the possession of a Baptist Society by exchange 
of property. The Rev. Thomas Gallaudet, D.D., has been 
the only rector. The special work of this church among 
deaf-mutes having increased so much as to prevent the rector 
from attending to a portion of the parochial work. Rev. 
Edward H. Krans was elected associate rector in October, 
1874, with the view of his being the pastor of the hearing and 
speaking portion of the parishioners. He continues to hold 
this relation to the parish. The rectory, as noted above, was 
purchased in July, 1859. The number of baptisms is 1,709, a 
large proportion being deaf-mutes, or the children of deaf- 
mutes. The number confirmed is 1,209, S^S being deaf- 
mutes. The number of communicants in 1862 was 325 ; in 
1872, 490; in 1882, 553, and the present number is 540, 100 
of whom are deaf-mutes. The wardens in 1854 were: Cyrus 
Curtiss and Robert B. Minturn ; in 1864, George R. Jackson 
and C. C. Lathrop ; in 1874 and in 1884, D. Colden Murray 
and P. P. Dickinson. 

The corporate title is, the Rector, Church Wardens, and 
Vestrymen of St. Ann's Church for Deaf-mutes, in the city 


of New York. Though St. Ann's was organized with special 
reference to parochial work among deaf-mutes, it has drawn 
around them a large number of their hearing brethren. The 
parish is thus composed of two classes of people, with services 
adapted to each. St. Ann's is a free church with frequent 
services on Sunday, and two services daily during the week. 
In July, 1859, ^t purchased its present property for $70,CXX), 
assuming a mortgage of $5o,ckx) at seven per cent, interest. 
Its present mortgage debt is $20,000 at five per cent. In view 
of its special care of deaf-mutes and its large missionary work 
among the poor, it asks those who have the means to aid it in 
canceling the remaining indebtedness. St. Ann's receives 
$1,000 a year from Trinity Parish. 


This parish was organized in May, 1853, and admitted to 
union with the Convention in 1854. The first church was 
built on Fifty-fourth Street, west of Eighth Avenue. In 
1867 the present church was built on Fifty seventh Street, 
west of Eighth Avenue. The clergy connected with the 
parish have been: Rev. James C. Tracy, as rector, in 1854, 
continuing about one year and six months; in 1856, Rev. 
Geo. Jarvis Geer, reported to the Convention as holding serv- 
ices since November i, 1855; in 1858-59, Rev. Richard C. 
Hull was assistant, and reported as minister in charge; in 
i860. Rev. Geo. Jarvis Geer, D.D., and Rev. Wm. Tatlock, 
D.D., reported as in charge ; from that time Dr. Geer was 
associate rector of the Parish of the Holy Apostles, and 
also rector of St. Timothy's Church. In 1866, Dr. Geer re- 
signed his connection with the Parish of the Holy Apostles, 
and devoted himself exclusively to St. Timothy's Parish, until 
his sudden decease, March 16, 1885. The parish remained 
without a rector until January 31, 1886, when Rev. E. Spruille 
Burford entered upon the rectorship. A rectory was built in 
1872, but was sold in 1885, the proceeds being used in reduc- 
ing the debt upon the church property. The number of bap- 
tisms recorded is 1,101, and 692 have received confirmation. 
In 1854 there were 65 communicants; in 1864, 161 ; in 1874, 


278, and in 1884, 462. The wardens in 1854 were : Anthony 
B. McDonald and John Carey, Jr. ; in 1864, A. B. McDonald 
and Daniel C. Spencer; in 1874, John J. Smith and George 
J. Montague, and the same in 1884. 

The late rector, Dr. Geer, was endeared to his people by 
his rare personal and pastoral qualities; besides he enjoyed a 
wide relation with the Church at large on account of his ac- 
complishments as a church organist and composer, and also his 
association with Dr. Muhlenbergh in the preparation of the first 
Church Tune Book, which was a setting to music the selec- 
tion of psalms and hymns formerly bound up with the Prayer 
Book, the first attempt made by the General Convention to 
advance the culture of congregational singing. This church 
has always been free. The parish is in urgent need of a large 
edifice, and on Easter Day $16,000 was contributed at the 
Offertory towards this work. The parish owns five lots, 
vacant for this purpose. The church worship has always 
been marked by its earnestness and the prevalence of con- 
gregational singing. The Sunday-school has between 300 
and 400 members. 


Was organized in 1854; the first church was built in 1856, 
and the present edifice in 1870. The succession of rectors 
has been : Revs. John Grigg, Halsey, and C. H. Canfield, 
whose terms of service are unrecorded ; and Rev. J. P. Apple- 
ton, 1868-1871; Rev. F. W. Luson, 1871-1874; Rev. J. G. 
Rosencrantz, 1875-1880; Rev. A. Capron, 1 880-1 882 ; Rev. 
L. P. Clover, D.D., 1882-1883; Rev. J. B. Shepherd, 1884, 
and present incumbent. The records are incomplete, but the 
ascertained number of baptisms is 380, and of confirmations 
304. There is no record of communicants before 1871, at 
which time there were 27 ; in 188 1, ']6^ and the present num- 
ber is 105. At the first decade the wardens were : Col. 
Samuel Fowler and John Fielding; at the second, Col. 
Samuel Fowler and Thomas Scholes ; at the third, Charles 
Cooper and Edgar Brodhead ; and at the fourth, John Dut- 
ton and Thomas Laidley. Services were first held in an 


upper hall of the building opposite the Fowler House, be- 
tween New Jersey Avenue and Front Street. Bishop Wain- 
wright confirmed the first class in 1854. After that services 
were held in the building on the south-west corner of Main 
and Fowler Streets, and subsequently in Westbrook Hall, 
until the basement of the present church edifice was finished 
and temporarily roofed over. The church was completed and 
formally opened Easter Sunday, 1874. 


Was organized July 25, 1853. The first church was built and 
opened June 6, 1854, and the present edifice June 10, 1865. 
The rectors have been: Rev. Joshua Weaver, 1854-1863; 
Rev. Thomas Richey, 1863- 1867 ; Rev. C. C. Tiffany, 1867- 
1871 ; Rev. Mytton Maury, 1871-1875 ; Rev. Joseph A. 
Blanchard, 1 875-1885, and since October 4, 1885, the present 
rector, Rev. Charles J. Holt. A rectory was built in 1884, 
during Mr. Blanchard's rectorship. Funds are now being 
raised for a parish building for the more efficient work of the 
Sunday-school, the Young Men's Guild, Parish Aid Society, 
Sewing School, and other societies connected with the parish. 
Since organization 357 baptisms are recorded, and 252 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communi- 
cants is 215. The wardens in 1853 were: Lewis G. Morris 
and Wm. A. Smith; in 1863, Moses Devoe and Gustav 
Schv/ab, and the same from 1868 to 1886. During the last 
decade, and under the earnest and faithful rectorship of Rev. 
Joseph N. Blanchard, the parish has made decided progress, 
and is now in a very promising condition, and must, with the 
growth of the city in this direction, become one of the 
strong parishes in the diocese. 


This parish was organized by the late Rev. Henry de 
Koven, D.D., in 1854. The following year the church was 
built, and the property held in trust by Dr. de Koven until 
1867, when it was organized as a free church under the act of 
incorporation of the State. Dr. de Koven continued rector 


until 1861. He was succeeded by the Rev. John W. Moore, 
until his decease, May 13, 1885. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. J. R. Lambert, the present incumbent. Since the 
organization 299 have received Holy Baptism, 175 have been 
confirmed, and the present number of communicants is ^6. 


Is a mission church for seamen. It has no regular parish or- 
ganization, but is under the control of a Board of Managers. 
This mission has been established about forty years. The 
first missionary in charge was Rev, D. V. M. Johnson, 
now rector of St. Mary's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. He had 
charge for about eight years. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Henry F. Roberts, who had charge nineteen years. The 
present incumbent. Rev. T. A. Hyland, took charge seven 
years ago. 


Was organized October 21, 1856. The corner-stone was laid 
November 24, 1857, ^"^ the first service held in the finished 
church was on Christmas Day, 1859- 

The rectors have been : Rev. William Samuel Coffey, 
founder of the parish, till 1873; Rev. Charles Seymour, until 
1868, actively engaged in the parish work, and for a time 
recognized as rector; Rev. Clarence Buel, from July, 1873, to 
November 28, 1874; Rev. William B. Hooper, 1874-187^, 
and from January, 1879, Rev. Stephen F. Holmes, the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

Circumstances in its earlier history have distracted the 
statistics of the parish, and an approximate statement only 
is practicable. 

There are reported to December 31, 1885, 542 baptisms, 
and up to the same date 218 have received confirmation. In 
1875 there were 178 communicants; September 30, 1885, 
there were 251, and the present number is about 265. 

The wardens at the time of incorporation were : Richard 
Baldwin and George O. Street; in 1865, Richard Atkinson 


and John Stevens; in 1875, Edward Martin and William A. 
Seaver, and in 1885, Gideon Douglas Pond and Archibald 
Murray Campbell. 

In 1880 the entire church was carefully repaired and 
painted, and four dormer windows introduced in the roof for 
ventilation. At the same time a new pulpit, richly worked 
in oak, was provided, and the walls of the chancel beautifully 
decorated. In 1884 the chancel was rearranged for a sur- 
pliced choir, the key-board of the organ brought near the 
chancel arch, and a low rood screen constructed ; the paths 
in the church grounds were also flagged. 

Trinity Church Guild, an association of ladies, was organ- 
ized in October, 1879, ^^^ St. Agnes' Guild, an association 
for girls, was organized in December, 1881. 

Trinity Choir League, composed of members of the choir, 
was organized in June, 1885. There are eight or nine deaf- 
mutes in the village and neighborhood, and occasional serv- 
ices in the sign language and the interpretation of the serv- 
ice are held for their benefit. The twenty-fifth anniversaries 
of the incorporation, of the laying the corner-stone, and of 
the opening of the church have been duly observed. 


Was organized September 9, 1857. -^ church was built in 
1856, and the present edifice in 1875. The rectors have been: 
Rev. J. P. Hammond, 1856-1857; Rev. Geo. C. Pennell, 

1857 ; Rev. D. F. Warren, 1857-1859; Rev. Robert 

Lowry, 1859-1863 ; Rev. Eastburn Benjamin, part of 1863; 
Rev. J. H. H. DeMille, 1864-1866; Rev. Francis F. Rice, 
1866-1870; Rev. Chas. F. Knapp, 1871-1874; Rev. C. S. 
Stephenson, 1874-1878; Rev. Jas. R. Davenport, 1878-1883, 
and since 1884, Rev. Harry F. Auld, present incumbent. A 
Sunday-school room was built in 1882, during the rectorship 
of Dr. Davenport. The number of baptisms recorded since 
organization is 654, and 335 have received confirmation. In 
1857 there were 36 communicants ; in 1877, 145 ; the present 
number is 234. The wardens in 1857 were: Edward Haight 
and Samuel Munn ; in 1867, Edward Haight and H. N. J. 


Goldie; in 1877, Lawrence P. Mott and William H. Sterling, 
and at present, Walter T. Marvin and David P. Arnold. 


Was organized July 17, 1858, and the church was built and 
opened for Divine service in Advent, 1859. ^^ ^^^ conse- 
crated August 5, 1875, by Bishop Horatio Potter. The suc- 
cession of rectors is as follows : 

Rev. Christopher B. Wyatt, from July, 1858, to Easter, 
1862 ; Rev. E. B. Cressey, D.D., from May, 1862, to Easter, 
1863; Rev. George Seabury, from July, 1863, to May, 1864; 
Rev. John Gott Webster, from November, 1864, to Decem- 
ber, 1865 ; Rev, William G. French, from April, 1866, to May, 
1871 ; Rev. D. H. Macurdy, from March, 1872, to October, 
1873; Rev. R. Mollan, from January, 1874, to May, 1874; 
Rev. John F. Potter, from October, 1874, to October, 1877; 
Rev. Benjamin S. Huntington, from November, 1877, to 
April, 1880; Rev. William E. Snowden, from May, 1880, 
present incumbent. 

A rectory was conveyed by deed of gift to the parish by 
Miss E. C. Purdy in 1876. 

A Sunday-school and parish building of brick, with brown 
stone dressings and copings, and in keeping with the archi- 
tectural design of the church, was built at the rear of the 
chancel. It was finished and furnished in 1883 at a cost of 
$2,500, without debt, under the ministry of the present rector. 

There is also a mission chapel of St. John at Cornwall-on- 
Hudson, occupying a leased building, with Sunday-school 
and evening service by the rector every Sunday. 

Since organization there have been 352 baptisms (103 of 
which were administered by the present rector), with 165 per- 
sons confirmed. At the first service, 1858, there were 3 com- 
municants ; in 1863, 33 ; in 1875, 59, and the present number 
is 104. 

In 1858 the wardens were : Alonzo A. Alvord and William 
A. Bayard; in 1868, Thomas P. Cummings and N. Chatfield, 
Jr. ; in 1878, Thomas P. Cummings and William J. Sherman ; 
in 1885, Thomas P. Cummings and Michael Webster. 


The communicants and official acts at St. John's Mission 
Chapel, Cornwall-on-Hudson, are always included in the re- 
ports of St. John's Parish. 


This parish originated in the Free Chapel of the Messiah, 
which grew out of a Sunday-school established in 1858 by 
Misses M. E. Radcliff and Kate Ardagh. The first religious 
service was held by the Rev. Geo. H. Walsh, D.D., August 
8, 1858. He continued to officiate fortnightly until the erec- 
tion of the chapel. The corner stone was laid by Bishop H. 
Potter, Rev. H. E. Montgomery, D.D., delivering the address. 
The church was consecrated by Bishop H. Potter, June 10, 
1861. In the spring of 1869, the rectory, with sufficient 
grounds, was provided. The chapel with the adjoining prop- 
erty, including the parish school-house, was conveyed to the 
Church Missionary Society, to be held in trust as a free 
church, under the title of the Free Church of the Ascension. 
The same lady also gave, by will, the sum of $5,000, the 
interest of which should be devoted to the salary of a pastor. 
The Church of the Incarnation, New York City, presented the 
bell and the service for the Holy Communion. The Rev. 
Thomas S. Savage, M.D., the first rector, began his duties 
July II, 1869. 

From 1858 to 1880, the organization sustained the relation 
of chapel to the church in Rhinebeck, and was ministered to 
by assistants of the rectors of that parish, who were success- 
ively the Revs. Joseph Kidder, 1862 ; John Cornell, 1863- 
64; M. Buckmaster, 1864; Louis VanDyck, 1864-66; James 
Chrystal, 1867-68, andDavid Margot, 1868-69. 

The rectors in sole charge have been : Revs. Thomas 
Savage, M.D., 1869-80; G. W. Sinclair Ayres, 1881 ; John T. 
Hargrove, 1881-84, and Thomas L. Cole, 1884-85. 

There have been 160 baptisms ; 64 have been confirmed. 
The number of communicants in 1868 was 26; in 1880, 
there were 37, and at this date there are 26. The trustees 
are William Crusius, Henry Pearson, and George Veitch. 



This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1858, rector, Rev. Cornelius Winter Bolton, at which time 
there were 39 families and 32 communicants. In 1859, Rev. 
Leigh R. Dickinson is reported rector, until 1866. In 1868, 
Rev. William T. Wilson was rector, and presumably present 
incumbent. No other data are accessible. 


Was organized December 13, 1858. The corner-stone of the 
church was laid September 16, 1859, ^^e completed edifice 
opened Easter Day, i860, and consecrated December 28, 
1865. The rectors have been : Rev. D, R. Brewer, 1859- 
1866 ; Rev. U. T. Tracy, 1866- 1869 ; Rev. S. G. Fuller, 1869- 
1871 ; Rev. D. F. Banks, 1871-1876; Rev. C. Maurice Wines, 
1876-1879, and Rev. W. H. Mills, D.D., since February i, 
1880, rector of the parish. The number of baptisms recorded 
is 471, and 291 have received confirmation. In the absence 
of any list of communicants from 1 868-1 880, it is impossible 
to exhibit the increase by decades. The present number is 
218. The wardens in 1858 were : Henry Anstice and Dr. J. 
Foster Jenkins; in 1868, Dr. J. Foster Jenkins and M. T. 
Bolmer; in 1878, C. W. Seymour and Dr. Samuel Swift, and 
the same in 1886. The Yonkers Nursery and Home, an insti- 
tution for the care of children under eight years of age, and 
of aged women, was organized by members of St. Paul's 
Parish, opened January 25, 1880, and incorporated May, 
1884. During the past year it has cared for 25 children and 
2 aged women. The officers are : president. Rev. M. H. Mills, 
rector; secretary, E. M. LeMoyne, and treasurer, C. W. Sey- 


This church is first mentioned in the parochial reports of 
the Convention Journal for 1855, Rev. Thomas McClure 
Peters, rector, and Rev. Charles E. Phelps assistant. It seems 
to have been chiefly a central station for mission work among 


the charitable and penal institutions of the city. In this re- 
port it is stated that " the church is free, and stands in the 
nnidst of a poor population of colored people and foreigners." 
The parish was organized in December, 1858, and received 
into union with the Convention in 1859. The same year, 
Rev. Mr. Peters retired, and Mr. Phelps, his assistant, became 
rector. He was succeeded by Rev. John Moore Heffernan, 
and he, in turn, by Rev. D. F. Warren, D.D., in 1871. The 
next year (1872) Rev. Wm. N. Bunnell is reported rector. 
In 1873, the journal records a vacancy in the rectorship. In 
1874, Rev. Charles Frederick Hoffman, D.D., is mentioned 
as rector, and is present incumbent. In the Journal re- 
port for 1885, it appears that there are 138 families, 366 souls, 
and 121 communicants. In the absence of any report from 
the rector, the committee is unable to present any further 


This parish was organized in 1858. The first edifice was 
built in 1853, ^"<^ enlarged to its present dimensions in 1864. 
The rectory was built previous to 1857, and acquired by this 
parish in 1876. 

Since the organization there have been 390 baptisms, 170 
have been confirmed, and the number of communicants in 
1853 was II, and 1883, 98. The present number is 106. 

In the first decade, 1858, the wardens were : William A. 
Walker and N. D. Morgan ; in the second, 1868, J. L. Adams 
and George Merritt ; in the third, 1878, William A. Haines 
and George D. Morgan. At present the wardens are George 
D. Morgan and Alexander Hamilton. 

In 1852, the Rev. William A. McVickar was appointed 
missionary to Dearman, now Irvington, where he at once 
gathered a congregation and commenced the services of the 
church. A stone chapel, the nave of the present church, was 
built A.D. 1853, chiefly at the expense of his father, the Rev. 
Prof. John McVickar, D.D., who presented it to the parish 
when it became incorporated in 1858, the lots on which it 
stood being the gift of Hon. John Jay, of Bedford, a plot of 


land in the village being also donated by Mr. Franklin C. 

In 1864 it became necessary to enlarge the church, which 
was done by resolution of the vestry in 1864, after plans 
designed by the rector. In 1867, Rev. Mr. McVickar resigned 
his charge after fifteen years of a most faithful ministry, dur- 
ing which he founded a parish and accumulated a very valu- 
able church property. To the Rev. William McVickar and 
to the Rev. John McVickar, D.D., St. Barnabas must ever 
look as to its most liberal and chief benefactors. 

The present incumbent, the Rev. William H. Benjamin, 
D.D., was called to the rectorship in 1867 and is now in the 
nineteenth year of his charge. Under his ministry the debt 
found upon the parish was paid, the church decorated, seven 
stained glass windows erected, additional land bought and 
paid for, and the rectory and grounds, built and owned by 
Prof. McVickar, and which were left in his will to the parish, 
subject, however, to a twenty years' lease to his son or his 
son's heirs, was acquired by purchase of the lease for $5,867 in 
1876. The rectory was also repaired, and an addition has been 
built. The services of the church have never ceased from the 
foundation of the parish, and the report to the Diocesan Con- 
vention in the past year shows that members of the parish 
have contributed the sum of $17,284 for parochial and general 
church purposes. The parish has no debt, and its income 
from pew rents and collections in church exceeds its ex- 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in i860. The first rector was Rev. Eugene C. Pattison, mis- 
sionary, and at that time there were 17 communicants. In 
1863 there was a vacancy. In 1864 Rev. Myron A. Johnson 
was in charge; a vacancy in 1866 continuing until 1879, when 
Rev. John H. Nemmis is recorded as missionary. In 1883 
Rev. John C. S. Wells was in charge. There was no report 
in 1885 to the Convention. In 1880, the latest report on 
record, there were 9 communicants. 



This parish was organized in April, i860, and incorporated 
September 11, i860. The church was built during the same 
year. The present church edifice was built in 1867. The 
rectors have been: Rev. Hobart Chetwood, 1860-1872, and 
Rev. Rufus Emery, the present incumbent, since 1872. Since 
organization there have been 474 baptisms and 312 have re- 
ceived confirmation. In 1870 there were 160 communicants; 
in 1880, 140, and the present number is 162. In i860 the 
wardens were: D. M. Clarkson and W. E. Warren; in 1870, 
J. S. Heard and W. R. Eaton, and in 1880, J. J. Logan and 
S. P. Church, M.D. 


Was organized August 25, i860. The church was built in 
the summer of 1861 and consecrated June 10, 1864. The 
several rectors have been : Rev. Eastburn Benjamin, from 
March to September, 1862; Rev. F. N. Luson, no date; Rev. 
Henry R. Howard, 1864-1866; Rev. John J. Roberts, May 
to December, 1867; Rev. John Stace, June to December, 
1868; Rev. Charles B. Coffin, 1869-1870; Rev. Joseph F. 
Jowitt, 1870-1871 ; Rev. Edwin J. K. Lessel, 1872-1873; Rev. 
Alford B, Leeson, February to August, 1873; Rev. Gustave 
E. Perucker, 1873-1876; Rev. F. H. Horsfield, 1876-1878; 
Rev, Romaine S. Mansfield, April, 1878, and present incum- 
bent. A rectory and lot were presented to the parish July, 
1882, by Mr. David Groesbeck, and a building was erected in 
1 87 1 for a parish school and rector's study. There have been 
386 baptisms, and 76 have received confirmation. The pres- 
ent number of communicants is 55. At organization the 
wardens were David Groesbeck and Alexander Hamilton. 
The present wardens are Theodore Hoff and H. R. Sloat. 
The earlier records of the parish are lost, and it is, therefore, 
impossible to give a complete history. 



This parish was organized October 9, 1859. The church 
was completed early in 1861, and the parish was the same 
year received into the Convention. The rectors have been : 
Rev. Edward Anthon, 1861-1864; Rev. Thomas A. Jaggar, 
afterwards Bishop of Southern Ohio, 1864-1869, and Rev. 
R. Heber Newton, rector since June, 1869. Among the 
parish works is "All Souls' Home by the Sound," a group of 
six cottages on Roslyn Harbor, near Sea Cliff, Long Island, 
amid eight acres of woodland running down to the bay, used 
for a summer rest for poor children, built in 1884, Rev. R. 
Heber Newton, rector. The baptisms since organization 
are 512, and 553 have received confirmation. In 1870 there 
were 250 communicants; in 1880, 478. and at present there 
are 626. The wardens in 1861 were: Galen Carter, M.D.,and 
S. N. R. Morse ; in 1870, John Wheeler and Frederick D. Tap- 
pen ; and in 1880, Frederick D. Tappen and William Tracy. 


This parish was received into union with Convention in 
1861. From the Convention Journal oi 1855 it appears that 
the rectorship was vacant and that Clark Davis was warden. 
There were 41 communicants. No more of the required sta- 
tistics are at hand. 


Was organized in October, 1861, and the first church was 
built in 1 861-1862. The present church was first used for 
Divine service on Easter Day, April 13, 1879. The Rev. 
Franklin Babbitt has been rector from the organization until 
the present time. The first church edifice is now used as a 
chapel. Since organization 276 baptisms are recorded, and 
247 have received confirmation. In 1861 there were about 8 
communicants; in 1871,97; in 1881, 160, and at present there 
are 240. The first wardens in 1861 were: James S. Aspinwall 
and William L. Stillwell ; in 1871, the same, and in 1881, F. 


L. Nichols and George Wilcoxson. The history of the 
growth of this parish is one of perseverance, patience in well 
doing, and watchful fidelity among duties and opportunities. 
The present beautiful and impressive stone church, in excel- 
lent Gothic, grew almost stone by stone, but without debt, 
until, in the faces of the doubting and incredulous, it reached 
completion after the lapse of years, one among the many 
admirable churches that adorn the banks of the Hudson. 


Was organized in 1858. The church was built and opened 
May 3, 1861, and enlarged in 1876. The clergy in charge 
have been: Rev. Matthias Willing, 1858-1860; Rev. T. R. 
Chapman, 1860-1864; Rev. W. B. Morrow, May to Decem- 
ber, 1864; Rev. Benjamin S. Huntington, 1865-1866; Rev. 
Percy Brown, 1 866-1 867 ; Rev. N. L. Briggs, 1 867-1 871 ; 
Rev. R. W. Elliott, 1871 -^— ; Rev. W. T. Egbert, 1871-1872 ; 
Rev. E. S. Widdemer, 1872-1882, and Rev. Newton Perkins 
in charge since 1882. There is a parish house of brick three 
stories in height adjoining the church which was purchased 
in 1881, under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Widdemer. Since 
organization, 1,835 baptisms have been recorded and 719 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communi- 
cants is 350. The church property is under the direction of 
a Board of Trustees who are members of the Parish of the 
Incarnation. There are guilds, societies, reading-rooms, and 
suitable means for recreation and social improvement adapted 
to all ages and conditions in the parish. 


This church was first organized as a mission of Christ 
Church, Tarrytown, in 1857. The Rev. William Creighton, 
D.D., was at that time rector of Christ Church, and Rev. 
Franklin Babbitt had charge of the mission until 1861, when 
Rev. Edmund Guilbert succeeded him. Two years afterward 


the mission became an incorporated parish under the present 
title. In 1865 the present structure, commemorative of 
Washington Irving, was begun. The architect was James 
Renwick. The building was Gothic in design, constructed 
solidly in stone, having a commanding and symmetrical ex- 
terior, and within unique and beautiful. All the windows, 
which are costly and artistic, were presented as memorials. 
The interior is richly and appropriately furnished. The tower 
was left unfinished, to be built as an especial memorial of 
Washington Irving, a project which as yet remains unexe- 
cuted. The building — tower excepted — was completed a few 
years ago and used for Divine worship. On account of a debt 
of a few thousand dollars it was not consecrated until 1880. 
Rev. Mr. Guilbert continued rector until 1876. The commu- 
nicants were about 100. His successor was Rev. Mytton 
Maury, D.D., who remained two years. Rev. J. F. Herrlish 
was rector from 1878 to 1884. He was succeeded by Rev. J. 
B. Jennings, who remained until October, 1885. March 16, 
1886, Rev. Martin K. Schermerhorn was elected rector and 
entered upon his duties on the first Sunday in Lent. The 
vestry purpose an early attempt to erect the spire. Owing 
to defective records the rector has not as yet been able to 
reach the data of parish work called for by the committee. 


This parish was organized April 4, 1864. The first 
church was completed Easter, 1865, and consecrated Decem- 
ber 21, 1865. The present church was erected in 1873. The 
Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, Jr., D.D., was rector from 1864, un- 
til his retirement in 1881, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
Wilbur F. Watkins, D.D., the present rector. A rectory was 
built in 1869. A Sunday-school building, with church parlors 
and rector's study, was built in 1867, fronting Forty-third 
Street and extending back to the church. There have been 
1,351 baptisms recorded, and 1,231 persons have received con- 
firmation. In 1865 there were 500 communicants; in 1875, 


i,ooo, and in 1885, 1,200, which is the present number. The 
wardens in 1865 and 1875 were Robert Dumart and S. H. 
Hurd, and in 1885, S. H. Hurd and Adon Smith. 


This parish was organized in 1865, and the church built in 
1865-1866. The rectors have been: Rev. E. M. Pecke, one 
year from the organization, and since 1867, Rev. George D. 
Wildes, D.D., present incumbent. The rectory was purchased 
in 1877, ^^^ repaired and enlarged in 1883. The baptisms 
recorded are about 116, and 75 have received confirmation. 
The present number of communicants is 150. The wardens 
in 1865 were Newton Carpenter and Henry L. Stone, and 
in 1875, Edward Prime and Henry L. Stone. Owing to 
the recent severe illness of the rector the data concerning 
the work of the parish are necessarily incomplete. The 
growth of the parish was closely connected with an attempt 
to establish a seminary for girls at Riverdale, and gen- 
erous expenditures were made to promote the enterprise, 
which was afterwards abandoned. The church is built of 
stone, rural Gothic in design, and one of the most picturesque 
and admirably appointed in the diocese. All the windows 
are of English glass, and considered among the most interest- 
ing in the country. The present rectorship is especially iden- 
tified with the establishment and successful development of 
the Church Congress, of which Dr. Wildes was one of the 
original founders. Now lying within the corporation limits 
of New York, the rapid movement of population towards 
Riverdale suggests a very important work for this church in 
the early future. 


Was organized January 3, 1866. The church was built and 
opened November 16, 1868. The Rev. J. Tuttle-Smith, D.D., 
was elected rector January 9, 1866, and is present incumbent. 
There is a record of 260 baptisms, and 198 have received con- 
firmation. In 1876 there were 80 communicants, and in 


1885 there were 200, which is the present number. The 
wardens for 1 866-1 867 were Joseph Curtis and Timothy 
Matlock Cheeseman, M.D. ; from 1867 to 1885, Dr. Cheese- 
man and Stephen Merrihew, and those now serving are John 
A. Thomas and James Campbell. This church has been sus- 
tained as a free church since its organization, and has de- 
pended solely on the Sunday contributions for its support. 


This was a missionary station for ten years, when it be- 
came an organized parish. The church was built in 1854, and 
adapted to the purposes of education as well as Divine wor- 
ship. It was enlarged in 1885. 

The Rev. James Starr Clark, S.T.D., has, from 1855 to the 
present, served as missionary and rector. During his ministry 
there have been 345 baptisms, and 150 have received con- 
firmation. In 1855 there were 4 communicants ; in 1865,50; 
in 1875, 63 ; in 1885, 64, and the present number is 6']. The 
wardens for the decades have been : George F. Simmons and 
John H. Hager ; John H. Hager and John D. Rockefeller, and 
John H. Hager and Joseph A. Shaw. 

This parish had its beginning in a mission day-school be- 
gun in November, 1853, by Mr. and Mrs. John Bard. The 
school, from the first, was under the direction of Jas. Starr 
Clark, a candidate for orders, who was ordained deacon in 
June, 1854. The school was removed into the present church 
and school building early in January, 1855. The first Sun- 
day-school service was held in the chapel the first Sunday in 
January, 1855, by the present rector. A parish school was 
maintained in connection with this church by Mr. and Mrs. 
Bard for twelve years, in which free instruction was given 
to some 70 pupils by an efficient corps of teachers. In 
process of time, "Trinity School, Tivoli," a boarding-school 
for boys, took the place of the parish school. This school, 
which was organized by, and has always been under the con- 
trol of, the rector of Trinity Church, will in a short time close 
its nineteenth year of successful work. The parish school in 
the beginning, and the boarding-school in after years,- have 


been so intimately associated with the history of the parish, 
and have formed so considerable a part of it, that they must 
of necessity be noticed in connection with it. 

During the past year the chapel has been enlarged and 
improved at a cost of $i,6oo. It is proposed to expend about 
$i,oooin further improvements. These will make it a beauti- 
ful chapel, well fitted in every particular for the needs of both 
school and congregation. 



This parish was received into union with the Convention 
in 1866. No report was made to the Convention in 1885. 
The latest available report was made in 1883, when the serv- 
ices were in charge of Mr. Charles Temple, a lay reader. 
The number of communicants was 57. 



This parish was organized under a board of seven trustees 
May 10, i860, and a gift of land 125 feet square was con- 
veyed to its corporation for a free church by Thomas L. 
Davies and William A. Davies, the deed bearing date May 
20, 1859, ^'^^ reserving to William A. Davies the right of 
erecting a church building thereon. The plans for such a 
building were prepared by Richard Upjohn & Co., and the 
corner-stone was laid by Bishop Horatio Potter July 14, 
1859. The church, which is a memorial of Sarah Davies, 
wife of William A. Davies, was completed and consecrated 
October 25, i860. 

Its first rector was Rev. John Scarborough, now Bishop 
of New Jersey. He was elected March 3, i860, and after a 
service of seven years resigned August 17, 1867. The Rev. 
Robert Fulton Crary succeeded and is present incumbent. A 
rectory was purchased by William A. Davies and presented 
to the trustees February 12, 1866. The donor defrayed 
the expense of an addition in 1867. In 1870 a large addition 
was made to the church to be used for parish work, the ex- 


pense of which, some $9,000, was provided by William A. 

Since the organization there have been 1,280 baptisms, 663 
have been confirmed, 795 communicants have been connected 
with the parish and the present number is 319. The first 
trustees were Rev. Samuel Buel, D.D., Thomas L. Davies, 
William A. Davies, Robert E. Coxe, John W. Van Wagenen, 
George Cornwell, and Benjamin R. Tenney. The Rev. Dr. 
Buel resigned soon after the election of a rector and the Rev. 
John Scarborough was elected to fill his vacancy. The 
members of the present board are William A. Davies, presi- 
dent ; Rev. Robert Fulton Crary, rector and secretary; 
Thomas Davies, treasurer ; Robert Sanford, Samuel K. Rup- 
ley, George A. Bech, and Frederic Atkins. 

In 1880 an additional piece of land, 25 x 125 feet, was pre- 
sented to the trustees by the founder of the parish, and on the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the church, October 25, 1885, the 
plot of ground adjoining the church property, 100 x 125 feet, 
was also deeded to the trustees by the same generous friend 
of the parish. This gives the church the whole face of the 
block fronting on Davies' Place, 250 feet in length, with a 
uniform depth of 125 feet and bounded on three sides by 

The parish has the nucleus of an endowment fund com- 
menced by small thank offerings and $3,500 from the will of 
Matthew Vassar, Jr., the interest from which supplies the 
Sunday school, now numbering 300, with library books. The 
church is massively built of blue-gray stone and brown stone 
trimmings in the Gothic style ; there is a stone spire 100 feet 
high, surmounted by a stone cross, and the seating capacity is 
nearly 300. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1866. In 1868 Rev. Nicholas F. Ludlum was rector, and 
reported 27 communicants, with a church built and free from 
debt. He resigned in that year after a four years' service. 
There are no recent reports to be had. 



This parish was received into union with the Convention 
in 1867. The clergyman in charge in 1885 was Rev. Thomas 
Stephens, and the wardens were Franklin R. Barnes and 
James Cropsey ; the number of communicants reported was 


This parish, formerly St. Thomas' Free Chapel, was organ- 
ized and admitted into union with the Convention under the 
ministry of Rev. Frederick Sill in 1867. No report has been 
received by the committee. In the Journal of 1867 there are 
251 communicants recorded. In 1875, on the death of Mr. 
Sill, Rev. Howard T. Widdemar became rector ; in 1876, Rev. 
Zina Doty is recorded as rector ; in 1877, Rev. D. Griffin 
Gunn ; no report in 1880, and in 1881 Rev. J. Bloomfield 
Wetherell is reported rector and is present incumbent, assisted 
by Rev. Howard McDougall. In the Journal of 1885, 200 
families are reported and 127 communicants. 


This parish was organized November 11, 1816. The first 
church was built in 1834 and consecrated the following year. 
The corner-stone of a new church was laid June 24, 1880, it 
was built in 1882, and consecrated August 28, 1883. The 
rectors have been : 

Rev. Edward K. Fowler, 1826-1869 ; Rev. George Dent 
Silliman, 1870- 1873; Rev. Charles Forbes Canedy, 1873- 
1876; Rev. Gustav Edmond Purucker, 1876-1878; Rev. 
George H. Anderson, 1880, until his death, March 22, 1882 ; 
Rev. John M. Windsor, 1882-1885, and since February i, 
1886, Rev. S. H. S. Gallaudet, present incumbent. 

St. Mary's Chapel, Thompsonville, was erected 1871-72, 
during the rectorship of Rev. George D. Silliman. During 
the rectorship of Rev. Mr. Canedy, St. James' Chapel was 
built at CalHcoon Depot, during 1873-74, and afterwards 
organized as the parish of St. James. 


Since the organization of St. John's, 915 have received 
baptism, and 266 have been confirmed. In 1870 there were 
134 communicants ; 166 in 1880, and the present number is 
136. Owing to the destruction of the parish register by fire 
twelve years ago, it is impossible to state the number of 
communicants prior to 1870. 

The wardens in 1820 were John E. Russell and William 
A. Thompson ; in 1830, and 1840, were Luther Buckley and 
William A. Thompson ; in 1850, were Roderick Royce and 
Solomon Deney; in i860, were Roderick Royce and Jona- 
than Stanton ; in 1870, were Israel P. Tremain and James 

E. Quinlan; in 1880, were Israel P. Tremain and Samuel G. 
Thompson ; and at present, John Waller and William H. 

At the organization of the parish the Rev. James Thomp- 
son held services for two or three Sundays. The Rev. John 
Brown, of Newburgh, visited the parish afterwards once in 
three months until 1826. The first church was built during 
the first rectorship at a cost of about $3,000, $1,500 of which 
was given by Trinity Parish, New York City. 

It is noteworthy that Mr. Fowler's rectorship continued 
forty-two years. A new site was purchased for the new stone 
church, at a cost of $1,600, with ample room for a rectory 
when the parish is able to provide it. 


This parish was organized October 29, 1867. The date 
of the erection of the first church is not known. The present 
church was built in 1886, and occupies the old site of the 
Church of the Epiphany, in Stanton Street. The rectors 
have been : Rev. Abbot Brown, 1 867-1 871 ; Rev. W. T. Tracy, 
1872-1874; Rev. J. W. Bonham, May to August, 1875 ; Rev. 
J. R. Duganne, 1875-1877; Rev. A. Buchanan, May to Octo- 
ber, 1878; Rev. H. Williams, December to April, 1881 ; from 
1881 to 1884, no clergyman, and since May, 1884, the Rev. E. 

F. Miles, M.D., in charge. 

The Church of the Reformation was incorporated in 1867, 
and occupied the old Dutch Reformed Church in East Fiftieth 


Street until 1875, when the corporation exchanged properties 
with the incorporated Church of the Epiphany, at 130 Stan- 
ton Street. Services were conducted in the church by various 
clergymen, none remaining any length of time, until 1881, 
when Mr. B. C. Wetmore, a layman and warden of the church, 
conducted the services as lay reader until 1883. In the 
summer of that year, one of the assistant clergymen of St. 
George's was detailed for duty to the Church of the Reforma- 
tion. In May, 1884, the present incumbent, Rev, E. F. 
Miles, M.D., was placed in charge. 

The property had been rented to a board of trustees, con- 
ditionally, that within three years $50,000 should be raised for 
the building of a new church ; $20,000 of this sum having 
been for some time pledged. The condition of the parish in 
1884 was not encouraging. The old church had been con- 
demned by the Building Department, and the partial use of 
the German Reformed Church in Norfolk Street was ob- 
tained at a large rental. The congregation had become scat- 
tered by death, removals, and other causes. The Sunday- 
school has grown from 260 in 1884 to an attendance of nearly 
700. The adult congregation has steadily increased, and 
reaches an average of nearly 300. The communicants have 
increased from 32 in 1884 to 171 at present, and a class for 
confirmation numbering about 70 await the laying on of hands 
after Easter. Among the organized activities of the parish 
are a Girls' Friendly Society, numbering 160, a Young Men's 
Friendly Society, numbering ^y ; and classes for instruction 
are provided for them in free-hand drawing, writing, model- 
ing in clay, and wood-carving, a Sewing School, with an at- 
tendance of 175, a Literary Society, with a membership of 80, 
meeting monthly, and a branch of the Church Temperance 
Society, with 75 members, and a kindergarten for little 

It was expected that the first services in the new church 
would be held on Easter Day. This building is of red brick 
and stone trimmings, and occupies the entire two lots on 
which the old Church of the Epiphany stood, and contains: 
church, with seating capacity for 500, vestry and choir-room. 



etc., Sunday-school rooms, with capacity for 900, Girls' 
Friendly Society parlors, rector's room, janitor's apartments, 
gymnasium, two bath-rooms, etc., kitchen and dining-room 
for kindergarten, etc. The building is heated with hot air 
from five furnaces. The entire cost of the building, furniture, 
etc., is estimated at $62,000. The current expenses, including 
the clergyman's salary, are $5,000 per annum. The sick of 
the parish are attended at their own homes, and when unable 
to pay for them, medicine and medical comforts are provided. 
The work, in every feature, gives evidence of steady and 
sure growth, and despite the difficulties and inconveniences 
which have attended the work, for want of proper accommo- 
dation, the incumbent is deeply sensible of the blessing with 
which it has pleased God to visit His work, in this crowded 
part of our great city. 


This parish, organized for ministrations among the 
Spanish-speaking population, was admitted into union with 
the Convention in 1867. It has carried on a mission work 
in New York and Brooklyn, holding its special Sunday serv- 
ices in the Church of the Annunciation. In 1883 the rector 
in charge. Rev. Mr. De Palma, reported 50 families, 300 indi- 
viduals, and 42 communicants. There is no Journal report in 
1885, and there are no additional statistics. 


This parish was organized in January, 1865. The church 
was consecrated June 3, 1868, by Bishop H. Potter. The 
first rector was the Rev. F. W. Shelton, D.D., from August, 
1867, to Easter, 1880. He was succeeded by Rev. S. M. 
Akerly from Easter, 1880, until October, 1881, when the 
parish became a missionary station, and was served from 
Zion's Church, Wappinger's Falls, until April, 1882. After- 
wards services were interrupted until November, 1884, when the 
Rev. T. H. Converse, principal of a boys' school at New Ham- 
burgh, N. Y., took charge of the parish under the missionary 
board of the diocese. He still continues to officiate regu- 


larly in the church. There is no rectory. Since organiza- 
tion there have been 96 baptisms, and 37 have received con- 
firmation. The present number of communicants is 20. 
The organization and maintenance of St. Mark's has been 
largely due to the zeal and interest of the well-known Ver- 
planck family, residing near Fishkill-on-Hudson. But to 
quote from the notes of Dr. Shelton, the first rector: "In a 
place of few inhabitants, with little business or enterprise of 
any kind, it was unfortunate that almost immediately after 
ground had been selected for a church and the foundations 
had been laid, three important families were lost to the parish 
by death or removal." 


This parish was received into union with the Convention 
in 1868. A pretty stone church was built under the archi- 
tectural as well as missionary direction of Rev. Charles Bab- 
cock, who in 1870 reported 45 families and 100 individuals in 
his charge, with a flourishing day school of 60 scholars. 
There were 72 communicants. The latest accessible Con- 
vention report was made in 1883. The parish was then, as 
it is now, without a rector. The number of communicants 
was 57. 


Was organized August 11, 1868, and the church was built 
and opened August 5, 1872. The Rev. Romaine S. Mans- 
field was rector from the beginning, and continued until 
July, 1878. He was immediately succeeded by Rev. J. 
Tragitt, who served until April, 1880. The parish remained 
vacant until February, 1881, when the bishop placed it in 
charge of Rev. R. S. Mansfield, rector of Christ Church, 
Ramapo, who held services Sunday afternoons until October, 
1883, when Rev. Thomas Stephens, the present incumbent, 
took charge. There have been 79 baptisms recorded, and 52 
have received confirmation. The present number of communi- 
cants is 35- As the records have been lost it is impossible to 
give the succession of wardens ; those now in the office are 


Messrs. Parsons and Warner, The Holy Communion was 
first celebrated in this parish by the Rev. George F. Seymour, 
now Bishop of Springfield, and the first sermon in the new 
church, December 18, 1873, was preached by the assistant 
Bishop of the diocese. 


This parish was received into union with Convention in 
1869. From the report to the Convention in 1885, it appears 
that Rev. Addison Sherman was rector, and Charles C. Clarke 
and Charles F. Ogilby wardens. The number of communi- 
cants was 41. 


This parish was received into union with Convention in 
1869. From the Convention Journal of 1885, it appears that 
Rev. Geo. W. Ferguson was the rector, and Benjamin Moore 
and George D. Arthur wardens. There were 218 communi- 
cants. There are no other statistics at hand. 


No report has been received from this parish, and there 
are no accessible data beyond the report in the Convention 
Journal o{ 1885. The parish was established by Rev. R. S. 
Howland, D.D., rector, who has of late years left it mainly 
in charge of Rev. D. Parker Morgan, M.A. It was received 
into union with the Convention in 1870. The church is built 
of stone after strongly original designs by Mr. Edward Potter. 
The interior is effectively adorned with excellent frescoes after 
Fra Angelica, and Ary Scheffer's *' Christus Consolator " as 
an altar piece. There is a full congregation and the parish 
abounds with societies and agencies for charities and instruction. 
More than 1,000 individuals are within its cure. The present 
number of communicants is 588. The wardens are E. L. 
Terry and F. Humphreys, M.D. 



This parish was organized May 24, 1869, and the church 
edifice built in 1870. The rectors have been: Rev. Theodore 
Irving, LL.D., 1867-1872; Rev. James S. Bush, 1872-1884, 
and Rev. Pascal Harrower, from 1884, present incumbent. In 
January of this year, the lot adjoining the church was pur- 
chased, and a rectory is to be built during the summer. The 
Sunday school and parish house was erected by St. Andrew's 
Parish, of Richmond, Rev. David Moore, rector. Since the 
foundation of the Parish of the Ascension, this building has 
been remodeled for its present use. Since organization 540 
baptisms are recorded, and 245 have received confirmation. 
The present number of communicants is 291. The wardens 
named are: Gabriel Martine and Sidney D. Roberts, 1869; 
Erastus Brooks and Sidney D. Roberts, 1879, ^^^ Erastus 
Brooks and DeWitt Stafford, 1885. The earlier history of 
the church in this village forms part of the parish history 
of St. Andrew's, Richmond. Services were at that time held 
regularly in the afternoon. The church was then known as 
Trinity Chapel of St. Andrew's Parish. 


By appointment of Bishop Potter, the Rev. Ebenezer 
Gay, Jr., commenced services in the town of Stony Point 
August I, 1869. Sunday-schools were established at two 
points, services maintained, several persons were baptized, 
and the Holy Communion celebrated. In the spring of 
1871 the House of the Good Shepherd was removed from 
Haverstraw to its present location at Tomkins' Cove in the 
town of Stony Point, and in its chapel regular and full serv- 
ices have been regularly maintained. The corner-stone for 
a church building was laid June 13, 1871, by the Rev. J. B. 
Gibson, S.T.D. The building will be at once a chapel for 
the House of the Good Shepherd and a mission church for 
the neighborhood. At this date, April, 1886, the foundation 
and basement walls are built and the stone collected for the 


erection of the walls. No debt will be incurred, but the work 
will be pursued as funds are provided. November 9, 1881, the 
corner-stone for a stone church building was laid at Caldwell's 
Landing by the Rev. R. S. Mansfield, and on March 29, 1883, 
the building was consecrated under the name of the House 
of Prayer, by the Rt. Rev. J. A. Paddock, D.D., acting for 
the Bishop of New York. In April, 1884, a parish was duly 
formed and incorporated under the title of Grace Church, 
Stony Point, with the following officers: The Rev. Ebenezer 
Gay, Jr., rector; Jacob De Ronde and Charles H. Casseles, 
wardens ; William Tomlins, Joseph Casseles, William Spring- 
stead, and George King, vestrymen. Number of baptisms, 
660; of persons confirmed, 90; number of communicants in 
1869, 3 ; in 1875, 15 ; in 1885, 69. All the officers are commu- 
nicants, and with one exception have become such under the 
ministrations of the present pastor. 


There appears to be an error in the Diocesan Journal of 
1885, where this parish is recorded as having been admitted 
into Conventional union in 1833. The first mention found of 
the parish is in the Journal for 1869, Rev. Henry E. Duncan, 
rector, and it does not appear in the list of the churches of 
the diocese in that year. It is printed in the list of diocesan 
churches for the first time in 1871, and in that record it is set 
down as "admitted" in 1833. In the report for 1869 (the 
earliest found) there are recorded 112 families and 150 com- 
municants. In 1885 there were 240 families, and, presumably, 
400 communicants. The wardens were Winthrop Sargent 
and William P. Bleecker. The rectors, as far as can be 
ascertained, were: Rev. Henry E. Duncan, 1869; in 1875, Rev. 
Edward T. Bartlett, and in 1885, Rev. Henry Bedinger. 
There are no additional data available. 


This parish was organized June 23, 1868. The first church 
was built and opened for Divine service May 5, 1870. The 
present edifice was completed and opened December 5, 1880. 


The first rector was Rev. William Neilson McVickar, from 
1868 to 1875, and his successor, the present rector, Rev. Ran- 
dolph Harrison McKim, D.D., took charge of the parish 
November 21, 1875. Holy Trinity Chapel, No. 307 East 
One Hundred and Twelfth Street, and Holy Trinity Mission 
House and Day Nursery, erected on the same lot, were 
built under the ministry of the present incumbent in 1884. 
Since organization 576 have received baptism, and 502 have 
received confirmation. In 1876 there were 200 communi- 
cants; in 1880, 430, and the present number is about 8CXD. 
The wardens in 1870 were Benjamin C. Paddock and Fred- 
erick Tinson, who continued in office after 1880. 

This church was opened for its first service May 5, 1870, 
on its present site, Fifth Avenue, corner One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Street. The rector was the Rev. Wm. Neilson 
McVickar, under whose devoted ministrations the congre- 
gation rapidly increased. The first vestry (June 23, 1868) 
consisted of Messrs. Benjamin C. Paddock and Frederic 
Tinson, wardens ; and Messrs. George Richmond, Chas. F. 
Alvord, J. Romaine Brown, Walter Brady, Manton E. Town- 
send, George W. Buckhout, Jacob H. Valentine, and Roswell 
G. Ralston, vestrymen ; Mr. M. E. Townsend being clerk, 
and Mr. C. F. Alvord, treasurer. 

Mr. McVickar resigned early in the summer of 1875, leav- 
ing behind him a record fragrant with his own large-hearted 
lovingkindness, and was succeeded by the present rector, 
who assumed charge November 21, 1875. 

The church was destroyed by fire on the morning of Ash 
Wednesday, February 11, 1880, but the services were sus- 
tained without interruption in a hall on Fourth Avenue, 
corner of One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Street, until De- 
cember 5, 1880, when the new church (which, except the 
chancel and the gallery, is for the most part an exact repro- 
duction of the old), was ready for occupancy. The steadfast- 
ness of the congregation during this trying ordeal is worthy 
of all praise. 

Among interesting incidents in the life of the parish 
should be mentioned the formation, in November, 1868, of 


the Ladies* Benevolent Society, and in December, 1873, 
of the Pastoral Aid Society, and of a branch of the Church 
Temperance Society in 1881. Other parochial activities are 
in successful operation. 


This is not a parish organization. The church was built 
in 1870, and the mission has been under charge of Rev. John 
Drisler. There have been 6 baptisms and 23 have been con- 
firmed. The number of communicants at the beginning was 
15, the present number is 20. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1870, and represented by a lay delegation in 1871. The 
first rector was Rev. Lewis F. Morris, who remained until 
1875. After a vacancy of six years. Rev. Louis Cloak was 
rector, 1881-1882. Since 1883 there has been no rector. 
There are no statistics concerning the condition of the 
church since 1872, at which time there were 54 individuals 
and 23 communicants in the charge. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1870. The Rev. A. S. Hull appears in the Convention 
Journal as rector since 1871. There are no additional sta- 


This parish was organized December 11, 1871, and the 
edifice was bought from the Holland Reformed Church. The 
rectors have been : Rev. Ferdinand Cartwright Ewer, S.T.D., 
elected December 13, 1871, and died October 10, 1883; Rev. 
Arthur Ritchie, since May i, 1884, rector, and present in- 
cumbent. There are 417 baptisms recorded, and 274 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communicants 
is 161. The wardens in 1871 were: Philip R. Wilkins and 
John R. Morewood; in 1880, the same, and in 1883 to the 


present, John R. Morewood and John W. Emerson. This 
parish is an off-shoot from Christ Church. It suffered great 
loss from the death of its first rector, but now, happily, seems 
to be recovering, and taking on new vigor and growth. 


This parish was organized in 1868, and the church edifice 
was built in 1 868-1 870. The first, and present, rector is Rev. 
Thomas McKee Brown, who was elected June 11, 1869. The 
parish owns a rectory adjoining the church. There is also a 
three-storied brick building, adjoining the chancel, containing 
a chapel and altar, clergy rooms, choir rooms and organ, and 
guild room. It was built in 1885. Since organization there 
have been 592 baptisms, and 423 have received confirmation. 
In 1869 there were 30 communicants; in 1878, 273 ; in 1885, 
425, which is the present number. The parish is vested in a 
body of trustees, and there are neither wardens nor vestry- 
men. William Scott is president of the board, and there has 
been no change since 1869. 

The parish was begun by building the church, after which 
the congregation was gathered in, its growth being steady. 
Daily and more frequent services have been maintained, of 
which there has been at least one celebration of the Holy 
Communion every day during these fifteen years. The chief 
service on Sunday is the high celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion, preceded by Matins and Litany at an earlier hour 
and followed by Choral Vespers in the afternoon. 

The Sunday-school services during the autumn, winter, 
aqd spring months are, for the morning session, a Choral 
Celebration and address, and for the afternoon session, 
Lessons and Catechizing. The services and parish works are 
free, and supported entirely by voluntary contributions. 
There are no endowments. Sisters of the Nativity, from the 
Sisterhood of the Nativity, Church of the Advent, Boston, 
Massachusetts, work in the schools, guilds, and among the 
sick and poor. 

Guilds and societies exist for altar boys, choirs, children, 
girls, married women, men, communicants, burial purposes, 


etc. At present there are three clergymen connected with 
the parish, Rev. Thomas McKee Brown, Rev. Henry Darby, 
and Rev. James Oswald Davis. 


Was organized in 1869, and a church built during the 
same year. In 1880 a new church was provided. Rev. 
Gouverneur Cruger has been rector since the organization. 
There have been 41 1 baptisms recorded, and ico have re- 
ceived confirmation. In 1870 there were 12 communicants; 
in 1880, 60, and the present number is 81. In 1879, mission 
services were begun at the village of Verplanck, and the rector 
began the construction of a small chapel. It was opened for 
Divine service, under the name of St. Barnabas, on Easter 
Day, 1880, and since has served a good purpose for Sunday- 
evening and occasional week-day services. The building was 
freed from debt during the following summer, and duly con- 
secrated by Bishop Seymour, of the Diocese of Springfield, 
Illinois. The entire cost of this chapel, a building of good 
parts, substantially constructed of brick, Gothic in design, 
roofed with slate, a belfry and a 400 pounds' bell, completely 
furnished, carpeted, and an organ, did not exceed $1,700. 
This chapel has proved of great benefit, providing services 
for those who did not attend the parish church. 


This parish was incorporated in April, 1884. The first 
church was built in 1872. In 1882 the House of Prayer was 
built at Caldwell's and the Church of the Holy Child Jesus 
is now being built. This is a wide mission field, and 
Rev. Ebenezer Gay, Jr., has been in charge since August, 
1869. A rectory was built in 1882. Since the organization 
of the work 660 baptisms are recorded and 90 have received 
confirmation. In 1869 there were 3 communicants ; in 1875, 
15, and at present there are 69. The acting wardens are Jacob 
De Ronde and Charles H. Casseles. This has been strictly 
a mission work from the first and very largely among a poor 
people. There is not an individual of wealth in the parish. 



Was organized as a mission June 22, 1873, and as a parish 
March 8, 1878. A church was built in 1882, and conse- 
crated by Bishop Seymour, of the Diocese of Springfield, Illi- 
nois, August 8th of the same year. On the church lot there 
is a building used as a store, with living rooms overhead which 
might be utilized as a rectory ; also a carriage house and 
sheds. The missionaries have been : Rev. William Moore, 
1873-1875; Rev. Wilberforce Wells, 1875-1876 ; Rev. Mat- 
thew A. Dailey, M.D., 1 877-1 885 ; and Rev. Uriah T. Tracy 
from 1885 to date. The rector since parochial organization 
has been the present incumbent, Dr. Bailey. Total number 
of baptisms recorded is 95, and 30 have received confirmation. 
In 1873 there were 4 communicants ; the present number is 
^'j. The wardens have been Joseph H. Bailey, Surgeon 
U.S.A., from 1878 until his decease in April, 1883 ; Andrew 
J. Bennett from 1878, and Smith Warden Parks from 1883, 
both to date. Kent Cliffs, formerly Boyd's Corners, is a ham- 
let 60 miles from New York City, in the town of Kent, in the 
center of Putnam County, lying on the west side of Croton 
Storage Reservoir. 


This parish was organized October 4, 1874, and the 
church was built during the summer of 1874 and consecrated 
in the following October. Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, D.D., war- 
den of St. Stephen's College, was made and continues rector. 
Rev. George P. Hopson officiated from October 4, 1874, 
to October, 1884, resigning about January ist following. 
Rev. Francis E. Shober since 1884 officiated as deacon and 
remains in charge. A building was erected in the church- 
yard for Sunday-school and parish purposes in 1875-76, 
during Mr. Hopson's ministry, and was opened March 4, 
1876. Since organization 104 baptisms are recorded and 60 
have received confirmation. In 1874 there were 33 commu- 
nicants ; in 1884, 35, and in 1886, 59. The trustees in 1874 


were Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, D.D., president ; Charles E. Sands, 
secretary; Samuel Breek, treasurer (deceased); Rev. H. C. 
Potter, D.D., Mrs. John L. Aspinwall, William H. Aspinwall 
(deceased), and Meredith Rowland. In 1884 the trustees were 
Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, D.D., president ; Charles E. Sands, sec- 
retary ; L. Lloyd Breek, treasurer; Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, 
D.D., Mrs. John L. Aspinwall, Mrs. William H. Aspinwall 
and Meredith Rowland. This church is a memorial to the 
late John L. Aspinwall, built and endowed by his widow, 
Jane M. Aspinwall. This endowment was increased by the 
addition of $5,000 in a legacy from the late William H. 
Aspinwall of New York. There are guilds and societies in 
the parish for the edification and culture of the people, old 
and young. A large tract of land has this year been given 
to the parish by the heirs of Mr. Aspinwall. It immediately 
joins the church grounds and is the site of a proposed ceme- 


This church was begun in 1875 as an unorganized mis- 
sion and incorporated under the Free Church Act in Septem- 
ber, 1885, in which year the church was erected in Avenue C 
between Third and Fourth Streets. Until 1877 ministrations 
were exclusively in the German language, since which date 
services have been sustained both in English and German. The 
clergy missioners who have been employed are Rev. W. Wey, 
1875-77 ; Rev. G. F. Siegmund, Rev. Julius Unger and Rev. 
J. F. Esch, 1877-80; Rev. B. W. Maturin, S.S.J. E., 1877- 
78, English side; Rev. R. W. Nancrade, 1878, English side; 
Rev. Charles P. A. Burnett, 1879-81, English side; Rev. R. 
S. Dod, 1880-81, English side ; Rev. A. C. Roehnig, 1881-85, 
German side ; and since 1885 the Order of the Roly Cross, 
who sustain ministrations both in English and German. The 
Sisters of St. John Baptist engage in mission and parish 
work. Baptisms recorded are 1,403 ; confirmation has been 
administered to 666, and the present number of communi- 
cants is 223. The corporation is a Board of Trustees. 



The date of the organization of this free church is not 
given. The church edifice was built in 1857, and the parish 
was admitted into union with the Convention of the diocese 
in 1876. The rectors have been : Rev. John R. Livingston, 

until April ii, 1878; Rev. William W. De Hart, in 

charge from October, 1877, to September, 1879, ^"<^ Rev. 
Robert B. Van Kleeck, Jr., incumbent since 1880. A parish 
schoolhouse was built about i860 and enlarged in 1876 by 
Rev. John R. Livingston. There are 428 baptisms recorded 
and 204 have received confirmation. When the first services 
were held there was one communicant. Afterwards owing 
to the transient character of the population the number has 
varied from 50 to 75 ; the present number is about 60. In 
1871 the wardens were : James S. Thorne and Thomas Gilbert ; 
in 1881, James S. Thorne and Charles E. Barton, and since 
1881, Charles E. Barton and Robert Sloan. 

This free church was founded by the late Rev. John R. 
Livingston, who took charge of Trinity Parish, Fishkill, 
November 5, 1854, having been ordained deacon by Bishop 
Wainwright. The first service was held on the fourth Sunday 
after Trinity, 1855, in an upper room in a tenant house. The 
corner-stone was laid by Bishop Horatio Potter and the 
address was given by Rev. Dr, Brown, rector of St. George's 
Church, Newburgh. The first service was held in Advent 
season, 1857, Rev. George F. Seymour, of Annandale, preach- 
ing the sermon. The church was consecrated by Bishop 
Potter June 17, 1858. Mr. Livingston continued his faithful 
and zealous services in this mission parish for nearly twenty 
years, until his decease, April 11, 1878, sincerely mourned, as 
he was greatly beloved by his parishioners. A memorial altar 
and a lecturn given by the Sunday-school were used for the 
first time on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the consecration 
of the church. Ministrations have been regularly maintained 
by the present rector, and the people have been zealous and 
faithful under the discouragements of great business and 
financial depression which have fallen upon this manufactur- 
ing village during the past four years. 



This parish was organized in 1872 ; the corner-stone was 
laid the same year, and the church was completed and con- 
secrated in 1873. It appears that the clergy who have here- 
tofore labored in this parish have been simply in charge, and 
that the present incumbent, Rev. Henry Tarrant, B.D., is 
actually the first rector. He entered upon the work April 12, 
1885. Since organization 154 baptisms are recorded, 46 of 
which were administered during the last year by the rector ; 
also 71 have received confirmation, 17 of which are in the 
record of the last year. The present number of communicants 
is about 40 ; of whom 20 were admitted the last year. The 
following account of Mr. Tarrant's mission labors, and his suc- 
cessful attempt to rescue the Church of the Holy Cross, Clin- 
tondale, Ulster County, from loss, and indeed, perishing, is 
condensed from published reports, and will have a permanent 
value in this volume : 

Among the many missionary efforts put forth by the Rev. 
Joseph H. Johnson, a former rector of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, Highland, and an enthusiastic and devoted 
missioner in the villages far and near, was the building of a 
church at Clintondale, a village about seven miles south-west 
of Highland, and across two mountains. At the time of his 
resignation, about seven years ago, he had succeeded in put- 
ting up the shell of a handsome frame building, 25 x 66 feet, 
but unfortunately he had to leave it in that state. None of his 
successors staid long enough, for one reason or another, to com- 
plete the good work so hopefully, courageously, and unselfishly 
begun. Last spring, with the advent of the Rev. Henry Tar- 
rant, the present rector at Highland, affairs took on a more 
hopeful turn. The parish at Highland regained its former 
strength and influence in the community, and the work at 
Clintondale was taken up with renewed vigor. Early in July 
the Rev. Henry Tarrant visited Clintondale for the first time 
and examined the church property in company with Mr. D. 
R. Hasbrouck, a devoted layman of the place. Mr. Tarrant 
determined at once to finish the church. This end has been 


reached through the generosity of several parishes, chiefly In 
Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties, and a few individuals 
who cannot be identified with any parishes. Not that these 
parishes gave as parishes, for the rector of Holy Trinity went 
from door to door, day after day, soliciting the gifts of the 
faithful. Money is not all the rector has secured for the 
Church of the Holy Cross; other gifts have been forthcoming, 
as for instance : St. James', Hyde Park, gave an organ, a 
black walnut prayer desk, black walnut uprights to sustain 
the altar rail, an altar service, and prayer book in red Turkey 
morocco ; Christ Church, Poughkeepsie, an oak lecturn ; Holy 
Comforter, Poughkeepsie, white altar linen ; the Church of 
the Intercession, New York City, a white marble font ; on the 
base of this is inscribed " Precious Memories." " This font, 
used in the old Church of the Intercession, New York City, 
for thirty years, is the gift of the new to the Church of the 
Holy Cross, Clintondale, New York, 1885"; the Church of 
the Holy Trinity, Highland, gave a communion service — this 
is the gift of a mother to her daughter — and on it is inscribed 
"Holy Trinity, Highland, to Holy Cross, Clintondale, New 
York, 1885." The present rector would gratefully record the 
names of the individuals and parishes who so generously 
assisted the Rev. Mr. Johnson, were the materials for so 
doing in his power. On Saturday, November 28, the Church 
of the Holy Cross was consecrated by the assistant bishop 
of the diocese, the Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D. The 
Church of the Holy Cross is the only Episcopal Church 
between Milton on the east, and Ellenville on the west 
nearly forty miles, and Walden on the south, and Rosendale 
on the north more than thirty miles. From it, as a center, 
an energetic missionary can reach with occasional services 
at least Achart's Corner, Ardonia, Modena, Jenkintown, New 
Paltz, Ohioville, Gardiner's, Centerville, and other places. 


This church was organized under the title of The Free 
Church of St. James, under the Free Church Statute, with a 
body of seven trustees, May 30, 1877. ^^^ church edifice, 


occupied for two years as a chapel, was built in 1875 ^^^ con- 
secrated June 6, 1877, by Bishop H. Potter. The first rector 
was Rev. George A. Chambers, from January 5, 1877, to Oc- 
tober I, 1880. After a vacancy of three years, Rev. Elijah 
J. Roke was rector from January 28, 1883, to January i, 1884. 
The Rev. F. N. Luson was incumbent from April 15, 1884, to 
the following November. There have been 40 persons bap- 
tized, and 13 have received confirmation. The present num- 
ber of communicants is 8. The first service was held in the 
Methodist Church, atCallicoon Depot, in June, 1874, by Rev. 
John Kiernan, then of Deposit. In June, 1875, Rev. Charles 
F. Canedy, then of Monticello, took charge, and had occa- 
sional services during the next two years. At his request the 
Bishop appointed Oliver Perry Vinton lay reader. Through 
the efforts of Messrs. Canedy and Vinton and the late Judge 
James C. Curtis, of Callicoon Depot, $1,200 was raised by sub- 
scription, Judge Curtis presenting an acre of land, and before 
January i, 1876, a handsome church was completed and fur- 
nished, with sittings for 150 persons. 


Was organized in 1878. The church first used was built in 
i860 and rebuilt for the use of this parish in 1878. The 
present church was erected in 1881. The only rector of the 
parish is Rev. Edmund Guilbert, M.A., present incumbent. 
Since organization, 158 baptisms are recorded, and 133 have 
received confirmation. The present number of communicants 
is 400. The wardens from 1878 to 1886 are Orlando F. Dor- 
man and Ulysses D. Eddy. 


This parish was admitted into union with the Convention 
in 1879. -^s there is no report in the hands of the committee 
the following particulars are gathered from the Convention 
Journals : in 1879 Rev. D. Brainerd Ray is mentioned as rec- 
tor. The communicants were 135 in number. During this 
year this parish has completed and occupied a large and 


beautiful church edifice on One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Street, near Third Avenue. For more than ten years the 
work was carried on in a very small, plain, and badly located 
brick chapel, which was never designed for a church. This 
was mortgaged and sold in 1877, and the proceeds used to 
purchase lots in a better locality and to defray expenses in- 
curred in erecting the present church. The church is 46 x 
100, with a transept easily seating 600. There is a large 
and excellent Sunday-school room with provision for 800 
scholars. The Sunday-school was occupied in 1878. The 
church, which was begun in 1878, was completed and occu- 
pied in 1879. In that year there were 135 communicants. 
There is no report in the Journal for 1885. 


This parish was organized September 6, 1864, under the 
title of Grace Church, Harts' Village. The corner-stone of 
the church was laid September 13, 1866, and consecration 
followed June 8, 1867. This edifice was destroyed by fire 
in September, 1870, and another was built and consecrated 
November 23, 1871. The first rector was Rev. Eugene C. 
Pattison, from September, 1864, to some time in 1868. His 
successors were Rev. Benjamin F. Miller, July, 1869, to Octo- 
ber I, 1875; Rev. John C. S. Weills, April, 1876, to April, 
1878 ; Rev. Robert B. Van Kleeck, July, 1878, to December, 
1878 ; Rev. John H. Nimmo, December, 1878, to October, 
1881, and Rev. John C. S. Weills, October, 1881, and pres- 
ent incumbent. Since organization 63 have received Holy 
Baptism, and 66 have been confirmed. The number of com- 
municants in 1864 was about 20 ; in 1870,30; in 1880,37. 
The present number is 60. In 1864 the wardens were Henry 
Peck and Isaac Lawton. In 1870 the wardens were Henry 
Peck and George P. Tompkins. In 1880 the wardens were 
Richard H. Mitchell and James F. Goodell, M.D. Occasional 
services were held in and near the village of Millbrook by 
Rev. Sheldon Davis and other missionaries as early as 1840. 
In May, 1863, Rev. Eugene C. Pattison, missionary at St. 
Peter's Church, Lithgow, began regular services, once each 


Sunday. He continued them as long as he remained at 
Lithgow ; and during his labors the parish was organized and 
the first church building erected and consecrated. After its 
burning, as above recorded, another building was erected 
upon a more favorable site. The cost of this building was 
about $6,000. 


This parish was organized in November, 1873, and re- 
ceived into union with the Convention in 1880. The church 
was built in 1873. Rev. Isaac H. Tuttle filled the rectorship 
from November, 1873, to Easter, 1879, being at the same 
time rector of St. Luke's Church, New York City. During 
the same period Rev. Francis H. Stubbs had care of the par- 
ish as minister in charge. Rev. Arthur H. Warner was 
elected rector on Wednesday in Easter week, 1879, and ^^ the 
present incumbent. A rectory adjoining the church, and in 
corresponding material and architecture, was provided in 
1881. In 1880 a building was erected for the use of choir, 
vestry, and general parish purposes. The number of bap- 
tisms since organization is 359. The number who have re- 
ceived confirmation is 231. In 1874 there were 107 communi- 
cants ; in 1884, 320, and at present there are 325. The 
wardens first elected were Richard C. Greene and James B... 
Warner, who still fill the office. Previous to organization in 
1879 ^"d t^^ election of the first vestry, the parish had a pro- 
visional Board of Trustees to care for the interests of the 
parish ; Messrs. Cyrus Curtis, A. B. McDonald, Stephen P. 
Nash, Francis Pott, and Thomas P. Cummings. The church 
is a costly building of stone, Gothic in design, generously fur- 
nished with all the appurtenances of a well-ordered worship, 
and was given free from incumbrances to the parish and 
church in the diocese by Miss Caroline Talman, as a memorial, 
of her father and mother, John Hubell and Sarah Somerin- 
dyck Talman. Subsequently two other buildings have been 
added — a vestry and parish house, and a commodious rectory, 
erected at large cost and in architectural harmony with the 


church which they adjoin, both in material and design, both 
admirably furnished and also a gift from the same devoted 
daughter of the Church. Among the multiplied instances of 
individual munificence in the American Church, few indeed 
excel this foundation of the Parish of the Beloved Disciple, 
either in expenditure or completeness. Miss Talman also 
endowed the "John H. Talman Fellowship," connected with 
the General Theological Seminary, with a view, partly, of 
supplying perpetually a clergyman to assist in the services 
of the Church of the Beloved Disciple. 


Was organized in 1862. The first services were held in May, 
1861. The church was built in 1863. The rectors have been : 
Rev. William V. Feltwell, 1868; Rev. George Howell, 1871 ; 
Rev. Joshua Monsell, D.D., 1874, and Rev. John McCarthy 
Windsor, since 1885, and at present, incumbent. A rectory 
was procured in 1868. There is record of 108 baptisms and 
87 have received confirmation. The record of communicants 
is incomplete ; the present number is 52. The wardens in 
1862 were George W. Horton and Charles Stoltz, Jr. ; in 
1872, George W. Horton and E. L. Worden, and Jacob 
Ulmer, junior warden from 1882. The church lot was given 
by Mr. George W. Horton and his wife, Margaret, of City 
Island, and the church was erected largely under the generous 
auspices of the Misses Bolton, of Pelham Priory. For several 
years it was part of the property and under the control of 
Christ Church, Pelham, whose assistant minister resided on 
the island and officiated as its pastor. Thus, Rev. Mr. Bartow, 
Rev. Mr. Cheevers, and Rev. Mr. Feltwell were successively 
in charge, the latter becoming its rector in 1868. The records 
of the parish have been imperfectly kept ; and the testimony 
on which the above facts are based, gathered chiefly and 
necessarily from persons connected with both churches, is, in 
some respects, conflicting. 



Was organized April 24, 1882, up to which time it had been 
a chapel of St. James's, Hyde Park. The edifice was built in 
1858 by Mrs. Margaret Livingston, as a general chapel, and 
at different times was ministered to by clergymen of different 
denominations, until it became attached to the parish of St. 
James. The Rev. Thomas L. Cole was called as rector in 
1848, — his first pastoral charge, — and is now the incumbent. 
The rectory was built in 1885. Since organization there have 
been 89 baptisms and 32 have received confirmation. The 
present number of communicants is 64. The wardens are 
Maturin Livingston and Miles Hughes. 


This parish was received into union with the Convention 
in 1882. There is no report before the committee. In the 
Journal of 1885, Rev. W. E. Eigenbrodt, D.D., is reported 
" in charge," and the wardens, Solon Farrar and George G. 
Dudley. In this report, the wardens say: "The parish has 
made a strong fight for existence, and has been hindered in 
its progress for want of a resident rector." In 1882, Rev. 
John W. Kramer, M.D., is mentioned as rector, at which 
date there were 53 communicants; in 1885, there were 45. 
No other data are available. 


Was organized August 29, 1881, and the church edifice 
finished in the winter of 1880-81. From the first, Rev. R. 
Condit Russell had charge, in connection with his work at 
Somers and North Salem, until the Rev. Ralph Wood Ken- 
yon became rector, January 12, 1882. He remained until 
January 23, 1883. For a few months the Rev. Dr. Cushman 
succeeded as "supply." From November, 1883, to May, 
1885, Rev. Frank Heartfield had charge. Subsequently, 
ministrations were given by several clergymen until Septem- 
ber, 1886, when the present incumbent. Rev. Eli D. Sutcliffe, 


came to the parish as minister in charge. Since organization 
there have been 41 baptized and 27 confirmed. The present 
number of communicants is about 45. The first wardens 
were Seth B. Howe and Daniel Tillotson. At present the 
wardens are Seth B. Howe and Frank Wells. 


Was organized February 27, 1872. The church was built and 
opened September 20, 1861. The rectors have been Rev. 
Lewis K. Lewis, 1878, and Rev. C. W. Bolton, 1880, the 
present incumbent. The parish is now preparing to build a 
rectory. The parish records are very imperfect, but it appears 
that there have been 75 baptisms, and that 35 have been con- 
firmed. The present number of communicants is 56. The 
present wardens are J, R. Smith and William A. Leonard. 
When the present rector entered in charge, services were 
held only in the afternoon of Sundays. He at once opened 
with full morning and evening services, and the congregation 
has steadily increased. There is no other church organization 
in the place, so that all who profess and call themselves 
Christians attend and worship together. The general outlook 
is very encouraging, with promise of strong prospective 
growth, as the neighborhood is rapidly building up and has 
many points of advantage. 



This parish was organized March 18, 1883. As yet it is 
without a church building. The present and first rector is 
Rev. Edward Wallace-Niel. Since organization 163 baptisms 
have been administered, and 36 have received confirmation. 
The present number of communicants is 225. The wardens 
are S. Seabury Guion and George Zabriskie. Ground has 
been purchased for this parish on 109th Street, near Central 
Park, and it is hoped that the church edifice will be com- 
menced early in the summer. 



This parish was organized January i, 1876; a church was 
built in 1877, and a second in 1884. The rectors have been 
Rev. George Coutts Athole, founder of the parish and rector 
until his death, October 2, 1884; and Rev. Melancthon Lloyd 
Woolsey, rector since July, 1885. The records are defective. 
There appear to have been 78 baptisms ; there are no records 
of confirmations. The present number of communicants is 
about ICXD. The first wardens were John W. Brown and 
Peter J. Frederick ; those at present in office are L. P. Fuller 
and William E. Hows. The church has always been free. 
There is a mortgage debt of $13,861 resting on the church 
edifice, which is but half completed. 


Was organized June 2, 1879. The church edifice was built 
in 1872. The rectors or clergy in charge have been (no 
dates) : Revs. Reginald Heber Barnes, Charles Ferris, Wil- 
liam Hyde, Samuel Moore, and Aug. Ulmann, present incum- 
bent, under whose ministry a parish house was erected in 
1885. Since organization 57 have received baptism and 22 
have been confirmed. The present number of communicants 
is 89. The wardens in 1879 were John S. Newlin and Thomas 
Franklin, and in 1885, J. F. Bayer and Henry Steugel. The 
parish was reorganized in 1885, and admitted into union 
with the Diocesan Convention the same year. 


Was organized at Easter, 1884, although the church was built 
in 185 1. The Rev. William Creighton, D.D., was rector 
until his death, in 1865, and Rev. Edward N. Mead titular 
rector till October, 1877. Among the clergy who subse- 
quently officiated were : Rev. Dr. Eigenbrodt, Rev. Clar- 
ence Buel, Rev. Robert Holden, and Rev. John Buckmaster. 
Rev. A. H. Gessner became rector in 1882, and is present in- 
cumbent. The number of baptisms recorded is 180, and 50 


have received confirmation. The present number of commu- 
nicants is 27. The only wardens mentioned are George W. 
Cartwright and William M. Kingsland, in connection with 
the organization in 1884. This church, in excellent Gothic 
and built of stone, was erected by Dr. Creighton on a part 
of his estate. He officiated during the later years of his life. 
It consists of a nave, transept, and chancel, with stained win- 
dows throughout, with 150 sittings. At his decease the foun- 
der left by will to the diocese the church lot, and a glebe of 
two acres for a rectory; also a legacy of $5,000, the interest 
of which should be used towards the support of the rector. 
Mrs. Morell, a daughter of the founder, also bequeathed a 
legacy of $5,000 to St. Mary's Parish. 


The " Italian Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church" 
was organized on All Saints' Day, 1873, by the Rev. C. 
Stauder, the first clergyman of Italian birth in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of America, and conducted under the su- 
pervision of a committee of clergymen and laymen appointed 
by the bishop of the diocese. It worships according to the 
Prayer Book and Hymnal of the Church, translated and ar- 
ranged by the minister in charge. It has continued from the 
day of its commencement to the present day without inter- 
mission or suspension, counting a membership of more than 
1,100 members, nearly 700 of them confirmed by our bishop. 
Its headquarters are in Grace Chapel, 126 East Fourteenth 
Street, where solemn services are held in the Italian language 
every Sunday at 4 P.M. ; Sunday-school at 3.30 P.M. ; con- 
ferences Wednesday and Friday, at 11 A.M., and Holy Com- 
munion the first Sunday of every month at 11.30 A.M. The 
average number of communicants is 50. It has left behind 
schools, Sunday-schools and meeting-houses at several other 
points in and out of the city, to be conducted by other pious 
Christian individuals, who try to reach where a single clergy- 
man is ineffective. 



This parish, organized as a mission in 1854, was admitted 
into union with the Convention in 1885, and has been under 
the continuous rectorship of Rev. A. V. Clarkson, according 
to the records of the Convention Journal for 1885. There are 
no additional statistics. 


This parish, although, according to the Convention Journal 
for 1885, admitted into the union in 1853, does not appear in 
the diocesan list of churches until 1855. Rev. A. H. Partridge 
was the first rector, in 1855 ; a vacancy in 1856; Rev. E. B. 
Boggs, 1857-1863, since which date there is, apparently, an 
unbroken vacancy in the rectorship. There are no reports, 
and no additional statistics. 


No report has been received, and the church is not in union 
with the Convention. In 1885 Rev. Edward Ransford was 
priest in charge, and Cornelius Hardenbergh and Henry P. 
Delafield, wardens. The number of communicants was 24. 
The mission comprises a large district, including six villages 
more or less populous. 


This is not an organized parish. It was first occupied as 
a missionary station by Rev. Jas. Starr Clark, as the nucleus 
of an educational work. Subsequently, in the development 
of St. Stephen's College, this chapel (The Holy Innocents) 
became the college chapel, extending parochial and pastoral 
ministrations to the neighborhood. The first edifice was de- 
stroyed by fire in December, 1858, but it was rebuilt and 
consecrated February 3, i860. It has been constantly under 
the pastoral charge of the wardens of St. Stephen's College : 
Rev. G. F. Seymour, M.A., missionary from 185 5-1 860, and 
warden of St. Stephen's to September, 1861 ; Rev. Thomas 


Richey, M.A., from 1861 to 1863, and Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, 
D.D., LL.D., from 1863, and present warden. There is a 
Sunday school-house which was used for ten years. It is 
now used for a Sunday-school, and also for the purposes of 
the college. Since the foundation 568 baptisms are recorded, 
and 268 have received confirmation. The number of com- 
municants, apart from the college, is 50. There are neither 
wardens nor vestry of a parochial organization. The wardens 
of St. Stephen's have charge, ex officio. The chapel was 
built by Mr. and Mrs. John Bard, after excellent designs 
by Frank Wills. The material is stone from Ulster County, 
across the river, and an illuminated text over the porch 
within is the keynote of its meaning : " The palace is not 
for man, but for the Lord God." This motto was selected by 
the first missionary-warden, and was the text of the sermon 
preached by Bishop Horatio Potter at the consecration. Its 
erection marked the initial step in the work of religious 
training and education, so munificently conducted by Mr. 
John Bard, Mrs. Margaret Johnston Bard, and Mr. John Lloyd 
Aspinwall. In connection with the chapel and parochial 
work, the Brotherhood of St. Peter was organized by Rev. 
Walter Delafield, D.D., in 1864, while an undergraduate. It 
undertook to see that every person within two miles of the 
college should not suffer for want of the necessaries of life, 
and that they should be encouraged to attend worship at the 
chapel. The Free Church of St. John the Evangelist, at 
Barrytown, built by Mrs. Aspinwall as a memorial of her hus- 
band, John L. Aspinwall, was a result of this association. 


This parish is not in union with the Convention. The 
Rev. Henry Mottet is priest in charge and Rev. Ernest Voor- 
his, deacon. There are 50 families and 250 individuals in 
the charge. There are 6 communicants. St. John's, consist- 
ing of a handsome stone church, school-house, and parsonage, 
is the gift and is maintained at the cost of a single individual, 
in memory of a dear departed one, among a people unable to 
maintain the ministrations of the Church. A resident deacon. 


a lady who has had large experience in ministering among the 
poor, and an assistant teacher, devote their whole time to the 
work of this parish. 


This parish is not in union with the Convention. In 1885 
Rev. Peter Claude Creveling was rector and missionary, and 
Ira H. Lawton and William J. Close, wardens. The communi- 
cants are 122 in number. 


The Lewisboro parish of St. John's Church lies in the 
north-eastern part of Westchester County, and borders for 
several miles upon the State of Connecticut. The ancient 
designation of the country thereabouts appears to have been 
Lower Salem, and later South Saletn^ but in 1840 and in honor 
of the late John Lewis, Esq., who had shown himself mindful 
of its welfare, the name of the township was changed to Lewis- 
boro. There is record of the performance of Divine service 
within the bounds of the parish for many years prior to the 
Declaration of American Independence. The Venerable 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
cared for the field. Here labored the Rev. Ebenezer Dibblee, 
rector of St. John's Church, in the colony of Connecticut, who 
looked upon Salem as belonging in part to his cure ; and the 
parish of St. Paul 's, Norwalk, in the same colony, was thoughtful 
of the spiritual interests of the people. Here officiated the 
brothers Caner and Johnson, earliest president of King's Col- 
lege, and Beach, of beloved memory, and Leaming, the first 
choice for the primacy of the American Church. In 1771 the 
Rev. Epenetus Townsend began his ministry in the place, and 
the zealous churchmen of the parish completed the erection of 
their first church edifice " of the very best oak-timber," 
staunchly braced throughout, and strongly secured. It stood 
about one and a half miles south-east of the present St. John's 
Church, South Salem, and distant less than a furlong from the 
present Connecticut State line. Within its walls the word was 
preached and the sacraments duly administered until that 


July Lord's Day, in 1776,* on which, at the hour of evening 
prayer, a company of men, with weapons loaded and bayo- 
nets pointed, and marching to the sound of drum and fife, 
entered the hallowed house, and at the offering of the petition 
for the royal family, ordered the clergyman, the Rev. Mr. 
Townsend, to stop. Shutting the Prayer Book he at once left 
the desk, and from that time thirty-four years down, the pon- 
derous iron latch which fastened the outside door was not 
lifted to admit for the purpose of public worship. In 1810 
the parish seems to have undergone reorganization in some 
sort. From October 15th of that year dates the Rev. Mather 
Felch's incumbency, and that of Rev. George Weller from 
1816, and services were with greater or less regularity main- 
tained until 1852, when one whose labors of love are to this 
day held in affectionate esteem by the Lewisboro folks and in 
the neighborhood adjacent to them, the late Rev. Alfred H. 
Partridge, assumed charge, and succeeded in repairing the 
breaches which time had caused, and in rebuilding the parish 
church, and renewing the former parish vigor. Mr. Partridge 
was followed in 1855 by the Rev. Franklin Babbitt, and he in 
1859 by ^^ R^v. David Scott, and he in 1861 by the Rev. 
Angus M. Ives, and he in 1868 by the Rev. Robert Bolton of 
deservedly grateful remembrance. Mr. Bolton's connection 
with Lewisboro marked an era in its history, and, ardently de- 
voted to his work, he accomplished much. Small as com- 
munities similar to that of Lewisboro are, still are they usually 
large enough to allow of divisions in Christian sentiment, but 
Mr. Bolton won the people's hearts and did that which it 
would be difficult to improve upon. In 1871 the centennial 
anniversary of the building and opening of the first church, 
the corner-stone of the new St. Paul's Church in Lower Lewis- 
boro was laid by Bishop Potter. A large number of the 
clergy and laity assembled, and the occasion was one not soon 
to be forgotten. The site of the new church is an eminence 
the extensive view from which terminates in the distant 
Connecticut hills on the north and east, and the waters of 

* See Bolton's History of Westchester County, Vol. I., page 421. 


Long Island Sound far to the south. The John Lewis dona- 
tion embraces this site and that also of the adjoining parson- 
age, consisting of rectory and chapel, which cost between six 
and seven thousand dollars. The gift includes, in addition, 
about forty-eight acres of glebe-land. 

The decease in October, 1871, of the liberal benefactor of 
the parish, and before all that had been designed was consum- 
mated, has somewhat crippled the work at Lewisboro. The 
Rev. Robert Bolton was succeeded in the care of the parish 
by the Rev. Zina B. Doty, and he by the Rev. Alexander 
Hamilton, and he since January, 1884, by the Rev. C. M. 



In Canon Overton's Life in the English Church (1660- 
1714) he observes: "An important feature in the Church life 
of the period and a sure symptom of its vigor, may be found 
in the many (religious and philanthropic) societies which were 
then founded and flourished ; " and as illustrations he men- 
tions : The Societies for the Reformation of Manners ; the 
Religious Societies for Young Men ; the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge ; the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, parochial libraries, 
charity schools, Chelsea and Greenwich Hospitals, Morton's 
College for Merchants fallen into Decay, being honest, sober, 
and discreet members of the Church of England, and others. 
The record is interesting, if only because it shows how largely 
our ancestors anticipated, and at least outlined a department 
of the Church's work which has become more conspicuous 

Of this work little was done in New York during the first 
half of the century just ended. The Church in America was 
weak, and though relatively stronger in New York City than 
elsewhere, had there, too, the task of laying foundations and 
of maintaining the struggling life of the outlying parishes of 
the diocese. Still, as the pages which immediately follow will 
show, a beginning was made, and when greater prosperity 
came there were men with wisdom enough to recognize the 
opportunity, and with courage enough to improve it. They 
rest from their labors, priest and layman, many of them, but 
" their works do follow them ; " and New York has no more 
honorable feature in its diocesan history than the large con- 
secration of wealth and energy to the organization and main- 
tenance of works of education, mercy, and charity. In an age 
with new emergencies men have seen the Church translating 


her Master's message into a " language understanded," verily, 
" of the common people ; " and with a vision as broad as her 
commission to minister to every creature, leaving no class out- 
side the reach of her all-encompassing beneficence. 

As a consequence of this, there has been developed during 
the latter part of the century which ended with the year 1885, 
a measure of lay co-operation, to which the records which fol- 
low abundantly testify. As a story of beneficent beginnings 
no part of this volume can well be more significant. The 
hope of the Church is in the co-operative endeavor of all her 
children. With this secured to her, her future under God is 
not doubtful. H. C. P. 


This school was founded, in connection with Trinity 
Church, in the year 1709, by the "Venerable Society (in 
London) for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts." The 
first building erected for its accommodation was built by 
Trinity Church, on grounds contiguous to the church edifice. 
This was destroyed by fire as soon as completed, and a 
second structure was speedily erected. 

In 1800, the school was endowed by Trinity Church, and 
was made a separate institution, under its own board of trus- 
tees. In 1806, it was incorporated by act of the Legislature 
of New York. In 1827, by an act of the Legislature, the 
school corporation received its present name, '* THE New 
York Protestant Episcopal Public School," and was 
authorized to establish and maintain schools or departments 
for instruction in English literature, mathematics, philosophy, 
and classical learning. 

In 1832, it received a further grant from Trinity Church, 
and a commodious building was erected on the corner of 
Canal and Varick Streets. This was occupied until 1857. 
Then, in consequence of the growth of the city, it was 
deemed advisable to seek a location farther up-town. 

Circumstances have delayed the intended erection of a 
building suited to the school's requirements, and it has been 


accommodated temporarily in rooms hired for the purpose. 
Its present location is 15 17 Broadway, 

The work of Trinity School consists in the religious, 
moral, and intellectual training of boys of the Church. To 
the younger and less advanced pupils, elementary instruction 
is imparted. To those of sufficient proficiency, the higher 
instruction is given in classics, mathematics, etc., fitting them 
for college, and, in some special instances, for the Theological 
Seminary. The number of scholars on the foundation is 72. 

The present rector, the Rev. Robert Holden, entered 
upon his duties in 1863. Among the alumni of the school 
are many of the clergy and several of the bishops. 

NEW YORK. 1769. 

This corporation was founded September 29, 1769, by 
royal charter, issued by George III., King of England. The 
work it has to do is to furnish relief to widows and children 
of clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the State 
of New York, who, according to existing laws, have been 
contributors of $8 per annum to the funds of the corpora- 
tion. The corporation has not, nor does it need, any build- 
ing or structure for carrying out its prescribed work. 

Historical Memoranda. — The last meeting of the 
corporation before the Revolution was held in Philadelphia, 
October 4, 1775. The first meeting after the Revolution was 
held in New York, October 5, 1784. The Rev. Dr. William 
Smith was the first president ; the Rev. Benjamin Moore the 
first secretary. Mr. J. Alsop was treasurer for New York, 
Mr. J. M. Wallace for New Jersey, Mr. Samuel Powel for 
Pennsylvania. Dr. Smith having resigned, " on account of 
his advanced age," the Rt. Rev. Bishop White was elected 
president in 1789. In the act of the Legislature (1798), estab- 
lishing " The Corporation for Relief," etc., in New York, the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Provoost was made the first president of the 


corporation ; the Rev. Dr. Benj. Moore, secretary ; Mr. W. 
Rutherford, treasurer. The Rev. Dr. Moore (bishop, 1801) 
was elected president in 1800, and Bishop Hobart in 1812. 
Since 1816, the Bishop of New York has been president of 
the corporation, ex officio. The Legislature of New York, in 
February, 1797, passed an "Act to amend the Charter of the 
Corporation for the Relief of the Widows and Children of 
Clergymen in the Communion of the Church of England, in 
America," by which the name or style thenceforward was to 
be, " The Corporation for the Relief of the Widows and 
Children of Clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States of America." In March, 1798, the 
Legislature passed an act establishing " a new corporation 
within this State." From this date, the Corporation for 
Relief, etc., in New York, dates its proper history. By " An 
Agreement," ratified November 27, 1806, it was arranged 
that the funds of the original corporation should be equitably 
divided, as follows : Whole amount, $26,485 ; of which New 
Jersey was entitled to $4,289; Pennsylvania, $10,390 ; New 
York, $11,806. With this capital, the funds of the corpora- 
tion in New York have increased, by good investments and 
liberal donations and bequests, during the past seventy years, 
to over $230,000. 

Treasurers of the corporation : the Rev. Dr. T. B. 
Chandler, 1769-1774; Walter Rutherford, 1798-1811 ; Peter 
A. Jay, 1812-1842 ; G. G. Van Wagenen, 1843-1857 ; William 
Betts, 1858-1872; R. M. Harison, 1873.— Meetings of the 
corporation were held from year to year, but the records are 
sadly defective. All the minutes from 1769 to 1775 are lost, 
as are also minutes of seven years between 1798 and 1810, 
and of the years 1817 to 1838 inclusive. Since 1839, how- 
ever, the minutes have been guarded with care and are com- 

In 1852, owing to loss of records by fire or otherwise 
previous to 1839, i^ was deemed best to have a formal election 
of members, both clerical and lay. The lists preserved show : 
1789, clerical members, 18, lay, 64=82; 1808, clerical mem- 
bers, 22, lay, 32 = 54; 1852, clerical members, 19, lay, 8=27; 


1867, clerical members, 65, lay, 12=77; 1877, clerical mem- 
bers, 58, lay, 8=66; 1882, clerical members, 51, lay, 8=59; 
1882, contributors to the fund, not members of the corpora- 
tion, 58. 

Officers of the Corporation (All Saints* Day, 
1885).— Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., presi- 
dent, ex officio ; Rt. Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D.D., 
LL.D., senior vice-president, ex officio; Rt. Rev. Abram 
Newkirk Littlejohn, D.D., LL.D., second vice-president, 
ex officio ; Rt. Rev, William Croswell Doane, D.D., LL.D., 
third vice-president, ex officio ; Rt. Rev. Frederic Dan Hunt- 
ington, D.D,, fourth vice-president, ex officio ; Rev. Joseph 
H. Price, D.D., vice-president (annually elected) ; Rev. Jesse 
Ames Spencer, S.T.D., secretary ; Richard M. Harison, 
Esq., treasurer. Cadwalader C. Ogden, Esq., Henry Drisler, 
LL.D., Charles C. Haight, Esq., Rev. Thomas M. Peters, 
D.D., Rev. William N. Dunnell, together with the president, 
treasurer, and secretary, standing committee. 


This society (known at first as the Bible and Common 
Prayer Book Society) was founded in 1809 by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Hobart. It was incorporated under its present name 
in 1841, and has for its work the distribution of Bibles, New 
Testaments, and Prayer Books. It has no building of its 
own, but its head-quarters are at Mr. James Pott's, 14 Astor 
Place. This society is one of the oldest in the country for 
the free distribution of the Word of God, dating back beyond 
the formation of the American Bible Society. In Prayer 
Books it has published translations in German, French, Span- 
ish, and in the Dakota language. The work of this society 
is not confined to New York by any means, for it supplies 
Bibles and Prayer Books to all parts of the United States, 
and distributes more than 50,000 volumes annually. 




This society was founded in 1809 by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Hobart. It has for its work the free distribution of religious 
literature in the form of tracts and volumes of various sizes. 
It has no building of its own, but its publications are on 
hand at and distributed from No. 14 Astor Place, the office 
of the society's agent, Mr. James Pott. In the carrying out 
of its work this society publishes and sends forth chiefly 
Church tracts, as well in defense of the faith held by the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, a branch of the One Holy Catholic 
and Apostolic Church of Christ, as for the promotion of godly 
living and obedience to the Master. It has distributed of 
late years, on an average, 500,000 to 700,000 pages annually. 


The General Theological Seminary of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church is the creation of the General Convention, 
and must continue always under its control. It owes its 
existence to the necessity, which was felt by those who 
organized the Church in this country, of having an institution 
for the education of its candidates for Holy Orders, which 
should be under the supervision, and meet the wants, not 
merely of the Church in any one diocese, but of the Church 
at large. As early as 1814 the General Convention, urged 
thereto by the Convention of the Diocese of South Carolina, 
appointed a joint committee of both houses to take into con- 
sideration and report a plan for the institution of a Theo- 
logical Seminary. Bishop Moore of Virginia, and Bishop 
Hobart of New York, had already directed their efforts to the 
same purpose. In 1817 the General Convention, after an 
able report of this joint committee, adopted in both Houses 
a series of resolutions, drafted by Bishop Dehon, of South 
Carolina, declaring it " expedient to establish, for the better 
education of the candidates for Holy Orders in this Church, 
a General Theological Seminary, which may have the united 
support of the whole Church in these United States, and be 


under the superintendence and control of the General Con- 
vention," locating this seminary in the city of New York, 
and appointing a committee to devise a plan for establishing 
and carrying it into operation as soon as sufficient funds 
should be subscribed for the purpose. Thus, as the Rev. 
Dr. Samuel R. Johnson quaintly writes, " It was in the city 
of New York, in Trinity Church, on Tuesday, the 27th of 
May, 1817, in the morning, that the General Theological 
Seminary was born.'' 

The plan was earnestly supported by the bishops and the 
leading clergy of the Church. Bishop White expressed "his 
own anxious desire, and that of his brethren the other bish- 
ops, for the success of the enterprise." Bishop Hobart 
described the appeal for funds to establish it, in an address 
to his convention, as " no ordinary call on the liberality of 
Episcopalians," and exhorted each of the laymen of his dio- 
cese, when called on for a subscription, to ** consider that he 
was to make his contribution to an object of more importance 
to the interests of religion and the Church, than any other 
for which he can be solicited, and which, therefore, demanded 
the largest exercise of beneficence." 

In 1818, a plan sketched by Bishop White and Bishop 
Hobart was adopted, foreshadowing the institution and its 
several professorships as they exist to-day. Shortly after 
this Dr. Clement C. Moore of New York, offered his munifi- 
cent gift of the ground on which the seminary now stands, on 
condition that its buildings should be erected thereon. The 
Rev. Drs. Turner and Jarvis were appointed professors, and 
the institution opened in May, 18 19, with a class of six stu- 
dents, among whom were the late Bishops Doane and 
Eastburn and the Rev. Dr. Dorr, of Philadelphia. The 
students met the professors first in a room in St. Paul's 
Chapel, afterward in the vestry-room of St. John's Chapel, 
and then in a building on the north-west corner of Broadway 
and Cedar Street. In 1820, in consequence of the difficulty 
of procuring sufficient funds to support the seminary in New 
York, it was removed by the General Convention to New 
Haven. The Bishop and the deputies from the Diocese of New 


York gave their reluctant consent to this removal, only on 
the understanding that steps would be immediately taken 
for the establishment of a diocesan school in the city of New 
York. With characteristic energy Bishop Hobart, in less than 
six months, opened his diocesan school. The death, how- 
ever, of Mr. Jacob Sherred, of New York, in 1821, leaving 
a noble legacy of $60,000 for a seminary in New York, gave 
the General Convention an opportunity to correct a mistake 
which would have proved fatal to the continuance of the 
seminary as a general institution of the Church, and to re- 
move it back from New Haven to New York. 

Thus the great question of one general seminary, to be 
permanently established in New York, was finally decided 
and practically settled. The decision was largely due to 
Bishop Hobart's far-seeing wisdom and sagacious judgment. 
His position required him to weigh carefully the whole ques- 
tion of diocesan schools or one general institution; and he 
foresaw from the outset that if the seminary was to continue 
the General Seminary it must be located in the city of New 
York. In this view, as well as in the development of his 
plans for its organization, the procuring its charter, and 
adopting its constitution, he was sustained and aided by lay- 
men whose legal ability has rarely been equaled, and never 
surpassed in the history of this city. As has been well said, 
"Jurisprudence culminated in New York in the time of 
Bishop Hobart. There were the Chancellors Kent and 
Jones ; Justices Livingston, Thompson, Van Ness, Irving, 
and Colden ; the Ogdens, Hoffmans, Wells, Emmetts, Spen- 
cers, Harisons, Verplanck, Troup, Johnson, Duane, Clarkson, 
and others ; men of the highest professional attainments, 
admirers of Bishop Hobart, and he in friendly, social inter- 
course with them. Rufus King, too, was particularly intimate 
with the bishop. It is seldom that such legal ability and 
practical knowledge can be readily resorted to as that which 
the bishop was in a condition to avail himself of. An endur- 
ing monument remains. In the charter, constitution and 
statutes, indeed, in the whole structure of the seminary, may 
be seen the impress of minds which knew what they were 


about, foreseeing and providing for contingencies, which, 
however unexpected, failed not to happen. Those who have 
had occasion to look carefully into these documents may have 
been surprised at the forecast and prudence which seemed to 
have prepared for exigencies, and to find when unexpected 
dangers have threatened that the interests of the institution 
were protected already. Even when a vote of the General 
Convention was procured for some fundamental alterations, 
it was found upon investigation, that the thing could not be 
done ; that the institution was a General Seminary, settled in 
that position at its origin under circumstances which drew out 
and tasked the greatest and best efforts of the best and great- 
est minds then extant, as well in the legal and financial, as in 
ecclesiastical and devotional departments of thought." To 
such men we owe, under God, the existence to-day of " The 
General Theological Seminary of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States." 

Thus constituted, the seminary was reopened with 23 
students, in New York, February 13, 1822. An introduc- 
tory address was delivered by Bishop Hobart in Trinity 
Church, and the classes were assembled in the rooms of 
Trinity School, on the north-east corner of Canal and Varick 
Streets — an arrangement which was continued until they 
removed to the present East Building on the seminary 
grounds. Churchmen did not, however, respond to appeals 
in its behalf as liberally as was expected. Notwithstanding 
earnest efforts on the part of the friends of the institution, 
funds came in but slowly. Still, the number of students seek- 
ing to avail themselves of its privileges, and the hope that 
the erection of a building to insure its permanency would 
awaken greater interest in the seminary, induced the trustees 
to enter into contracts for the erection of what is now known 
as the East Building. The corner-stone was laid by Bishop 
White, on the 28th day of July, 1825, in the presence of the 
professors, students, and a large assemblage of citizens. At 
that time the site was a rural one, far removed from the noise 
and bustle of the now crowded city, and looked out on the 
noble Hudson, whose waters then came east of the present 


Tenth Avenue. It was, however, then, as now, noted for 
being one of the healthiest portions of the island on which 
the city is built, and was recommended by a committee of the 
Board of Trustees, of which Bishop Bowen was chairman, as 
affording an open and salubrious retreat to those clergy and 
others devoted to the study of theology, who in the summer 
wished to retire from the city. 

The trustees soon discovered that the erection of this 
building, without waiting for sufficient funds to complete it, 
was a serious financial mistake. It embarrassed the institu- 
tion, and compelled them in the following year to take the 
" painful but necessary " step of reducing the already small 
salaries of the professors. Unfortunately, at this period the 
munificent legacy of Mr. Frederick Kohne, of Philadelphia, 
was made known by his death. Unfortunately for the semi- 
nary, because Church people, unmindful of the fact that the 
legacy was subject to a life interest which would delay its 
payment, and did delay it for twenty-four years, seemed to 
think that it at once rendered the seminary independent of 
all external aid, and immediately began to slacken their 
efforts and to withhold contributions so urgently required — 
thus allowing the future legacy to become a cause of " present 
impoverishment." Added to this source of embarrassment, 
the land presented by Dr. Clement C. Moore was burdened 
from time to time with heavy assessments, caused by the 
growth of the city, and a very considerable expenditure of 
money was required to fill in the water lots adjoining it on 
the west. The latter, though seriously crippling the seminary 
in the past, will hereafter more than repay all that has been 
expended upon them, and prove a valuable source of income, 
though by no means so large as some have supposed. 

Meanwhile the expenses of the seminary went regularly 
on, the increase of students requiring an additional outlay to 
provide another building for their accommodation, and while 
Church people withheld their contributions in the expecta- 
tion that the Kohne legacy, when it came, would provide all 
that was required, funds which would otherwise have been 
retained as a permanent endowment were gradually but 


steadily absorbed in meeting the daily wants of the institution. 
When we add to this the excitement which was created by 
the unfortunate party spirit which was aroused in those days, 
of which the seminary was too often made the battle-ground, 
it is a marvel that its doors were not closed, and this wise 
and noble foundation, which our fathers bequeathed to us, 
lost to the Church. But all honor to whom honor is due. 
At the time when there was not a dollar in the treasury to 
pay its professors, clergymen of distinction and learning came 
forward and voluntarily gave their services to the institution. 
And the Churchman of to-day, who takes the trouble to study 
its past history, while he may feel mortified at the meager 
pittances which this, his chief school of the prophets, has paid 
to its professors, in comparison with the salaries paid in other 
institutions of learning, will also feel an honest pride as he 
compares the personal character and literary qualifications of 
those who have filled its professorial chairs with those of the 
most richly endowed institutions in our country. Not to 
speak of its present Faculty, a body which the present writer 
does not hesitate to say, in learning, ability, and devotion, 
will not suffer by comparison with any other theological fac- 
ulty in the land, where shall we look for superior instructors 
in Biblical Interpretation to the learned Turner and Seabury, 
or in Systematic Divinity to the accurate, judicial Wilson and 
the self-devoted Johnson, or in Pastoral Theology to Bishops 
Hobart and Onderdonk and Dr. Haight, or in Ecclesiastical 
History to the consecrated learning of Bishop Whittingham, 
and Drs. Ogilby, Mahan, and Seymour? A brighter galaxy 
of distinguished divines cannot be found in the annals of the 
American Church. And it is no small part of the noble 
heritage of our General Seminary that men such as these, 
whose names will be held in honor as long as our Church 
shall last, should have devoted the best years of their lives 
to its service. 


Whatever may be said in behalf of Diocesan Divinity 
Schools for the benefit of particular localities and particular 


interests, and to meet the wants of different sections of this 
vast country, they never can supply the superior advantages 
or take the place of a General Seminary. The able, far-seeing 
founders of the General Seminary knew that both would be 
necessary in their place, and made provision in the original 
constitution for branch schools to be established in various 
localities. Still the General Seminary will always offer advan- 
tages superior to those of any local institution, to which 
we may be allowed to refer. 

Placed, as it is, under the government of the whole 
Church, every bishop having visitorial power, it protects its 
students from narrow and extreme views. The via media is 
secured by the very structure of the institution. "A diocesan 
school will naturally (as the venerable Dr. Edson remarks) 
take its cue from its bishop or other local circumstances of 
influence. And if a young man wishes to be educated for a 
particular diocese, and be patterned after a particular bishop, 
he may properly prefer the local school. But if he wants a 
more general type of churchmanship and of ministerial cult- 
ure, he will find his way to the General Seminary; or even 
if he intends to strike off into one ideal religion, the general 
course will give him a better point to start from, and will put 
him in a position for a far better appreciation of the whole 
subject and a better conception of his favorite idea. The 
general institution is wonderfully constructed for firmness 
and moderation. This is most happily illustrated in the even 
and moderate course which the seminary preserved through 
the agitations and the panic of 1844. With what intelligence 
and steadfastness the Faculty of that day stood on the firm 
foundations of truth and breasted the storm was known to 
observers at the time, and is better appreciated now than then. 
The position could not have been sustained, nor even taken, 
by any Diocesan Divinity School in this Church." Again, the 
General Seminary will always attract the largest proportion 
of the candidates for Holy Orders, and from this fact alone 
be able to offer them superior advantages. Already it has 
had at times under its care nearly one-half of all the candi- 
dates in all the dioceses of our Church, and the proportion is 


likely to increase rather than to diminish in the future. In 
such an institution will be found the highest type of the 
theological education of the time. A central point for the 
whole Church — with every diocese represented in its Board of 
Trustees, and every bishop having an official interest in its 
welfare, its course of study mapped out by the House of 
Bishops — it is certain, unless the Church fails in her duty, to 
send out from year to year able ministers of the New Testa- 
ment, amply furnished with a sound theology and thoroughly 
fitted with " things old and new " to do the Master's work in 
this sin-stricken and sorrowing world. 


The seminary was founded, and must be conducted as long 
as its charter and constitution remain, on a basis as broad 
and comprehensive as the Church itself. Any effort to make 
it serve and advance the interests of a party must necessarily 
come to naught. The General Convention elects its Board 
of Trustees. Every diocese is entitled to representation in 
the Board. The course of study is prescribed by the House 
of Bishops. And each bishop of the Church is not only ex 
officio a trustee, but made by the constitution a visitor of the 
seminary, with all the powers that that involves. Among its 
trustees there are Churchmen of every shade of opinion. In 
its Standing Committee are to be found the Rev. Dr. Dix 
and the Rev. Dr. Dyer, working side by side in perfect har- 
mony, and only vieing with each other in the desire to pro- 
mote its interests and to enable it to raise the standard of 
clerical education in our country. This is the spirit which 
animates all who are now in authority in it. Witness the 
efforts which have been made of late to bring to bear upon 
the students the impress of the ablest minds in the Church of 
all schools of thought, and impart to their future lives a 
breadth which can never be secured within any narrow party 
lines. Among the lecturers appointed within the last few 
years to address the students have been Bishops Williams, 
Coxe, Littlejohn, Huntington, McLaren, and Harris, the Rev. 
Drs. Washburn and John Cotton Smith, Professors Drisler, 


Short, Egleston, and Morris, and the Hon. Judge Shea; while 
among the occasional preachers invited during the same 
period to preach in the chapel of the institution are to be 
found such men as the Rev. Drs. Dix, Potter, Hall, Swope, 
Courtney, Snively, Cooke, Shackelford, McKim, Mulchahey, 
Houghton, Schenck, Abercrombie, Beach, and Tiffany. Noth- 
ing is needed but a united effort to secure endowments which 
will make it, what it was designed to be by its founders, the 
great central School of the Prophets to our whole Church. 


To understand its present financial condition and how 
sorely it is crippled for want of endowment, it is necessary to 
go a little into details and to give the exact figures. Happily 
we are enabled to do this the more readily by referring to a 
very careful and most exhaustive report recently prepared by 
the Standing Committee. From this report it appears, after 
a thorough examination of the records, that net a single dol- 
lar of its trust funds has ever been lost. Of the thousands of 
dollars which have been handled by its treasurers during the 
more than sixty years of its existence, a comparatively small 
amount of a legacy left for general purposes was lost by an 
investment which turned out badly in consequence of the 
financial panic by which it was followed. Where is there an 
institution in the land which can point to a better, we had 
almost said as good, a financial record ? 

But to make assurance doubly sure, to surround the care 
of the trust funds hereafter with every precaution which 
human wisdom and experience can suggest, and to remove 
even th,e temptation to apply their income to any other pur- 
poses than those for which they were specifically given, the 
Board of Trustees at its last meeting embodied in the statutes 
the admirable plan, which was adopted first by our General 
Board of Missions, and afterwards in several of the largest 
charitable corporations in our country, of placing all trust 
funds in the hands of a special committee, composed mostly 
of laymen of acknowledged financial ability, who give con- 
stant attention to their care, and report all their acts to the 


Standing Committee every two months. It is doubtful 
whether any more perfect plan can be devised for their safe 
keeping. Not a dollar of these funds can ever be misapplied 
unless by the criminal collusion of three individuals, each of 
whom is selected because of his reputation for business in- 
tegrity. In the hands of this committee the trust funds of 
the seminary, amounting to $387,698.54, are now placed. 
With the exception of $63,078.78 of the scholarship endow- 
ments, which are secured, largely by the consent of the 
donors, by the leasehold property of the seminary west of 
the Tenth Avenue, these trust funds are all safely invested in 
bonds and mortgages on real estate worth double the amount 
of the sum invested, or in bonds of undoubted stability and 
strength which were given by the original donors with direc- 
tions that they should be retained. The interest on these 
endowments, with the revenue derived from the real estate 
west of the Tenth Avenue, constitute the only reliable income 
on which the seminary can depend to carry on its varied and 
most important work of supporting and educating a large 
proportion of the candidates for Holy Orders in our Church. 
The seminary, while for sixty years it was greatly re- 
stricted in its scope on account of inadequate resources, was 
yet from the beginning the recipient of many benefactions. 
The donations with which it has been favored are as follows: 
Sixty lots of ground by Mr. C. C. Moore ; $60,000, legacy by 
Mr. Jacob Sherred ; $100,000, legacy by Mr. Kohne, of Phila- 
delphia, not realized for twenty-four years ; $20,000, legacy 
by Mr. George Lorillard, New York; $25,000, gift of Mr. 
Peter G. Stuyvesant, New York; $1,000, special gift to the 
library by Mrs. Margaret Pendleton; $3,000, gift of Mrs. 
Pendleton for general purposes ; $4,000, gift to the library by 
Trinity Church ; $5,000, contributions for the library secured 
by Bishop Doane and Rev. Drs. McVickar and Anthon ; 
$5,000, for library, by Society for Promoting Religion and 
Learning; $25,000, endowment of Professorship of Pastoral 
Theology, by the late Samuel Verplanck Hoffman ; $25,000, 
by the alumni, to endow Professorship of Revealed Religion ; 
$25,000, by Miss Elizabeth Ludlow, to found and endow the 


Charles and Elizabeth Ludlow Professorship of Ecclesiastical 
Polity and Law; $10,000, raised by Dean Seymour for 
improvements in the chapel, library, and seminary generally. 
$8,000, legacy by Miss Elizabeth Ludlow; $100,000 by the 
widow and children of Samuel Verplanck Hoffman to endow 
Office of Dean ; $10,000 by Mr. George A. Jarvis, of Brook- 
lyn, to endow the Bishop Paddock Lectureship ; $50,000, by 
general subscription, to build Sherred Hall ; $57,000 by an 
individual donor, to build the new library building and fur- 
nish it ; $30,000 by general subscription, to build Pintard 
and Dehon Halls, of which $7,500 was the individual gift of 
Anson G. P. Dodge; $25,000, to build the deanery now in 
process of erection ; $10,000 from Miss Caroline Talman, to 
found the John H. Talman Fellowship ; $10,000 from heirs of 
Tracy R. Edson, to endow Instruction in Elocution, etc. ; 
$10,000 from Miss Edson to add to the above; $50,000, 
William H. Vanderbilt legacy. The endowments yielding a 
revenue now amount to $387,698.54, invested in bonds and 
mortgages. The income from the Hoffman Foundation, 
endowing the Office of Dean, is by direction of the donors 
accumulating for the benefit of the seminary. Under the 
new system the trust funds are kept by a board of five trus- 
tees, and only the income is paid to the treasurer. 

Let us estimate what the seminary needs to enable it to 
do its work with its present staff. In making this estimate it 
must be remembered that as a charitable institution it has no 
income from its students, but must rely entirely on the inter- 
est of its endowments. We should not put the salaries of the 
dean and professors at less than $4,000 each. In neighboring 
literary institutions they would receive about double this sum 
for the same amount of work. 

Salaries of the dean and six professors $28,000 

Scholarships (for aiding indigent students) 4,000 

Supplies and repairs 3,000 

Care and increase of the library 2,000 

Employes and sundry expenses 2,000 

Taxes and charges on real estate 3,000 

Total $42,000 


To meet these expenses it has at present : 

Interest on endowments (less fellowship, lectureship, and prize 

endowments) say $12,775 00 

Gross revenue from real estate last year 10,016 49 

Additional revenue if all the vacant lots were at present leased 6,000 00 

Total $28,791 49 

The seminary, therefore, requires, to pay its present staff 
of professors even the above moderate salaries and to carry 
on its work on the present scale, without any enlargement, 
upwards of $13,000 additional income per annum, or the in- 
terest of $300,000. Of course it must not be understood that 
such a deficiency is now annually incurred. The institution 
at present pays its professors only an average salary of about 
$1,800 per annum. 

The following endowments, which may bear for all time 
the names of the donors or any names they may select, are 
those most needed: 

For the Professorship of Systematic Divinity $50,000 

For the Professorship of Biblical Learning 50,000 

For the Professorship of Hebrew and Greek Languages 50,000 

For the Professorship of Ecclesiastical History (now partly endowed). . . . 25,000 
For the Instructor in Reading the Church Service and Delivery of 

Sermons 15,000 

For five fellowships, each 15,000 

For lectureships each, at least 10,000 

For scholarships, to aid students without means, each from $2,000 to 5,000 

Fund to increase and care for the library. 

Fund for general endowment. 

Fund to erect a suitable chapel, a library building, a refectory and lecture-rooms 

and additional dormitories. (One or all of these buildings might be made 

memorial buildings, and bear the name of the donor or of one whose memory 

it is desired to preserve.) 
And lastly, as the charter provides, a fund to found and maintain a home or 

retreat for aged and infirm clergymen of the graduates of the seminary. 

If these needs of the seminary seem to any one to be 
large, let him remember that it can never receive, like other 
literary institutions, any income from its students. Its work 
being wholly eleemosynary, it is compelled to rely on the 
income arising from its endowments to support and educate 


at present about one hundred candidates for Holy Orders. In 
the near future it will probably be required to make provision 
for twice this number. 


With the erection of Sherred Hall was begun the filling 
out of a magnificent plan for a group of buildings, the com- 
pletion of which will give the General Seminary the best 
advantages of the present age. There will be accommoda- 
tions for two hundred students, also residences for the dean 
and each member of the Faculty, and a chapel, library build- 
ing, and refectory. Three sides of the block between Ninth 
and Tenth Avenues will be occupied by a continuous line of 
buildings forty feet in depth, leaving the southerly side on 
Twentieth Street open, broken only by three double houses 
for the professors, fronting on Twentieth Street, at intervals 
from each other. The chapel, whose chancel will be on 
Twenty-first Street, will be in the center of the line of build- 
ings on that street, and will divide the whole pile into two 
quadrangles. At the north-west angle will be the refectory, 
and at the north-east angle now stands the new library build- 
ing. The entrance to the whole will be by a fine porch 
on Ninth Avenue, having on the south the Deanery, now 
building. There are are at present completed Sherred Hall, 
having six fine recitation rooms admirably ventilated, with 
professors' rooms attached, Dehon Hall and Pintard Hall 
having students' rooms, supplied with every convenience and 
all enjoying a southern exposure, and the library building, 
perfectly fireproof, even the cases of iron. Three private 
library rooms, to be used when students wish to make espe- 
cial investigation, are on the same floor, and on the first floor 
suitable rooms are provided for the safe preservation of the 
archives and valuable documents of the General and Diocesan 
Conventions. The library, numbering 20,000 volumes, is one 
of great value, and has now the advantage of attractive and 
convenient quarters. There is need of larger resources for 
its maintenance, that, with its antique treasures, it may be 
able to offer to readers the most recent works in theology and 


Christian literature generally. It is open daily from nine to 
five o'clock, for clergy and others who wish to consult it. The 
plan includes for the chapel a ground floor, which is designed 
to be used for a large public lecture-room and for any suitable 
ecclesiastical meetings. The material used for these substan- 
tial and tasteful buildings is pressed brick and Belleville 
stone, with dark slate for steep roofs. The interiors of the 
library and lecture-rooms are finished with buff-colored brick, 
interspersed with black and red, and the chapel is to be 
treated in the same way. The style of architecture is that 
known as the English Collegiate Gothic. Many of the ar- 
rangements are due to the excellent judgment of the present 
dean, who takes the greatest personal interest in the progress 
of the work, as he has also in the gathering of the funds. 
The architect is Mr. Charles C. Haight, who was the archi- 
tect of the new buildings of Columbia College and is a son 
of the late Rev. Dr. Benjamin I. Haight, Professor of Pas- 
toral Theology for many years. When the proposed group 
of buildings are all erected the two old east and west semi- 
nary buildings will be removed, and then the block compris- 
ing the seminary property, standing in the heart of the city,, 
convenient to all parts by many lines of public conveyance,, 
will be a happy realization of an ideal theological school for 
the training of young men to take up the work of the Chris- 
tian ministry wherever duty may summon them, even in the 
most stirring centers of metropolitan life. 


As has been mentioned, Drs. Jarvis and Turner were the 
first professors at the establishment of the seminary, the 
former retiring for a Boston rectorship after a service of six: 
months, the latter remaining until his decease. During the- 
brief sojourn of the seminary. Bishop Brownell proffered his 
services gratuitously, as a co-laborer with Dr. Turner. Dur- 
ing this period, Rev. Bird Wilson was appointed to the Chair 
of Systematic Theology. Meanwhile, in what may be styled 
the provisional New York School, organized by the indefati- 
gable Bishop Hobart, who assumed the Chair of Systematic 


Divinity and Pastoral Theology, Mr. Clement C. Moore was 
acting Professor of Biblical Learning and Interpretation of 
Scripture; Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck, Professor of Evidences 
of Revealed Religion, and of Moral Science in its Relations 
to Theology ; and Rev. Benjamin T. Onderdonk, Professor of 
Church Polity and Ecclesiastical History. On the reopening 
of the General Seminary, Drs. Turner and Wilson were rein- 
forced by the members of the New York School ad interim. 
The Sunday services established in the seminary library by 
Drs. Wilson and Turner were the first mission work undertaken 
in the region where the seminary found its now permanent 
home, and became the germ of St. Peter's Parish. In 1835, 
Rev. William R. Whittingham was nominated to the Chair of 
Ecclesiastical History, which he filled until his elevation to 
the Bishopric of Maryland in 1840. He was succeeded by 
Rev. John D. Ogilby, Professor of Ancient Languages in 
Rutger's College, New Jersey. During this period, Rev. 
Hugh Smith, rector of St. Peter's Church, gave instruction 
for several years in Pastoral Theology and Pulpit Eloquence, 
and the Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D., in Christian Evidences 
and Moral Science, both receiving for their valuable services 
the thanks of the trustees. In November, 1841, Rev. Ben- 
jamin I. Haight, rector of All Saints' Parish, became Pro- 
fessor of Pastoral Theology and Pulpit Eloquence, and for 
several years. Dr. Edward Hodges, the distinguished organist 
and musical director of Trinity Parish, our first legitimate 
master in the characteristic music of the Anglican Church, 
was employed by the generosity of Trinity Parish to instruct 
the students in sacred music. In 1850, Rev. Samuel R. 
Johnson, D.D., was elected successor of Dr. Wilson, as Pro- 
fessor of Systematic Divinity, and about the same time Rev. 
George H. Houghton, then and now rector of the Church of 
the Transfiguration, was appointed Instructor in Hebrew. 
On the loth of September, Rev. Milo Mahan, D.D., was 
elected to the Chair of Ecclesiastical History, successor of 
Dr. Ogilby, who had recently died abroad. Dr. Turner, for 
forty years Professor of Biblical Learning and Interpretation, 
died December 21, 1861, and was succeeded by Rev. Dr. 


Seabury; and in 1862, Rev. Dr. Eigenbrodt, who had given 
gratuitous services in this department for some years, was 
elected Professor of Pastoral Theology and Pulpit Eloquence, 
while Dr. William Walton became Instructor in Hebrew at 
the retirement of Dr. Houghton. In June, 1865, Rev. George 
F. Seymour, A.M., was elected to the Chair of Ecclesiastical 
History, on the retirement of Dr. Mahan. In 1869, Rev. Fran- 
cis Vinton, D.D., was elected to the newly founded Charles 
and Elizabeth Ludlow Professorship of Ecclesiastical Law 
and Polity, which he filled for three years, until his decease. 
His successor was Rev. William J. Seabury, D.D., the pres- 
ent incumbent. After six years' gratuitous service as In- 
structor in Hebrew, Dr. Walton was elected to the Clement 
C. Moore Professorship of the Hebrew and Greek Languages. 
He accepted the office, but his death very shortly followed, 
and he was succeeded by Rev, Randall C. Hall, D.D. In an 
effort to provide for the newly-established Office of Dean, 
Rev. Theodore B. Lyman, D.D., was elected. He, however, 
declined, and Rev. John Murray Forbes, D.D., was elected, 
and retired in 1872. The office remained vacant until the 
Rev. Dr. Seymour, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, was 
elected permanent Dean, in conjunction with his professor- 
ship. After a vigorous and successful administration, which 
was brought to a close by his election to the Bishopric of 
Springfield, he was succeeded in the Deanship by Rev. 
Eugene Aug. Hoffman, D.D., and as Professor by Rev. 
Thomas L. Richey, D.D. In 1871, the present learned Pro- 
fessor of Systematic Divinity, Rev. Samuel Buel, D.D., was 
elected and entered upon his duties. In October, of 1872, 
the Professorship of Biblical Learning and the Interpretation 
of Scripture, which was vacated by the decease of Dr. 
Samuel Seabury, was filled by the election of Rev. Andrew 
Oliver, D.D., in 1873. 


The City Mission Society was founded September 29, 1831, 
when its constitution was unanimously adopted, and the fol- 


lowing officers and managers chosen according to its provi- 
sions : Rt. Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, D.D., President ; Rev. 
Thonnas Lyell, D.D., First Vice-president ; Rev. J. McVickar, 
D.D., Second Vice-president ; Jacob Lorillard, Third Vice- 
president; Edward W. Laight, Fourth Vice-president ; James 
M. Pendleton, M.D., Secretary; William R. Wadsworth, 
Assistant Secretary ; J. A. Perry, Treasurer, Managers were 
chosen of the clergy, as follows : Rev. Messrs. Henry Anthon, 
Lewis P. Bayard, William Berrian, D.D., Thomas Brientnall, 
John A. Clark, William Creighton, D.D., Manton Eastburn, 
Augustus Fitch, John M. Forbes, Benjamin I. Haight, Fran- 
cis L. Hawks, George L. Hinton, James Milnor, D.D., Will- 
iam Richmond, J. ¥. Schroeder, Antoine Verren, J. M. 
Wainwright, D.D., William R. Whittingham. Managers were 
chosen of the laity: four, each, from Trinity Church, St. Paul's 
Chapel, St. John's Chapel, St. George's Church, St. Luke's 
Church, Zion Church, St. Clement's Church, St. Peter's Church, 
St. Michael's Church, Grace Church, Christ Church, St. 
Thomas' Church, St. Stephen's Church, Church of the Ascen- 
sion, All Saints' Church, St. Mark's Church, L'Eglise du St. 
Esprit, St. James' Church, St. Mary's Church, St. Ann's 
Church, and St Andrew's Church. 

In April, 1833, the Legislature of the State of New York 
passed an act incorporating Messrs. Gideon Lee, Ogden Hoff- 
man, and William Bard, and their associates and their succes- 
sors, a body politic, by the name of the " New York PROT- 
ESTANT Episcopal City Mission Society." (This act was 
amended March 16, 1866.) The objects of the said society 
are declared to be : " To provide, by building, purchase, 
hiring, or otherwise, at different points in the city of New 
York, churches in which the seats shall be free, and mission- 
houses for the poor and afflicted ; and also to provide suitable 
clergymen and other persons to act as missionaries and assis- 
tants in and about the said churches and mission houses." Act- 
ing under this charter, the City Mission Society led the way in 
the establishment of free churches for the middle and poorer 
classes of the city population, although it was not the very 
first in the field, for St. Mary's, Manhattanville, was the oldest 


free church, and the Church of the Nativity the next in order. 
So great, however, was the success of the society in gather- 
ing large congregations, and in sustaining during the period of 
its first active operations, the Churches of the Epiphany, the 
Holy Evangelist, and St. Matthew, that the attention of the 
large and richer parishes was arrested by it, and they were 
led to establish free chapels of their own. These have multi- 
plied, till, at the present day, there are about thirty places for 
church-worship, open every Sunday, /V^^ to all who choose to 
come ; and nine of these are commodious and some even 
elegant buildings, in which large congregations are gathered. 
After the field at first marked out had been so successfully 
occupied, the City Mission Society was led, by the providence 
of God, to take up the public institutions of the city and ad- 
jacent islands, and minister to the thousands upon thousands 
found therein. Out of this work have grown many of the 
best benevolent institutions of the diocese, like the House of 
Mercy, St. Barnabas' House, Midnight Mission, New York 
Infant Asylum, Sheltering Arms, Shepherd's and Children's 
Fold, Bethlehem Chapel, Guild of St. Elizabeth, House of 
Rest for Consumptives, Fruit and Flower Mission, etc. In 
the early part of its work the society purchased the dwell- 
ing houses, Nos. 304 and 306 Mulberry Street, and fitted 
them, as far as possible, for use. Ere long, these were found 
to be too small and inconvenient, and, accordingly, the cor- 
ner-stone of a new building, 25 feet wide, 5 stories high, and 80 
feet deep, was laid by the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter. This sub- 
stantial edifice, now in use, with most of its furnishing, was the 
gift of Mr. J. J. Astor, and cost about $19,000. In the autumn 
of 1868 the society bought a piece of land, 50 by 100 feet, on 
the Ninth Avenue, between Eighty-second and Eighty-third 
Streets, and erected a temporary structure, called Bethlehem 
Chapel. It was opened on the Feast of the Epiphany, 1869, 
but in the following year it was removed, and a new chapel 
(the building now standing) took its place. On the 15th of 
December, 1870, the chapel was opened with an English 
service by the bishop of the diocese, eight other clergymen 
being present. Since then the services of the Church have 


been steadily carried forward under the auspices of the 
society. The principal fact of permanent historical interest 
worthy of being put on record, is found in this which follows: 
In 1871 the City Mission Society had become so embarrassed 
in its finances, that it was decided to cease all further opera- 
tions. Notice was sent to each missionary that his services 
would not be required after thirty days. All the real estate 
of the society had been mortgaged to the full extent, $22,000. 
The expenses exceeded the income by some $10,000 to 
$12,000, and there was a floating debt of $14,000. A new 
system, however, was adopted, and in ten years' time the 
society was rescued from its peril, and was practically free 
from debt. Truly, " man's extremity proved to be God's 
opportunity! " 


The Society for Promoting Religion and Learning was 
founded in the year of our Lord, 1839. The act of incorpora- 
tion was dated April 4, 1839, and was amended May 6, 1844. 
The society has no structure or building devoted to its use. 
Its property consists of certain lots in the city of New York, 
which were granted to it by the corporation of Trinity Church 
by deed of endowment, dated November 20, 1839. ^^ is 
made by canon the agent of the diocese for distributing all 
funds for theological education, and it consequently calls for 
and receives contributions from the parishes of the diocese. 
The objects of the society, as stated in the act of incorpora- 
tion, are "to facilitate to young men, designed for the holy 
ministry, the means of literary and theological education, to 
aid in the support of missionaries among the destitute poor, 
or in the remote settlements within this State, and otherwise 
to promote religion and learning within the same." Accord- 
ing to its last report to the Convention (1885), it had given 
aid to 34 candidates for orders, and it announced that for 
the current Conventional year it would need the sum of 


$5,700. Its funds have been liberally used in aiding pro- 
fessors and students of the General Theological Seminary. 


This fund was established in 1841 by a resolution of the 
Convention after a favorable report of a special committee, 
appointed upon the suggestion of the Rt. Rev. Bishop B. 
T. Onderdonk (See Journal of Convention, 1840, p. 52, and 
of 1841, p. 31.) Canon XVI., in relation to this fund, was 
adopted in 1842, and the trustees, consisting of three laymen, 
annually elected, with the bishop, were incorporated by 
special acts in 1853. Every congregation in the diocese is 
required to make annually a collection " to be applied in re- 
lief of clergymen disabled by age or disease." In accordance 
with the provisions of the canon, the trustees of the fund 
assist, by quarterly allowances, such aged and infirm clergy- 
men as are canonically connected with the Diocese of New 
York. The treasurer's report for 1885 shows that the total 
amount of invested fund at date is $93,591.88. The present 
number of beneficiaries of this fund is five. The Convention 
of the diocese had before it (1885) several important sugges- 
tions in regard to enlarging the scope and usefulness of this 
fund ; but no definite action has yet been taken. (See 
y(?«r«^/ of Convention, 1885, pp. 100-104.) 


This society was founded in 1843 by the " Young Men's 
Church Missionary Society," which had a floating chapel at 
the foot of Pike Street, East River. The present society was 
incorporated by an act of the Legislature of New York, 
under the above title, April 12, 1844. Only the names of the 
Rev. Smith Pyne, Messrs. George N. Titus, J. R. Van Rens- 
selaer, Pierre E. F. McDonald, and Augustus Proal were 


mentioned in the act. To this society the "Young Men's 
Church Missionary Society " gave up its chapel and its mission 
work. The members of this society are clergymen residing 
in the city of New York, or the city of Brooklyn, canonically 
connected with the Diocese of New York or of Long Island ; 
persons having paid to the treasurer not less than thirty dol- 
lars at one time, and annual subscribers of not less than one 
dollar. The society elects annually a Board of Managers 
with necessary officers, the Bishop of New York being ex 
officio president, and the Bishop of Long Island ex offi,cio 

The work is for the benefit of seamen ; to protect them 
from their voracious enemies ; to draw them from wild and 
reckless ways ; to attract them to becoming and civilized 
habits ; to raise them, as a class, to respectability ; and to 
bring them, as individuals, under the influence of the Gospel. 
For this purpose the managers attend the services and take 
friendly interest in the seamen. There are three stations in New 
York and one in Brooklyn, each with its missionary. Services 
on Sundays and the chief Holy Days are held in the chapels, 
and there are prayers and lectures on certain week-day even- 
ings in the mission houses. Reading-rooms also are provided, 
to which thousands of seamen, in the course of the year, 
resort ; and the society's Sunday-schools are well attended 
by the children. Many baptisms and confirmations of sailors, 
of members of their families, and of persons living in the 
vicinity are administered. Bibles, Testaments, Prayer Books, 
and other books in various languages are presented to seamen 
and boatmen. 

In 1846 the society had two floating chapels — one on the 
East River, and one on the Hudson River. These becoming 
decayed and unsafe were disposed of, and a very pretty one 
built since now lies at the foot of Pike Street, on the east side 
of the city. In 1852 the society had its attention called to 
the vacant field on the water front between Wall Street and 
the Battery, where large numbers of canal boats and sailing 
vessels filled the slips and were moored at the piers. On in- 
vestigation it was decided to appoint a " missionary at large," 


who should labor more especially in that locality. As it was 
thought desirable to hold " open-air services," Coenties Slip 
was settled upon as the center of operations, A " Service for 
the Docks" was prepared, taken wholly from the Prayer Book, 
with selections of appropriate hymns. This was printed in 
tract form, so that it could be distributed for use among the 
congregation ; and the compilation met the approval of Bishop 
Wainwright. Large numbers of this service have been scat- 
tered in different directions, and it has exerted a most bene- 
ficial influence along the line of the Erie Canal and in the 
vicinity of Coenties Slip, in promoting quiet, order, and 
decency of behavior on the Lord's Day. 

In 1880 land was purchased on West Street and West 
Houston Street, on the Hudson River, and plans were pro- 
cured for a substantial building of brick, to include a chapel, 
a reading-room, Sunday school-room, quarters for the sexton, 
and a house for the missionary. For want of funds only a 
portion of this edifice has been erected. A legacy recently 
received will enable the society to complete the purposed plan 
by building the chapel and the house for the missionary. The 
society has a house in Pike Street for the purposes of the 
East-side Mission ; also a house in Franklin Square, used as a 
Home, or Boarding-house for Seamen, under the constant 
supervision of the society and its missionaries. Numbers of 
seamen, while on shore, are in the habit of depositing for safe 
keeping, what in the aggregate amounts to large sums of 
money, with the superintendent of the Home. Under the in- 
fluence of the missionaries many of those who go down to the 
sea in ships have been led to abandon the use of intoxicating 
liquors and to enroll themselves on the side of temperance 
and sobriety. 

In conclusion it is a gratification to be able to put on 
record here that some of the original managers of 1844 are 
still among the society's officers and guides, and that, having 
been permitted to see the fruit of over forty years' labors in 
this field, they still continue their active participation and un- 
abated interest in the truly charitable work of caring for the 
souls and bodies of seamen. 



St. Luke's Hospital was founded and incorporated in 

1850. The original incorporators were: William A. Muhlen- 
berg, D.D., Lindley M. Hoffman, John H. Swift, Robert B. 
Minturn, James Warren', William H. Hobart, M.D., Joseph 
D. B. Curtis, Samuel Davis, Benjamin Ogden, M.D., George 
P. Rogers, Edward McVickar, John Punnett and Henry C. 
Hobart. An amendment to the charter, passed March 28, 

185 1, authorized the increase in the number of managers 
from 13 to 31, and provided that seven of these should form 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

The nature of the work undertaken is thus stated in 
Article I. of the Constitution, viz. : To afford " medical or 
surgical aid, and nursing, to sick or disabled persons ; and 
also to provide them, while inmates of the hospital, with the 
ministrations of the Gospel, agreeably to the doctrines and 
forms of the Protestant Episcopal Church. A further object 
of the institution shall be the instructing and training of 
suitable persons in the art of nursing and attending upon 
the sick." 

The land on which the hospital stands came into pos- 
session of the corporation partly by grant and partly by pur- 
chase. The hospital was opened for the reception of patients 
May 13, 1858, with appropriate religious services. Since that 
time to the present date, its charitable doors have never been 
closed. It has cared for 24,408 patients to the present time, 
of all nationalities and of every religious creed. It has shown 
no distinction in the reception of patients afflicted with acute, 
curable, and non-contagious diseases, on account of color or 
creed, and has closed its doors against no poor man on 
account of his poverty. 

The following extract from the twenty-fifth Annual Re- 
port is equally interesting and valuable : ** When this hos- 
pital was built, the population of this city was about 500,000. 
The total accommodation provided at that time in hospitals 
was in 940 beds. Of these 550 were in Bellevue Hospital, 
350 in the New York City Hospital, and 40 in St. Vincent's 


Hospital, which had then just been opened. So extraordinary 
has been the increase of hospital accommodation, that, with 
a present population of between 1,200,000 and 1.300,000, 
New York city provides now 5,487 beds in institutions sup- 
ported by public taxation, and 2,857 beds in institutions 
supported by voluntary subscriptions and private charity, 
being 8,344 beds in all. From these figures it will be seen 
that, although the population of the city is now about two 
and a half times as large in number as it was twenty-five 
years ago, the number of beds provided in our hospitals for the 
sick poor is now nearly nine times as great as it was then." 

St. Luke's Hospital embodies the Christian thought of its 
founder, the venerated Rev. Dr. William Augustus Muhlen- 
berg, who aimed to establish a hospital in which the religious 
and churchly sentiment appealed to, to build and support the 
institution, should be always practically manifested to the 
patients in its administration. The motto he gave the hos- 
pital, and which he caused to be impressed upon its corporate 
seal, Corpus sanare, animam salvare, " to cure the body, to 
save the soul," expressed his thought, and has been the work- 
ing principle throughout its career of more than a third of a 


The Orphan's Home was founded in 1851 by the Rt. Rev. 
Jonathan M. Wainwright, D.D., D.C.L., and the Rev. John 
Henry Hobart, D.D. It was incorporated in 1859, under the 
fuller title which it now bears. The work of the institution 
consists in the care and training of children who have lost 
father or mother, or both, by death. Beneficiaries of the 
Home are admitted between the ages of three and eight years 
only. They are expected to remain until the age of twelve, 
unless the surviving parent, if there be one, remarries. Such 
children as have not been baptized are at once enrolled in 
Christ's flock by Hoi)'- Baptism, and all in the Home are 
trained in the Catholic faith as held and taught by the Prot- 


estant Episcopal Church. The building in which the inmates 
of the Home are accommodated is in East Forty-ninth Street 
near the Fourth Avenue. The occasion which led to the 
founding of this institution is worthy of being put on record. 
It was the dying request of a father that his children should 
be brought up in the faith of the Church of which he was a 
member. This request was carried by two ladies, communi- 
cants of St. Paul's Chapel, to the clergymen named above, 
and through their zeal and activity the Orphan's Home and 
Asylum took its place among the charities of the Church in 
the city of New York. It may also be mentioned that one 
of the Home's beneficiaries, now gone to his rest, was a 
presbyter of the Church. 

FEMALES. 1852. 

St. Luke's Home for Indigent Christian Females was 
founded May i, 1852, by Rev. Isaac H. Tuttle, D.D., and 
others. It was incorporated January 12, 1854, the incorpo- 
rators being Anthony B. McDonald, Edmund M. Young, 
Francis Pott, Samuel Wiswall, Charles H. Clayton, Thomas 
P. Cummings, and Christopher S. Bourne. The work to 
which this institution is devoted is the care and support of 
aged, indigent female communicants of the Church. A pay- 
ment of $100 entrance fee was originally required ; afterwards 
this fee was increased to $2CXD. The building adjoining St. 
Luke's Church, in Hudson Street, was purchased and occu- 
pied from May, 1852, to 1872. The new and spacious build- 
ing, corner of Eighty-ninth Street and Madison Avenue, was 
erected in 1870, and is capable of accommodating 66 inmates. 
It is a matter worthy of record that the Church of the 
Beloved Disciple, adjoining the Home on Eighty-ninth 
Street, with sittings reserved for the inmates, was erected by 
Miss Caroline Talman as a " memorial." 


This institution was founded in New York City in 1852 by 
the Rev. William A. Muhlenberg, D.D. Its special province 


is the care of the poor, the sick, aged women, little children, 
and girls training for service. The sisterhood owns and 
occupies a house, built as a "memorial" to the daughter of 
the late John H. Swift. It has charge of a Home for the 
Aged, Shelter for Respectable Girls and Servants, Training 
House for Young Girls, the Babies' Shelter, and a Dispen- 
sary. This, it is claimed, is the first sisterhood organized in 
the communion of the Anglican Church. 


This institution was founded in 1854 by Mrs. William 
Richmond. Its chosen field of labor is for the reformation 
of young girls who have gone or are going astray, and for the 
reclamation of fallen women. The corner-stone of the build- 
ing occupied by the institution was laid October 16, 1870. 
It is situate at the foot of West Eighty-sixth Street, New 
York, and affords accommodation for 75 inmates. The 
Sisters of St. Mary, five in number, have the work of the 
House in their charge. They entered on this work in 1863. 


The Rt. Rev. J. M. Wainwright, D.D., was the first who 
publicly expressed the need of a training college for the min- 
istry in the Diocese of New York. In 1852 he had the subject 
before his mind and made some propositions for the establish- 
ment of one in the neighborhood of White Plains. He after- 
wards made some inquiries about the possibility of commenc- 
ing such work at Annandale, and proposed to take a house 
in that part of the diocese and reside there some weeks in the 
year, and give such a school his personal influence and super- 
vision. The premature termination of his episcopate of 
course did not allow the completion of such plans. The sub- 
ject was taken up in 1856 by the Rev. John McVickar, D.D., 
Professor in Columbia College, and Superintendent of the 
Society for Promoting Religion and Learning. He said, in 
his report of that society to the Convention of the diocese, 
that one purpose he had in view was " to turn the attention 
of the Convention to the small number of our own candidates, 


SO inadequate to the necessities of our Church and to the 
only adequate remedy for their increase. The smallness of 
the number arises, obviously, not so much from want of funds 
as from want of that preparatory training which surrounds 
the youth from an early age with all the associations which 
lead him to that choice as well as prepare him for it. In 
other words, it arises from the want, in our diocese, of some 
Church institution or training school, in which, as a nursery 
for the ministry, the destitute sons of our poorer clergy might 
find a home under Church influences, as well as the sons of 
zealous laymen — a Church school, leading to the ministry, 
adequately endowed, episcopally governed, and annually 
reporting to the Convention its condition and its progress. 
Should such institution arise under a wise organization and 
episcopal control, it would doubtless bring forth liberal con- 
tributions, both from churches and individuals, for the further- 
ance of so desirable an object ; while those educated within 
it would naturally become the recipients, according to their 
needs, of the bounty of the society, which is now bestowed 
on preparatory education, under circumstances far less favor- 
able, and too often antagonistic to the very end for which the 
bounty of the society is given. The advantages which the 
diocese would reap from such an institution are too obvious 
to need enlargement. This report would only add the 
experience of the society in their frequent disappointment 
among their scholars, of early resolutions and paternal wishes, 
not to add honorable engagements, thus frustrated through 
academic influences over which they could have no control." 
The Bishop, the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., said in 
his address to the same Convention : " One of the urgent 
wants of this diocese is a Church training school to take 
charge of hopeful youth from a very early age, and by faith- 
ful intellectual and religious culture, to prepare them for the 
work of the holy ministry. ' Without money and without 
price,' it should afford shelter and niirture to the sons of 
deceased clergymen ; and by its economy and wise and ear- 
nest training, it should be capable of raising up men of sim- 
ple habits and fervent hearts, who will shrink from no toil 


and from no self-denial; and who, 'by manifestation of the 
truth, will commend themselves to every man's conscience in 
the sight of God.' I commend the object to your serious 
consideration and to your prayers." In response to this ap- 
peal the Convention referred the subject to a special commit- 
tee, consisting of the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., the Rev. 
Francis Vinton, D.D., the Rev. J. Ireland Tucker, the Rev. G. 
T. Bedell, D.D., Mr. James F. De Peyster and Judge Wendell. 

At the next Convention, in 1857, ^he Rev. Dr. McVickar 
again referred to the subject in his report of the Society for 
Promoting Religion and Learning. "Among their further 
suggestions they would venture to renew that made by them 
in their last annual report, on a Diocesan Training School, en- 
dowed and ecclesiastically recognized and governed, to which 
the society might confidently remand such of their applicants 
now assigned to the charge and superintendence of individual 
clergy, as being, through the want of classical attainments or 
other causes, disqualified for entrance on the full Seminary 
course." On motion of the Rev. Dr. Vinton, the committee 
on this subject was continued, " with instructions to report to 
the next Convention." The bishop also said in his address 
that he had not called the committee together, because he had 
" not been able to see as yet in what way they could usefully 
exert themselves." But he added that the Convention " would 
be glad to know that the object they had in view was in a way 
to be accomplished." 

At the Convention in 1858, the Rev. Dr. McVickar again 
referred to the establishment of a training school. He said : 
" Were the funds for ministerial education made adequate to 
the Church's needs, we should have at least one great train- 
ing school for the diocese, regularly organized and amply en- 
dowed, under episcopal supervision, as a Christian home for 
the student, for the preparatory studies of the Theological 
Seminary, or for the complete education of the missionary. 
Such an institution would alone satisfy either the needs of 
the Church or the claims it may rightly make on the zeal and 
liberality of Churchmen. Trusting that the time will soon 
arrive when such diocesan institution will arise to give effi 


ciency and permanency to the present unequal and spasmodic 
efforts on which this great cause now rests, and with the as- 
surance that the society herewith reporting will act in this 
matter with the greater zeal and liberality in proportion as it 
sees the diocese earnest in the same.'' 

In the meanwhile Dr. McVickar had begun at Irvington 
the work which he then proposed. But at the same time 
some propositions were made to Mr. John Bard, of Annan- 
dale, who was likely to take up the matter in earnest. Dr. 
McVickar therefore transferred both his influence and efforts 
to the establishment of the proposed college at Annandale. 
The bishop alluded in his address to the proposition of an 
honored presbyter of the diocese, and stated that he had 
made this transfer " because a promising effort to establish a 
training school had been recently commenced in another 

At the Convention of 1859 ^^^ bishop said in his address: 
" Several years ago I turned my attention to the subject of a 
training school X.O assist in preparing young men for the sacred 
ministry. We greatly needed a school where young persons, 
of the proper moral and religious qualifications, but in very 
different states as to their literary qualifications, might be re- 
ceived, placed under influences accordant with the supreme 
aim of their lives, and matured with all good learning, until 
they should be prepared to enter the General Theological 
Seminary. I often referred to its importance in private, and 
in my address in 1856 to the Convention I pressed it upon the 
consideration of the diocese. But I was not anxious to at- 
tempt to build up a mere arbitrary mechanical project before 
Providence should seem to open the way for something real. 
At length I am happy to be able to announce that a begin- 
ning has been made with every prospect of eminent success. 
Through the munificence of John Bard, Esq., of Annandale, 
Dutchess County, and the kind co-operation, to a certain ex- 
tent, of the Society for the Promotion of Religion and Learn- 
ing, a training school has been opened at Annandale under 
the superintendence of the Rev. George F. Seymour, well 
known for his scholarship, his experience and ability as a 


teacher, and his admirable qualities for training and molding 
the young." 

To the same Convention Dr. McVickar said that " the So- 
ciety would also thankfully report the special aid and assis- 
tance afforded them during the past year in carrying out their 
plans, by a warm-hearted and liberal Churchman of this dio- 
cese, in the establishment and endowment of a training school 
for the ministry, preparatory to the candidate's reception into 
the General Theological Seminary." . . . "In order to carry out 
this object, land and buildings at Annandale, to the value of 
$60,000, have been recently transferred by this liberal donor 
to a Board of Trustees approved by the acting bishop of the 
diocese, who becomes also the head and visitor of the school, 
and an act of incorporation prepared, by which at once all 
corporate powers, and, in process of time, collegiate privileges 
will be granted to it." In consequence of this announcement 
the Convention appointed a committee to *' report suitable 
resolutions for its action." The next day the Convention 
adopted the following resolutions reported by the committee, 
the Rev. Francis Vinton, D.D., the Hon. John A. King, and 
the Rev. T. A. Guion, D.D. : 

Resolved: That the munificent donation of property at 
Annandale, valued at $60,000, for the purpose of a training 
school and college for the education of young men prepar- 
ing for Holy Orders in the Church, is a gift to the Church 
in this diocese, demanding the grateful acknowledgments of 
this Convention. 

Resolved : That this Convention hereby tender the thanks 
of the Church to John Bard, of Annandale, for his generous 
establishment and endowment of a training school and col- 
lege for the benefit of this diocese. 

Resolved: That this Convention recognize the training 
school and college at Annandale as a Diocesan Institution, 
and worthy of the confidence and patronage of Churchmen. 

Resolved : That the trustees of said training school and 
college be requested to make an annual report to the bishop 
and Convention of this diocese, to be read and entered on 
the Journal of the Convention. 


It was also, on motion of the secretary, the Rev. W. E. 
Eigenbrodt, D.D., ^^ Resolved: That the proposed 'Plan of 
a Training College for the Diocese of New York' be printed 
in the next Journal of the Convention as an appendix." 

At the Convention of i860, Dr. McVickar, on behalf of 
the society, said : " That to the liberal appropriations in aid 
of Mr. Bard's noble benevolence at Annandale, is due under 
God the successful completion of that long cherished and 
deeply needed Diocesan Church Training School, a plan 
which has now matured into the legal incorporation of St. 
Stephen's College." And in 1864, he again said: " For the 
rising reputation of this Church Institution, the society now 
reporting would sincerely congratulate the diocese, as afford- 
ing to the Church what it had till then wanted, college 
teaching and church-training, thoroughly united and mutually 
operating in fitting for the ministry." The last reference 
which Dr. McVickar made to St. Stephen's College was in 
his last report, the year before he was taken to his rest. He 
then seems to say with great justice that " this Church Insti- 
tution may be said to be the child of the Society for Promot- 
ing Religion and Learning." 

It is proper to state here why the college was placed at 
Annandale. When Mr. John Bard came to reside on the 
Hudson, he found a small settlement in the neighborhood of 
his estate without any religious privilege. The parish church 
of this neighborhood was St. Paul's, Red Hook, which was 
more than two miles distant. He immediately interested 
himself in the welfare of his neighbors, and instituted a Sun- 
day-school. The first service was held in a building on his 
estate by the Lord Bishop of Jamaica. Shortly after this 
the Rev. James Starr Clark came to act as missionary. A 
building was erected by Mr. Bard, which served the double 
purpose of a chapel and a parochial school. In 1855 the 
Rev. George F. Seymour took the place of the Rev. Mr. Clark, 
who removed to Madalin, where services similar to those at 
Annandale were begun. In the summer of 1858, while the 
establishment of a training school was under consideration, 
the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter spent a few weeks at Annandale, 


the guest of Mr. Bard. He found there several young men 
under the instruction of the Rev. Mr. Seymour, who were 
preparing to enter the General Theological Seminary. It 
appeared to the bishop that this work only wanted enlarge- 
ment to become the training school of the diocese. The 
proposition was made to Mr. Bard and to Mr. Seymour, 
The subject, after due consideration, was taken up, and a plan, 
after much consultation with the bishop and the Society, was 
matured. In the winter of 1858 and '59 a committee of the 
Society for Promoting Religion and Learning visited Annan- 
dale, and an agreement was drawn up which was accepted 
by Mr. Bard, the society and the Convention. The com- 
mittee consisted of the Rev. John McVickar, D.D., the Rev. 
Edward Y. Higbee, D.D., Mr. James F. DePeyster, Mr. Cyrus 
Curtis and Mr. Thomas W. Ogden. " They report that after 
frequent correspondence and occasional interviews with Mr. 
Bard on the subject by individual members of the committee 
during the winter, a visit of the united committee, with a 
view to a personal examination of the school and the premises, 
and a more full discussion of the plan, was determined on, 
and finally fixed for Saturday, 14th of May, running on to 
Monday, and, on the part of one member, to Tuesday, thfe 
17th inst. The majority of the committee, then and there, 
met accordingly, and after full communication with Mr. Bard 
and the teachers, more especially with the Rev. Mr. Seymour, 
the responsible head of the establishment, as well as after a 
highly satisfactory examination of the scholars in their classi- 
cal studies by an academic member of the committee, together 
with evidence open to all of quiet, thorough Church teach- 
ing and training in every department of the school, as well 
as the happy influence it is so obviously exerting throughout 
a large district of country around ; these facts have brought 
your committee herewith to report unanimously and heartily 
the first point committed to them, viz.: ' The expediency of 
co-operating with Mr. Bard in the establishment of such pro- 
posed institution.' The second point referred to them, viz.: 
' The method,' demanded and received longer and fuller de- 
liberation, and the subjoined plan exhibits the final result 


arrived at by them, a plan which they herewith submit, 
together with their unanimous recommendation to the Board 
for their sanction and approval of the same ; a sanction to be 
so officially given as that it may come before the next Con- 
vention of the diocese, approved by the bishop and patronized 
by this society as a Diocesan Institution fully and legally 

" But in thus submitting the committee would beg leave to 
premise the light in which they have viewed it and the prin- 
ciples which have governed them in framing it. They regarded 
the proposed plan in the light of a tripartite contract or 
agreement — one in which the interests and rights of three 
parties were concerned, and were to be respectively guarded 
and secured. 

" Of these, the first and most important party, and the one 
for whose benefit the whole was created, was the Church in 
this diocese. This end was to be obtained by making the 
institution supply an actual need — the want, namely, not of 
a Church school for boys, such as the diocese already has 
many, but a special training school for the ministry, confined 
to those sufficiently advanced to know their own minds and 
actually seeking preparation for it, and being ready to receive 
such according to its means, at whatever age beyond the 
minimum required or whatever stage of progress towards the 
end sought. Such an institution is, and has thus far been, a 
desideratum greatly felt in our diocese. 

" A farther point to be guarded against was all appearance 
of rivalry with the General Theological Seminary within our 
own diocese. Its specific object is, therefore, made a prepara- 
tory training for it, except in cases where the diaconate sim- 
ply is sought. The last security it owed to the diocese has 
been given, by making an elected member of the Convention 
an ex officio member of the Board of Trustees, and by an 
annual report to be made to it. 

" In the second place, our society was to be guarded in be- 
coming a party to this plan, lest we should be compromising 
our own position as trustees, acting freely in our own legiti- 
mate sphere of ' Promoting Religion and Learning.' With 


this view the society has been kept wholly free from all finan- 
cial obligations, while at the same time an intimate relation 
with, and knowledge of, the operations of the school is pro- 
vided for, by having two leading officers of our Board ex offi- 
cio members in the new Board of Trustees. All aid, there- 
fore, granted from our treasury will be, as heretofore, regu- 
lated by the number of our scholars therein educated, with 
the further advantage, which heretofore we have not had 
with our scattered scholars, that the instruction they receive 
is sound and Churchlike; their conduct irreproachable; and 
consequently the bounty of the society well bestowed. 

** The third party in the proposed plan was obviously the 
founder of the endowment, Mr. Bard, the originator and the 
most liberal patron of the school. On this rare example of 
the noblest employment of wealth it is not needful here to 
pass a eulogium. It will, we trust, have its due reward in 
the success that will attend it — of which success the sanction 
now sought of our Board wilJ, we think, be a sufficient guar- 
antee. The only conditions named by Mr. Bard are such as 
evince more deeply the spirit that has dictated the gift, and 
will be found in their operation to add to its practical as well 
as spiritual value ; being first that the present school-house on 
the grounds shall be retained in its present use as a parochial 
school, under the government, however, of the warden of the 
school ; and, secondly, beyond the needs of the professors and 
scholars of the training school, all sittings in the church 
shall be forever free." 

The offer of Mr. Bard referred to in the report was the 
transfer to the Trustees of St. Stephen's College of about fif- 
teen acres of land, the Church of the Holy Innocents, and 
one annual subscription of " one thousand dollars during his 
life and ability." 

This record of the origin of St. Stephen's College will be 
complete by giving the following resolution offered by the 
Rev. Joseph H. Price, D.D., and adopted by the society: 

''^Resolved, That this Board having completed the formal 
approval asked for by the generous donor, desire now in their 
own name, and as far as is becoming in the name of the 


Church in this diocese and elsewhere, to record their pro- 
found sense of obligation to God, from whom all holy desires, 
good counsels, and just works proceed, for that blessed influ- 
ence under which this benevolent enterprise has been devised 
and carried out, and also their sincere thanks to him who has 
not been unmindful of the heavenly suggestion, but has con- 
secrated to the glory of God and the good of man, that wealth 
of which Divine Providence has made him steward, and has 
thus shown most honorably to himself and profitably to the 
Church, the influence of that Church training he is so anxious 
to extend to others." 

The next step was to obtain a charter from the legisla- 
ture. The Hon. John V. L. Pruyn, LL.D., who soon after 
became the distinguished and efficient Chancellor of the 
University of the State of New York, was enlisted in the 
work, and through his influence and personal application an 
act of incorporation was obtained, which was dated March 
20, i860. It declared "the Trustees of St. Stephen's Col- 
lege " to be a body corporate " for the general object and 
purpose of establishing, conducting and maintaining a semi- 
nary of learning in Red Hook, Dutchess County, which shall 
be a training college for the education and Christian training 
of young men who design to enter the sacred ministry of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church." The charter affords all the 
safeguards for the special work which the Church could ask, 
and also grants full collegiate powers and privileges. The 
first trustees named in the charter were: the Rt. Rev. 
Horatio Potter, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Oxon., the Hon. John 
V. L. Pruyn, LL.D., the Rev. John McVickar, D.D., the Rev. 
C. S. Henry, D.D., the Rev. John Ireland Tucker, D.D., the 
Rev. Samuel Buei, M.A., the Rev. George F. Seymour, M.A., 
the Hon. Murray Hoffman, LL.D., Walter Langdon, James 
F. De Peyster, John L. Aspinwall, John Bard, Mrs. Margaret 
Johnston Bard, William A. Davies, Homer Ramsdell, and 
Henry W. Sargent. 

The trustees organized under the charter April 11, i860, 
by declaring the bishop visitor, the Hon. John V. L. Pruyn, 
chairman, and the Rev. George F. Seymour, M.A., warden. 


by which title the head of the college was to be known. The 
trustees did not adopt any plan of study or of discipline, but 
left both to be developed by the wants and growth of the 
college. Their only active measure was the provision for the 
erection of a college building. 

. The college, therefore, in i860, was organized and pre- 
pared to do the work which had been named to the Con- 
vention of the diocese ; but the college was without build- 
ings, without dormitories, without recitation-rooms, without 
apparatus, and without library. There were twelve young 
men, however, who had entered and sixty others had applied 
for entrance. The warden, with the assistance of the Rev. 
George W. Dean, M.A., and afterwards of Rev. Charles Bab- 
cock, M.A., undertook the preparation of these twelve men 
for entrance into the General Theological Seminary. 

A course of study was not adopted until the beginning of 
the academic year 1862, when the warden, the Rev. Thomas 
Richey, presented and published one in the first catalogue. 
This course, revised and enlarged, was presented by the next 
warden, the Rev. R. B. Fairbairn, to the trustees in 1864, 
which was adopted and has continued as the curriculum for 
the past twenty-two years. 

It was soon found that young lads of fifteen, as the bishop 
of the diocese had said, would join us. It was very obvious 
what intellectual training such persons needed to enter on 
the study of theology in a divinity school. They were to be 
trained in such a course of study as would develop and bring 
into operation all the faculties of the mind. The taste was 
to be cultivated. They were to be taught how to study. 
They were to be made acquainted with the functions of their 
own minds. There was nothing new to be presented in this 
respect. They were to be instructed in Latin and in Greek, 
which they ought to be able to read with accuracy and with 
some degree of facility. They should be trained in the realm 
of quantity so far as to give the power of discernment and 
accuracy and to cultivate the capacity of attention. Rhetoric 
and logic were to hold an important place, as they were to 
come into contact with men in order to instruct and convince 


and persuade them. An accurate study of the English lan- 
guage and literature was for the same reason a necessity. 
They would require a knowledge of the functions of the 
human mind as intellect, and feeling, and willing, and there- 
fore they were to be instructed and trained in moral philos- 
ophy and in intellectual philosophy. 

The course of study therefore embraced the course which 
leads to a bachelor's degree. As there was only to be one class 
of students there would be necessary only one course of study. 
In our large colleges and in the University of Oxford there are 
several courses, all leading to the same degree. In Oxford a 
person may choose one of seven. But this was not required 
in the Diocesan Training School ; one was all that was neces- 
sary. But the course of classics and philosophy which was 
adopted was as full as one of the seven courses in colleges 
and older institutions. This course now embraces the usual 
books in Latin and Greek which are read for a degree, and 
the ordinary mathematics and natural philosophy, and a 
more extensive drilling in logic, and mental and moral sci- 

In 1866 the charter was amended so as to give to the col- 
lege the power of conferring degrees in the arts. It had 
already the power of giving degrees in divinity, which it was 
not teaching. This brought the college under the visitation 
of the Regents of the University, and made it one of the con- 
federated colleges which constitute '■'The University of the 
State of New YorkP The effect of this relation to the 
Regents of the University is to bring the college in its in- 
struction up to the standard of the colleges of the State. The 
number of instructors is that which is usual in the most im- 
portant colleges of the country, which is an average of one 
to ten students. 

The next important step was to provide accommodations 
for the students. The first building was not begun until 1861. 
The ceremony was conducted by the first warden, Rev. G. F. 
Seymour, who removed the first shovel of earth, accompanied 
with proper religious services. This building was occupied 
at Christmas, 1861, after the Rev. Thomas Richey had be- 


come the second warden. The building is of brick and will 
accommodate thirty students. 

In 1866 Miss Elizabeth Ludlow and her sister, Mrs. Cor- 
nelia Ann Willink, proposed to build a suitable residence for 
the warden, on condition that they were allowed to select 
their architect and their own builders. The corner-stone was 
laid the 1 3th of June, 1 866, the birthday of Mrs. Willink. The 
Rev. Francis Vinton, D.D., officiated at their request. He 
and the Rev. S. R. Johnson, D.D., Professor in the General 
Theological Seminary, and the warden delivered addresses. 
The building is of stone, and was completed and occupied 
by the then warden on the i8th of February, 1870. 

The number of applicants was so large in 1868 that further 
accommodation had to be provided. A temporary building 
of wood was erected in the summer of that year and was 
occupied by thirty students on the 1st of October. 

A capacious dining hall was erected in the summer of 
1873 with money left by will by Betsey Preston, of Barrytown. 
The first dinner was served at the commencement of that year 
to nearly 200 persons — the bishop, trustees, professors and 
students, and invited guests. 

In 1875 an observatory for the reception of a reflecting 
telescope of twelve feet focal length was erected. The tele- 
scope was left to the college by John Campbell, of New York, 
who had been a trustee and a contributor to the college. 

In 1882 the trustees adopted a new and more extensive 
plan of building. Two sections, containing accommodations 
for twenty-four students, were erected in 1884, and were 
opened with a service of benediction by the Rt. Rev. Henry 
C. Potter, D.D., LL.D., the assistant Bishop of the diocese, 
on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the consecration of the 
chapel. This is a substantial building of stone with three 
rooms for two students. 

The chapel was erected by Mr. John Bard, and was conse- 
crated on the 2d of February, i860, by the Rt. Rev. Horatio 
Potter, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Oxon. This church was erected 
during the rectorship of the Rev. G. F. Seymour, who after 
the organization of the college became the first warden. 

The parish school-house was also the gift of Mr. John 


Bard, which is used as a hall for declamations and reading, 
and for public lectures, and on Sunday for a Sunday-school 
for the children of the neighborhood. 

The library contains about 4,700 volumes, half of which 
number was given by Mr. John Bard. Large contributions 
have been made by the Hon. J. V. L. Pruyn, the Rev. John 
W. Moore, the Rev. J. Breckenridge Gibson, D.D.,and by the 
Society for Promoting Religion and Learning. 

The beginning of a collection of philosophical apparatus 
was given by the Hon. J. V. L. Pruyn, as much as will 
illustrate the text-books used in the college. 

As the college is a training school for the ministry, 
religious and moral culture was the first thing thought of and 
provided for. The college chapel, of course, is the center of 
all religious influences and teaching. The corner-stone of the 
chapel was laid June 16, 1857, by the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, 
D.D., the address having been delivered by the Rev. Ben- 
jamin L Haight, D.D, The church was built as a parish 
church under the rectorship of the Rev. G. F. Seymour. It 
was nearly completed and ready for use, when, on St. John's 
Day, 1855, it was destroyed by fire. The rebuilding was not 
begun until progress was made in the establishment of the 
college. Work was resumed in May, 1859, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Charles Babcock, who had been of the firm of 
R. Upjohn & Co., and who was now a candidate for orders and 
assisting the rector in the educational work which he had 
undertaken. Mr. Babcock was ordained in the college chapel 
on the 4th of March, i860. He was the first Professor of 
Mathematics. He resigned in September, 1862, and is now 
the Professor of Architecture in Cornell University. The 
church was completed and consecrated by the Rt. Rev. 
Horatio Potter, D.D., February 2, i860, with the name of 
the Holy Innocents. It is the college chapel with seats 
reserved for the college and the families of the professors. 
It is open free to the neighborhood as a parish church. The 
chapel was the gift of Mr. John Bard. 

It was announced on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
college, that the value of the building, and land, and the 


furniture and apparatus, was about $175,000. As the col- 
lege is yet without endowment, it is sustained by the con- 
tributions of Churchmen. Among the most liberal contrib- 
utors have been the Society for the Promotion of Religion 
and Learning, Mr. John Bard, Mr. John L. Aspinwall, Mrs. 
Aspinwall, Mr. William H. Aspinwall, Mr. Cyrus Curtis, the 
Rev. G. F. Seymour, the Rt. Rev. H. C. Potter, D.D., Hon. 
John V. L. Pruyn, LL.D., the Rev. J. Ireland Tucker, D.D., 
the Rev. H. C. Potter, D.D., Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Col. 
S.V. L. Cruger, the Rev. C. F. Hoffman, D.D., and numerous 

The first warden was the Rev. G. F. Seymour, now the 
Rt. Rev. G. F. Seymour, D.D., LL.D., the Bishop of Spring- 
field, who was also Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the 
General Theological Seminary as well as dean of that insti- 
tution. The second warden was the Rev. Thomas Richey, 
D.D., who was afterwards the Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History in the Seabury Divinity School, and is now the Pro- 
fessor in that department in the General Theological Seminary. 
The third warden, the Rev. Robert B. Fairbairn, D. D., 
LL.D., came to the college as Professor of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy on October 23, 1862, and was appointed 
to the wardenship on September 30, 1863. He is the author 
of a volume of College Sermons. The Rev. G. B. Hopson, 
M.A., was appointed the Professor of Latin on October 5, 
1863. He stills holds this professorship. The Rev. Andrew 
Oliver, D.D., was appointed the Professor of Greek and 
Hebrew October, 1864. He resigned in September, 1873, 
when he accepted the appointment to the Professorship of 
Biblical Learning and Interpretation of Scripture in the 
General Theological Seminary. He is the author of a trans- 
lation of the Syriac Psalter. The Rev. Charles T. Olmsted, 
M.A., was appointed the Professor of Mathematics, July 12, 
1866, which he resigned in October, 1868, to accept an 
appointment of assistant minister in Trinity Church, New 
York. The Rev. Isaac Van Winkle was appointed the Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in July, 1869, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. William W. Olssen, D.D., who was transferred to 


the Professorship of Greek and Hebrew in 1873. He is the 
author of Personality, etc., and of Revelation, Universal and 
Special. The Rev. L. L. Noble, M.A., was appointed the 
Professor of English and History in 1874. He was the 
author of the Life of Cole, the Artist ; of a volume of Poems ; 
and of a Voyage to the Arctic Seas in search of Icebergs, with 
Church, the Artist. He died in 1882. 

James Stryker, a graduate of the college in 1869, was 
appointed tutor, and afterwards Assistant Professor of Greek, 
and has been the Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy since 1873. Charles N. Foster, an A.B. of 1869, 
was tutor and afterwards Professor of English and History. 
He afterwards graduated M.D. at the Louisville Medical 
School, and is now a practicing physician. 

The following graduates have also been tutors : The 
Rev. Arthur C. Kimber, A.M., B.D., John S. Moody, B.A., 
the Rev. Scott B. Rathbun, B.A., S.T.B., James H. Smith, 
B.A., and the Rev. F. E. Shober, M.A. 

Of the persons who have graduated B.A., or have received 
part of their classical education at Annandale, 165 are now in 
Holy Orders. The number of students has been limited by 
the accommodations or the number of scholarships, which 
have been liberally supplied by the Society for Promoting Re- 
ligion and Learning. There are now nearly seventy students 
in attendance, besides twenty or more pursuing their theo- 
logical studies at the General Theological Seminary and other 
divinity schools. 

NEW YORK. i860. 

The trustees of the Parochial Fund of the Diocese of New 
York were incorporated by an act of the Legislature of the 
State of New York, passed April 15, i860, and amended 
April 22, 1867. The design of the institution was to procure 
the establishment of a large endowment, the income of which 
should be available for use in the relief of clergymen, serving 
in the Diocese of New York with stipends too scanty for sup- 
port. It was proposed that this relief should take the form 


either of addition to income or of contribution towards the 
erection of parsonages and purchase of glebes. Besides the 
accomplishment of these benefits, with such funds as might 
be committed to the corporation for use according to its dis- 
cretion, it was proposed, as a main object of the organization, 
that it should act as trustee for the care of such funds as 
might be given to it in special trust for particular parishes, 
and thus be able to afford to those who might desire to pro- 
vide a permanent endowment for the benefit of a parish the 
means of doing so without the risks attendant upon the 
entrusting of funds to the charge of so irresponsible a body- 
as in many cases the vestry of a parish is. 

The foundation of this work is due chiefly to the Hon. 
John Jay, with whom were associated as original incorporators, 
Hon. Murray Hoffman, Hon. Luther Bradish, John R. Liv- 
ingston, Esq., Hon. John A. Dix, and James F. DePeyster, 
Esq. To the eminent legal ability and experience of those 
who founded and organized this institution is to be attributed 
its establishment on a basis calculated to attain for it the most 
extended usefulness and the greatest security for the due 
discharge of its trusts. 

The trustees by their charter are entitled to receive and 
hold gifts, bequests, and devises, for the creation and accumu- 
lation of a fund, the annual income of which shall not exceed 
$30,000. It is much to be regretted that the interest of the 
Church in this institution has not as yet led to the establish- 
ment of such a fund as the needs of many clergy in the 
diocese require. The most notable accession to its capital 
has come from the will of the late Commodore Graham, who 
bequeathed to it the sum of $30,000, the income of which was 
directed to be appropriated, as far as it would go, to the bene- 
fit of clergy of the diocese whose salaries did not exceed $500 
per annum. At the last report the fund amounted to about 
$67,000, the greater part of which, however, is limited as to 
distribution of income by special directions of the donors. 
The trustees are six laymen, with the bishop, ex officio. The 
six lay trustees are elected by the Convention of the diocese, 
two in each year, to hold ofifice for three years, and, in ac- 


cordance with the charter, the trustees report annually to the 
Convention of the diocese and to the Comptroller of the 
State. The present members of the corporation, besides 
the acting bishop of the diocese, are the Hon. John Jay, 
president, Mr. William Alexander Smith, treasurer, and 
Messrs. Carlisle Norwood, George R. Schiefflin, Charles A. 
Landon, and Cornelius Vanderbilt. 


The trustees of the Sands Fund were incorporated by an 
act of the Legislature of New York, March 25, 1863. The 
fund was created by will of the late Abraham B. Sands, and the 
incorporation was obtained by the secretary and the treasurer 
of the Convention and the treasurer of the Episcopal Fund. 
The fund now (1885) amounts to $3,000, the interest of which 
is paid annually to the bishop of the diocese for the benefit of 


This institution was founded and incorporated in October, 
1864. The articles of incorporation were signed by William K. 
Kitchen, William Alexander Smith, J. Punnett, F. L. Win- 
ston, and D. T. Brown. The object had in view was and is 
"the establishing, founding, carrying on, and managing an 
asylum for the reception of children in need of a home." The 
Sheltering Arms owns twenty-seven lots in one parcel on the 
Tenth Avenue, 129th Street, Broadway, and Lawrence Street, 
and has a lease for 999 years of 104 acres of land at Mount 
Minturn in Westchester County. On the first-named piece of 
land are eight cottages. Under one roof are five cottages, 
four for families of children and one for the central purposes 
of the charity. Three of them bear the names of the donors 
of the money with which they were built, viz. : Mr. John D. 
Wolfe, Mrs. Peter Cooper, and Mrs. Mary E. C. Van Home. 
The Little May Cottage, a separate and detached house for 
twenty girls, was built and permanently endowed by Mrs. John 
Carey, Jr., as a memorial of her daughter, Mary Alida Astor 
Carey. The sumof $50,000 was donated to the trustees for this 


purpose. The Furniss Cottage, also detached, for 40 boys, is 
dedicated in memory of Mrs. William P. Furniss, who, in her 
lifetime, presented $5,000 for the erection of a cottage. To 
this sum, her daughter. Miss S. C. R. Furniss, added $21,250.17 
to erect and furnish the present large and beautiful cottage. 
The same liberal giver has set apart $10,000 as an endowment 
fund. The eighth cottage, of wood, on Lawrence Street, was 
bought with the property, and is set apart for a hospital, with 
space for 15 patients. There are in the six cottages intended 
for distinct families beds for 190 children, four of the cottages 
being for 120 girls and two for 70 boys. The present en- 
dowment fund for all purposes is about $95,000, and the 
property of the institution is entirely free from incumbrance. 


The Sisterhood of St. Mary was founded in 1865. On the 
Feast of the Purijfication of that year the first sisters, five in 
number, were professed by the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., 
in St. Michael's Church, New York. The community now 
numbers between 80 and 90, but 11 of these have entered 
into rest. The "associates" of the community, who are 
ladies living in their own homes and aiding the sisters in 
various ways, number about 200. 

The sisters are occupied principally in the Diocese of New 
York, but branch houses have been established in Tennessee 
and Wisconsin. The order in which the different works were 
established is: St. Mary's School, New York, in 1868 ; this is 
a boarding and day school for girls, with accommodations for 
30 boarders and 125 day scholars; St. Mary's Hospital for 
Children, New York, with accommodations for between 70 
and 80 children, founded in 1870; St. Gabriel's School, Peek- 
skill, New York, with accommodations at present for between 
50 and 60 boarding pupils, founded in 1872; St. Mary's 
School, Memphis, Tenn., established in 1873; it can accom- 
modate the same number of pupils as St. Mary's, New York. 
In 1882 the Sea-side Home at Rockaway was given to the 
sisters as an adjunct of St. Mary's Hospital for Children. 

The sisters also have the exclusive care of the following 


diocesan and parish institutions : the House of Mercy, New- 
York, since 1865 ; the Church Home, Memphis, Tennessee, 
since 1873; Kemper Hall, a diocesan school for girls, at 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, since 1879 > ^^^ ^" Trinity Parish, New- 
York, Trinity Hospital, Varick Street (since its foundation 
in 1874), Trinity Mission, State Street, and Trinity Sea-side 
Home, Islip, Long Island. 


The House of the Good Shepherd was founded in 1866 
by the Rev. E. Gay, Jr., and was incorporated in 1870. It is 
located on the west bank of the Hudson River, about forty miles 
from New York City, at Tomkins Cove, Rockland County. 
The special work with which it is charged is the care and 
education of orphan and destitute children and missionary ser- 
vice in Rockland County. Its property consists of ninety 
acres of land rising from the river, on which it borders for 
about a quarter of a mile. A portion only, some fifteen to 
twenty acres," has been cleared, and is in grass or under cul- 
tivation. The land is well watered by a brook and several 
springs. From the house, one hundred and sixty feet above 
the river, an extended and attractive view presents itself, and 
as a home in the country for poor children, taken out of the 
streets and tenement houses of a large city, it is unrivaled. 
In its beginning, this charity was small and unimportant. As 
far back as 1865, several destitute children in Trinity Parish, 
Haverstraw, were bequeathed to the care of the rector of the 
parish. Soon after other children were found to need similar 
care and support, and several noble-hearted and devoted 
Church women interested themselves in the effort to meet the 
necessities of the case. A house was taken, and the children 
gathered under a sheltering roof, and in the course of five or 
six years, through gifts and offerings, a family of twenty and 
more little ones was fed, clothed, and taught. A Board of 
Managers was incorporated in 1870; kind friends came for- 
ward to help, and the Legislature of the State was induced to 
make a liberal appropriation in behalf of the work. By de- 
grees several buildings, for the uses of the charity, and for 


missionary purposes, were erected : " The House," in 1871 ; 
"The Beehive," in 1872; "The Hospital," in 1872-3; "The 
Riverside" (purchased), in 1872 ; "The Rectory," in 1880-1, 
and " The House of Prayer," in 188 1-2. The corner-stone of 
the " Church of the Holy Child Jesus" was laid in June, 1871, 
The foundations and basement walls are built, and stone col- 
lected. There is no debt incurred. The building fund is in- 
creasing slowly, but, at this date (1885), some $3,000 are 
needed to complete the edifice. Since the opening of the 
house, there have been cared for under its roof some 45 
children, on an average, from year to year. The present 
number is 30. Some make a longer, some a shorter stay. 
The children have here a Christian home, in which they are 
trained for usefulness in life, and towards which in later years 
they entertain feelings of sincere affection and lasting obliga- 
tion. The missionary work in the vicinity of the House of 
the Good Shepherd is, in substance, as follows : There are 
five stations. i. The chapel of the house, full services 
through the year ; Sunday-school, 100 scholars and 6 teach- 
ers. 2. The House of Prayer, at Caldwell's, services on 
Sundays, in afternoon ; Sunday-school, 45 scholars and 5 
teachers; Tuesday, service and lecture. 3. Grace Church 
(about a mile south of the house), service and sermon on 
Sunday, in afternoon; on Wednesday and Friday afternoons, 
service and lecture. 4. Montville, occasional services. 5. At 
various points in the mountains, occasional services. In con- 
nection with these latter, it is proper to state that about ten 
miles distant and in the woods, mission services were begun 
among the simple people there, who earn a scanty livelihood 
by making baskets. This was in October, 1879. ^ congre- 
gation was gathered, and a log cabin served as a place for a 
school and public worship. Through the generosity of a 
New York lady, Mrs. Margaret E. Zimmerman, a handsome 
stone church and a school-house have been erected for the 
spiritual good of these mountaineers. It is entitled " The 
Mission Church of St. John the Evangelist, in memoriam of 
John Edward Zimmerman." It was opened for divine ser- 
vice November 15, 1880, and will seat 200 people. The 


House of the Good Shepherd depends for its support and 
continuance upon the gifts and offerings of the benevolent 
and charitable members of Christ's body, the Church. 


The Home for Incurables was founded in April, 1866, by 
a board of clerical and lay managers of the Protestant Epis- 
copal churches in New York city, and was incorporated the 
same year. Its special work is to care for the incurably sick, 
and to furnish a " home" for its inmates, who, unlike those 
of an ordinary hospital, are afflicted with diseases pronounced 
incurable, and who consequently will, in many instances, re- 
main objects of its nursing care for life. The institution is 
located at Fordham, in the twenty-fourth ward. New York 
City. The property was purchased by Miss C. L. Wolfe, and 
donated to the institution in memory of her father. Its 
buildings were erected by the contributions of friends of the 
charity, the last structure being a chapel, excellently built 
and furnished, through the generous gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ben- 
jamin H. Field, of New York City. The " home" needs ad- 
ditional buildings, and hopes ere long to secure them, and 
thus accommodate many applicants who are now turned 
away for lack of room and means. A payment of $5,000 
endows a free bed in perpetuity, and a payment of $2,000 a 
free bed during the life of the donor. 


YORK, 1867. 

This institution was founded in 1867, under the auspices 
of the New York Protestant Episcopal City Mission Society. 
A meeting of Church people was held in Trinity Chapel 
Sunday-school room, on the evening of January 21, 1867, at 
which the bishop of the diocese presided, and spoke in en- 
couragement of the object had in view by the proposed 
society, viz. : to lessen the obstacles to the return of fallen 
women to a virtuous life, and to encourage their reform, 
chiefly through the loving kindness and sympathy shown by 
Christian women towards them. The Rev. Drs. Montgomery 


and Tuttle, the Rev, Mr. Hilliard, the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Randall, and the Rev. Dr. Dix, followed briefly, commend- 
ing the undertaking. A society was at once formed, under 
the name of " THE MIDNIGHT MISSION," mostly composed 
of members of the executive committee of the City Mission 
Society and of the St. Barnabas' Men's Missionary Associa- 
tion. A ladies' committee, under the presidency of Mrs. A. 
Tyler, was also promptly organized, and by faithful, self- 
denying work made the idea of the mission a reality. The 
institution was incorporated by the Legislature of the State, 
July 7, 1868. It owns its "home," No. 260 Greene Steeet, 
which is built on a Sailors* Snug Harbor lease, and is free from 
debt. The conduct of the "home" is now in charge of the 
Sisterhood of St. John the Baptist, and its capacity (for 
about forty inmates) is too limited for the number applying 
for admission. There is, however, a fair prospect that the 
mission may soon obtain, what has always been much de- 
sired, a house in the country, where, removed from the dis- 
tractions and temptations of the city, women may be sent 
who manifest a sincere penitence, a desire to reform, and a 
resolute purpose henceforth to lead godly and Christian lives. 


This institution was founded in 1868, by the Rev. East- 
burn Benjamin, since deceased. The work which it took in 
hand was to provide a home for indigent blind people, of 
whom there is a large number in the city of New York un- 
cared for. The Home was opened at first in the Second 
Avenue ; then it was removed to the Seventh Avenue ; after- 
wards, and up to date (1885), it occupies for its Home, No. 
219 West Fourteenth Street, which is the property of the 
society. The average number of its inmates has been about 
40. The new house, which is now in course of erection on 
the Tenth Avenue, corner of One Hundred and Fourth 
Street, will accommodate 100 or more persons. It is ex- 
pected that the society will be able to remove to its new 
building in May, 1886. 


YORK, il 

This institution was founded and incorporated by the 
Legislature in March, 1868, the certificate being signed by 
W. Rhinelander, Abbott Brown, Stephen H. Tyng, jr., John 
Cotton Smith, William T. Sabine and Edward Cowley. The 
particular business and objects of the society are : " the re- 
ceiving and adopting children and youths of both sexes, be- 
tween the ages of twelve months and fifteen years, who are 
orphans, half-orphans, or otherwise friendless ; these to keep, 
support and educate, apprentice, and place out to service, 
trades, and schools ; also to receive such children of poor 
clergymen deemed eligible, and who shall be approved by 
the trustees of the Shepherd's Fold, and to receive other 
children and youths for education and training, to such ex- 
tent as, in the judgment of the trustees, may be expedient." 
The building formerly occupied and owned by the society 
on East Eighty-sixth Street was sold some years ago, and 
active operations were for a time suspended. There is a Build- 
ing Fund of about $10,000, to which additions are made from 
year to year. The present head-quarters are in a hired house 
on the Tenth Avenue, containing 24 boys. Other build- 
ings have been hired for the accommodation of children, of 
whom there are at present 60, under the care of the 



This association was founded on the second Tuesday 
after Easter, April 6, 1869, in St. Ann's Church, New York, 
by the Rt. Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D.,LL.D., D.C.L., Bishop 
of New York. The nature and object of its work are: "to 
minister to the poor, the sick, the homeless and the outcast, 
and to care for little children." The House of the Good 
Shepherd, for the use of this association, was erected in 1878, 
in Asbury Park, New Jersey, upon land given by Mr. James 


A. Bradley, by donations of friends of the sisters. It is used 
as a place of needed recreation for the poor during the 
summer. The house No. 191 Ninth Avenue, New York, has 
been rented by a friend, for the Sisters' House and the Train- 
ing School for Girls. The sisterhood is in charge of St. 
Barnabas' House, New York, and visits various public institu- 
tions. It is also in charge of Christ Hospital, Jersey City, 
and St. James' Parish Home and Day School, Wilmington, 
North Carolina. The Bishop of New York is the head of 
this sisterhood, the Rev. Dr. Gallaudet the pastor, and Sister 
Ellen the presiding sister. 


This institution was founded in 1869, and incorporated 
October 7, 1869, by Theodore S. Rumney, Edward Haight, 
W. C. Wetmore, Alexander M, Stanton and H. J. Cammann. 
The special work of the institution is the care and relief of 
consumptive patients, these being chiefly among the poor and 
those in very straitened circumstances. The patients, as a 
rule, are entirely destitute, having consumed past savings in 
long illness at home, and coming to the house when the 
purse has given out. The door of this house is always open 
to the desolate and poor, and him that hath no helper. 
This institution owns an acre of ground and buildings 
thereupon, with accommodations for 40 patients. The 
property is situated at Mount Hope, Tremont, New York, 
and is free from debt, and the endowment fund amounts 
to $30,683.47. The house needs additional funds and in- 
creased liberal gifts, in order to carry out the charitable pur- 
poses of the officers, the Board of Trustees and the Ladies' 



This free hospital was founded in September, 1870, by 
the Sisters of St. Mary. Its specific work is to furnish med- 
ical and surgical treatment for children between the ages of 
two and fourteen years. The hospital building is located at 


Nos. 405, 407 and 409 West Thirty-fourth Street, New- 
York. It was erected in 1880, has all the modern improve- 
ments, accommodates 70 patients, and has connected with 
it a dispensary, which is open daily. The institution has 
also a summer branch at Rockaway Beach, Long Island, 
to which most of the patients are removed in June, and re- 
main through the summer months. Eighteen of the beds are 
endowed by the payment of $3,000 each, and ten are sup- 
ported each year by the payment of $200. 


The Children's Fold was incorporated by the Legislature 
of New York, in the year 1871. The certificate of incorpora- 
tion was signed by Edward Cowley, H. D. Wyman, William 
R. Gardner, Elias J. Pattison, James Pott, Mrs. George De- 
pew, and Mrs. S. M. G, Cowley. The object of the Fold, as 
stated in the certificate, is "the receiving and adopting chil- 
dren and youth of both sexes, between the ages of twelve 
months and twelve years, who are orphans or half-orphans, 
or otherwise destitute, always giving preference to those 
coming from the institutions on the islands of the city of 
New York ; these to keep, support and educate, or appren- 
tice and place out to service and trades ; also, to receive such 
other children and youth for training and education as, in the 
judgment of the managers, may be deemed expedient." The 
Fold has always thus far been gathered in houses hired by 
the managers for the purpose. Its present location is in 
Broadway and Ninety-third Street. The number of children 
under its care at date (1885) is 160. 


This institution was founded in October, 1872, and was 
incorporated by the Legislature of New York December 14th 
of the same year. The persons named in the certificate as 
trustees were the Rev. Isaac H. Tuttle, D.D., the Rev. 
Thomas Gallaudet, D.D., the Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., 
Thomas P. Cummings, Lloyd W. Wells, William Alexander 
Smith, Isaac C. Kendall, Anthony B. McDonald, Charles H. 


Clayton, William Niblo, Henry K. Bogert, Francis Pott, 
William A. Duncan, David Pell Secor, and Albert G. Thorp, 
Jr. The nature of the work of this institution is the caring 
for the old people placed in it, and a peculiar feature is that 
old couples are not forced apart, but are enabled to live out 
their lives together. Over seventy persons have been taken 
care of so far, and nearly all of them have been persons of 
refinement and education. Among them have been clergy- 
men, doctors, lawyers and merchants, who formerly were 
quite wealthy. These people certainly must suffer much 
when exposed to extreme poverty, and to hardships to which 
they have been so utterly unaccustomed, and to them the 
Home has been opened in preference to others. The build- 
ing now occupied (1885) for the institution is No. 487 Hudson 
Street, adjoining St. Luke's Church. This has been hired, 
but recently a plot of thirteen lots was purchased on Morn- 
ingside Avenue, extending from One Hundred and Thirteenth 
to One Hundred and Fourteenth Street. The trustees, how- 
ever, have not begun to build as yet, there not being sufficient 
funds in hand to authorize such action. As a matter of gen- 
eral interest the following facts deserve to be put on record : 
In the autumn of 1872 a layman who was connected with a 
number of Church institutions was called upon by an *' old 
man " — a vestryman of the Church of the Holy Evangelists, 
in Vandewater Street, Rev. Benjamin Evans, rector, to ask 
for himself and wife help towards getting into a Church 
institution, as they were without means and unable to earn a 
living. The layman gave him a letter to the Rev. Dr. 
Muhlenberg, hoping the persons applying might find a rest- 
ing-place at Saint Johnland. Dr. M. received the old man 
very kindly, and said that he could provide for him at the 
" Old Man's Inn," but that there was no place for his wife. 
The layman, on inquiry, found that there was no institution 
in the Church where a man and wife could be taken care of. 
He thereupon made up his mind that such a state of things 
ought not any longer to exist. He called on Bishop Potter, 
the Rev. Drs. Tuttle, Gallaudet and Dix, and several laymen 
of the Church — among them Messrs. Niblo, Lloyd Wells, 


A. B. McDonald, Clayton, Kendall (now deceased), with 
others — and all favoring the project, arrangements were made 
for a meeting to be held in St. Ann's Church, Eighteenth 
Street, on October i6, 1872. The meeting was held in the 
morning, and the " Home for Old Men and Aged Couples" 
was duly organized. The vacant building on Hudson Street, 
adjoining St. Luke's Church (and recently vacated by removal 
of " St. Luke's Hom5 for Indigent Christian Females " to the 
new quarters on Eighty-ninth Street), was leased and opened 
for the reception of the " old couples " and others. The 
officers of the Home are the Rt. Rev. Bishop Horatio 
Potter, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., president ; the Rev. Isaac H. 
Tuttle, D.D., vice-president ; Henry Lewis Morris, secretary, 
and Hermann H. Cammann, treasurer. 


This mission was founded in October, 1872, by the Rt. 
Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., and a number of 
clergy and laity of New York, at the urgency of the Rev. 
Thomas Gallaudet, D.D., who was appointed general man- 
ager. The special work which the mission has in hand is 
" to promote the temporal and spiritual welfare of adult deaf 
mutes." For twelve years past the mission or society has 
maintained a home for aged and infirm deaf mutes, at No. 
220 East Thirteenth Street, a hired house. Recently, how- 
ever, it has purchased a farm of 156 acres, with suitable 
buildings, on the Hudson River, six miles below Poughkeep- 
sie, to be occupied as a permanent home for deaf mutes. 


The present community was founded February 5, 1874, 
by Helen Stuyvesant Folsom, with the purpose of establish- 
ing a branch of the Community of St. John the Baptist in 
America. The lines of work of the Community of St. John 
the Baptist are : i. The restoration of fallen women who are 
either prepared to return to the world to live in it more faith- 
fully, or else to remain secluded under religious rules, if, 
after due probation, they are found fitted thus to devote 


themselves. 2. The instruction and training of orphans and 
other children. 3. The care of the sick and infirm. 4. Mis- 
sion work amongst the poor. The Community in New York 
was incorporated by the Legislature of the State in the 
spring of 1876. In 1881 it was affiliated, and its government 
became independent. The present St. John Baptist House, 
No. 233 East Seventeenth Street, New York City, was built 
in 1878, to be the mother house of the Community in the 
United States. A Church work-room for ecclesiastical em- 
broidery is carried on in the house, and some of the sisters are 
largely engaged in active work amongst the sick and poor in 
Holy Cross Mission. A new school-house for young ladies 
was built in 1884, adjoining the mother house. It is called 
St. John Baptist School, and will accommodate about thirty 
pupils. The present is believed to be the first Religious House 
built for the express purpose in the American Branch of the 
Church Catholic. The Bishop of the Diocese of New York 
is visitor, and the Rev. G. H. Houghton, D.D., is warden. 


This institution was founded by Sister Louise, September 
15, 1879, ^^^ was carried on under her charge till her death, 
March 29, 1883. Experience acquired by her in visiting 
and ministering to the poor of the city, had " revealed a 
peculiar and pressing demand of suffering, in the form of 
incurable diseases among the respectable sick poor." Having 
obtained the approval and authorization of the bishop of the 
diocese, the home was opened, at No. 18 East Eleventh 
Street, with one patient, the avowed object being not merely 
to establish a hospital, but to make it a thoroughly Christian 
home for sufferers. The House of the Holy Comforter be- 
came a legal corporation under the State law, June 10, 1880, 
with nine trustees, and the bishop of the diocese as visitor. 
The objects of the society were thus defined : " i. The 
establishment of a free home for incurables among Protestant 
women and female children of the better class, who are with- 
out means, or friends able to support and care for them, and 


who are, upon examination of the house physician, pro- 
nounced as suffering from an incurable disease, and cannot be 
received into hospitals and homes for the young and aged. 
2. Also of a training school in connection with such home, 
for the reception of Protestant girls from the ages of nine to 
fourteen years, retaining its care of them until they are eighteen 
years of age, and giving them a spiritual and secular education, 
together with a thorough training in all domestic and useful 
duties." Without a suitable home, or any endowment beyond 
a small sum devoted to a specified object, the institution has 
yet been enabled to do a large amount of good, and to relieve 
an untold extent of suffering. It provides for 35 or 36 
patients, and has ministered to 125 in all. Of course, all who 
enter it expect to remain there through life, and some have 
been inmates ever since its foundation, while others have re- 
covered sufficiently to leave, and resume their usual avocations. 
Its object and the work it has done, and is doing, give it a 
claim for aid from the charitable and benevolent, whose alms 
and gifts are its sole dependence, under God. The hospital 
work is carried on by the Sisters of the Community of St. 
John the Baptist, under a board of trustees, of which the 
Rev. George H. Houghton, D.D., is the president. A 
" Ladies Association," of twenty-four members, of which 
Mrs. J. C. O'Connor, Jr., is treasurer, and Mrs. S. K. Walton 
secretary, takes an active part in providing for the support 
of the home. The duties of house chaplain are performed 
by the Rev. M. Van Rensselaer, D.D. 


This society was founded December 19, 1881, by a benev- 
olent lady and communicant in the Church in New York. 
The special object of the society is both to protect children 
and young girls, and also to give them suitable training in 
manual labor, cooking, laundry work, housework, sewing, and 
embroidery. The society occupies at present the house, 60 
South Washington Square, New York City, but expects early 
in the year 1886 to remove to a more eligible location in 
Twenty-second Street. The number of inmates is about 


twenty. The house mother is Miss J. E. Faitoute ; the pres- 
ident of the society is the Rev. Geo. H. Houghton, D.D., 
and the secretary and treasurer is Charles W. Kent. 


This institution was founded in January, 1881, by the 
rector and a few ladies of St. Paul's Parish, Yonkers, New 
York. It was incorporated by the Legislature of the State in 
May, 1884. Its chief purpose is to provide a temporary 
home for homeless children, under eight years of age, and a 
home for old women. On the first of May, 1881, the present 
house, No. 176 Palisade Avenue, was rented. In May, 1884, 
the trustees purchased the property consisting of the house and 
the lot on which it stands, and two adjoining lots. The cost 
of this property was $7,500, of which $2,500 were paid, 
leaving a mortgage of $5,000. During the summer of 1885 
an addition was made to the house, costing $1,000, which 
has been paid. A board of trustees, consisting of nine 
persons, members of St. Paul's Parish, have full control of all 
the affairs of this corporation. A board of managers, con- 
sisting' of fifteen ladies, have the full charge of the domestic 
affairs of the nursery and home. There were in the institu- 
tion during 1885 twenty-five children, and two old women. 
The present ofificers of the corporation are : The Rev. W. H. 
Mills, D.D., president ; E. M. Le Moyne, secretary, and C. W. 
Seymour, treasurer. 



It has been thought desirable to have some account given 
of the scholars and authors who have lived and labored, or 
are living and laboring, in the Diocese of New York, and 
whose published works furnish evidence of the progress of 
good letters during the century just past. At the request of 
the editor of the present memorial volume, the following 
paper has been prepared. Without claiming for it anything 
like an exhaustive treatment of the large and interesting field 
of Church literature since the opening of the nineteenth 
century, it is hoped that the record here presented will not 
be deemed wholly without profit or value to Church people. 
For the literature of the Church at large, during the same 
period, the Rev. J. H. Ward's monograph, in Bishop Perry's 
History of the American Episcopal Church, may be con- 
sulted with advantage. The sketch here given is limited, of 
course, to those identified with the Church in New York, 
including those who, for a longer or shorter portion of their 
careers, were connected with the Diocese of New York. 
Beginning with the bishops, as is proper, we note that Bishop 
Provoost, though an accomplished scholar, did not see fit to 
put anything of his into print. The second Bishop of New 
York, the Rt. Rev. Benjamin Moore D.D., was educated at 
King's (now Columbia) College, and was president of that 
institution from 1801-1811. He was regarded as an excellent 
preacher, and published a number of occasional sermons, and 
also put forth a pamphlet defending the Church against some 
Presbyterian strictures. After his death, two volumes of 
Discourses were given to the world by his son, Clement C. 
Moore, LL.D. (8vo, 1824); these have obtained high praise 
from competent critics. The Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, 
D.D., third Bishop of New York, was not only the most 
energetic and active bishop in the Church in his day, but was 


also unflagging in the use of the pen. He began at the com- 
paratively early age of twenty-eight, and as he was an entire 
believer in the Apostolic position and rightful claims of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, as well as thoroughly honest in 
purpose and conviction of duty, he devoted himself chiefly to 
the setting forth of the true place of the Church in the United 
States, and defending it against all opponents. Dr. Sprague, 
in his Annals of the American Pulpit (v., 447-50), gives a 
full and complete list of the works of which Bishop Hobart 
was the author, compiler, or editor ; among these it is suffi- 
cient here to name, The Companion to the Altar (1804); The 
Companion to the Festivals and Fasts (1805) ; The Clergyman s 
Companion (1806) ; Apology for Apostolic Order and its Advo- 
cates (8vo, 1807) ; The Christian s Manual of Faith and 
Devotion (18 14) ; Funeral Address at the Interment of Bishop 
Moore, with an Appendix on the Place of Departed Spirits, and 
the Descent of Christ into Hell (1816) ; The Corruptions of the 
Church of Rome Contrasted with Certain Protestant Errors 
(1817) ; D' Oyly and Manf s Commentary on the Bible {\Z\%-2'^ ; 
Sermons on the Principal Events and Truths of Redemption (2 
vols., 8vo, 1824); The High Churchman Vindicated, a charge 
to the clergy (1826). Bishop Hobart's posthumous works, 
with a memoir by Rev. Dr. Berrian, were published in 1833 
(3 vols., 8vo). As Bishop Hobart wrote rapidly and under 
strong impulses usually, his style is open to criticism for lack 
of polish, etc. (as has been noted, p. 153, ante). 

The fifth Bishop of New York, the Rt. Rev. J. M. Wain- 
wright, D.D., D.C.L., a graduate of Harvard College, and 
facile in the use of the pen, published a number of sermons, 
preached on special occasions, between 1828 and 1835. His 
controversy with Dr. Potts, as to whether there can be a 
church without a bishop, was carried on through the New 
York press in 1844, and shortly afterwards was published in 
pamphlet form. Dr. Wainwright's part was very ably sus- 
tained, and the cause of the Church gained favor with the 
intelligent reading public. He published Family Prayers, 
in 1845 ^"^ 1850, which are much esteemed by those who 
have proved their value by daily use. In 1850 he brought 


out Pathways and Abiding Places of Our Saviour, being 
an account of travels in the Holy Land (1850), and The 
Land of Bondage (185 1). He also edited \.\\q Memoirs and 
Sermons of Bishop Ravenscroft of North Carolina, and 
The Life of Bishop Heber, carrying the latter through the 
press for Mrs. Heber's benefit. A volume of sermons selected 
from his manuscripts was published under the Rev. Dr. 
Higbee's care the year after his decease. The Rt. Rev. 
Horatio Potter, D.D., D.C.L., sixth Bishop of New York, has 
made contributions to Church literature by publishing a 
number of single sermons, addresses, etc. He has written in 
past years for reviews, but has not published any work in 
book form. The Assistant Bishop of New York, the Rt. Rev. 
Henry C. Potter, D.D., LL.D., has published a number of 
volumes, including Sisterhoods and Deacojiesses, at Home and 
Abroad : A History of their Rise and Growth in the Protestant 
Episcopal Churchy together with Rules for their Organization 
and Government (1872) ; The Gates of the East : A Winter in 
Egypt and Syria (1876), and Sermons of the City (1880). 

In addition to the Rt. Rev. Fathers just named, who have 
presided over the Diocese of New York, there are others in 
the episcopate who come properly within the scope of the 
present sketch, in consequence of the fact that a large or the 
larger part of their literary labors was performed while they 
were in New York. Bishop Whittingham, who was eminent 
for scholarship and ability, takes lead among these. While 
he was as yet a very young man, he published a number of 
valuable works. As early as 1827, in conjunction with the 
Rev. Dr. S. H, Turner, he translated Jahn's Introduction 
to the Old Testament. He became editor of The Family Visitor 
(fortnightly), and The Children's Magazine (monthly), and 
furnished excellent matter for Church people's reading. In 
1829 he took charge of the work of The Protestant Episcopal 
Press, and in 1831 assumed editorial care of The Churchman, 
in which for two or three years he rendered valuable service 
in advocating and setting forth Catholic Church principle 
and practice, as these are held by the American Episcopal 
Church. In the service of The Protestant Episcopal Press 


(from 1828 onwards) he brought out the Parish and Reli- 
gious Family Library^ for use in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, 13 vols., i2mo. Among these are the Apostolic 
Fathers, Sumner on Apostolic Preaching, Waltons Lives, 
etc. Early in 1836 he was appointed Professor of Ecclesias- 
tical History in the General Theological Seminary, in 
which position he served the best interests of the Church 
and the ministry until his acceptance of the bishopric of 
Maryland, in September, 1840. Subsequently, he edited for 
an American edition, with notes, etc., Palmer's Treatise on 
the Church of Christ (2 vols., 8vo, 1841); Commentary of 
Vincent of Lerins, new translation, with notes, etc. (1847); 
Ratramn on the Lord's Supper, with a revised translation, 
and Anglican Catholicity Vindicated against Roman Innova- 
tions, being Isaac Casaubon's answer to Cardinal Perron 
(1875). The Rt. Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D.D., LL.D., 
second Bishop of Western New York, who was educated in 
New York City and held the rectorship of one of its chief 
parishes for years, is well known not only as a theologian and 
scholar, but also as one of the few poets which the Church in 
America has produced. In this latter respect he is a worthy 
peer of William Croswell and others who have contributed 
to make Church poetry what it is in our day. In 1840 he 
published his Christian Ballads, of which a revised edition, 
with illustrations, was issued in 1864; he also published 
Athanasion, and other Poems (1842); Hallowe'en, and 
other Poems (1844); Saul, a Mystery, and other Poems 
(1845). Besides these he published a volume of Sermons 
on Doctrine and Duty (1854); Impressions of England 
(1856); Criterion (i866j, and is now (1885) occupied in 
editing, with valuable notes and elucidations. The Ante- 
Nicene Fathers, to be completed in eight royal 8vo volumes. 
Bishop Coxe has also been a frequent contributor to reviews, 
magazines, and other periodicals. The Rt. Rev. A. N. Little- 
john, D.D., LL.D., first Bishop of Long Island, became rector 
of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, N.Y., in i860, 
and when Long Island was set off as a diocese he was elected 
to be its bishop, and was consecrated in January, 1869. 


Bishop Littlejohn is a vigorous writer, and has published a 
number of volumes which rank high in the esteem of the 
Church. Among these may be noted here : Lectures on the 
Philosophy of Religion (1855); Individualism: Its Growth 
and Tendencies, with some Suggestions as to the Remedy for 
its Evils, being sermons preached before the University of 
Cambridge in November, 1880; Condones ad Clerum, 1879, 
1 880 ; The Christian Ministry at the Close of the Nineteenth 
Century (1885). The Bishop of Long Island has also con- 
tributed to Church literature by publishing a number of 
charges, addresses, occasional sermons, etc. 

With this brief record, we pass from the bishops to others 
in the ministry who have rendered good service in behalf of 
the Church's literature during the century just passed. We 
give the names in chronological order as nearly as may be. 
The Rev. John Bowden, D.D., was of Irish birth (d. 1817), 
but came to America in early life. He graduated at King's 
(now Columbia) College in 1772. He went to England for 
orders, and on his return, in 1774, he became an assistant 
minister of Trinity Church, New York. In 1801, Dr. Bowden 
was appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy, Belles-Lettres, 
and Logic in Columbia College, a position which he filled to 
the close of his life. His published works were mostly con- 
troversial, in defence of the Church's claims and position, 
against Presbyterian and other objections. The series of let- 
ters addressed to the Rev. Dr. Miller, a Presbyterian divine 
in New York, entitled The Apostolic Origin of Episcopacy 
Asserted (iSoS), are very able, and have been republished in 
the Works on Episcopacy, vol. i., Protestant Episcopal Press 
(183 1 ). Dr. Sprague (v. 306) gives a full list of Dr. Bowden's 
publications. The Rev. Edmund D. Griffin (d. 1830) was a 
graduate of Columbia College, entered the ministry in 1826, 
and for two years occupied a position in New York City. 
Health having failed, he went abroad, in 1828, and on his re- 
turn, in April, 1830, he was engaged in service at Columbia 
College, during the temporary absence of Dr. McVickar. His 
strength failed rapidly after this, and at the beginning of Sep- 
tember he went away to his rest. Dr. McVickar published 


his literary Remains in 1831 (2 vols.), with a memoir of the 
deceased. The Rev. Dr. James Milnor (d. 1844) was bred to 
the bar in his native city, Philadelphia, and for a number of 
years was engaged in civil service. In 1814 he was admitted 
to the ministry by Bishop White, served the Church in Phila- 
delphia two years, and then accepted a call to St. George's 
Church, New York. This position he held till his death. Dr. 
Milnor published an Oration on Masonry (1811), and a num- 
ber of occasional sermons (1817, 1828, 1836). The Rev. Dr. 
John D. Ogilby was born in Ireland, but came to the United 
States when a boy five years old. He graduated at Columbia 
College in 1829, and took orders in 1838. Three years later 
he was elected to the chair of Ecclesiastical History in the 
General Theological Seminary, and devoted himself to the 
work he had undertaken. His health broke down, and he 
went abroad in hope of recovery, but he died in Paris, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1851. Dr. Ogilby published An Outline of the Argu- 
ment against the Validity of Lay Baptism (1842) ; The Catholic 
Church in England and America (1844), together with a num- 
ber of single sermons, addresses, etc. The Rev. Bird Wilson, 
D.D., LL.D. (d. 1859), ^^s '^ native of Pennsylvania, gradu- 
ated from the University of that State in 1792, and five years 
later was admitted to the bar at the early age of twenty-one. 
He was elevated to the bench not long after, but, desiring 
rather to be occupied in the work of the ministry, he studied 
theology under Bishop White, and took orders in 1819. He 
was appointed Professor of Systematic Divinity in the General 
Theological Seminary in 1821, and resided thenceforth in New 
York. His judicial training was an admirable help to him in 
this position, which is second to none in importance in a 
course of theological training for the ministry. At the ad- 
vanced age of seventy-four, Dr. Wilson resigned his profess- 
orship, and claimed his well-earned repose. His chief con- 
tribution to Church literature was the Memoir of the Life of 
Bishop White (1839). It was undertaken at the request of 
the bishop's family and the clergy of Pennsylvania generally, 
and is a fitting tribute to the noble qualities of head and 
heart possessed by the venerable and beloved presiding bishop 


of the American Episcopal Church. The Rev. Dr. S. H. 
Turner, coadjutor of Dr. Wilson in the Seminary (d. 1861), 
was Professor of Biblical Learning and the Interpretation of 
Scripture from 1820 to i860. Dr. Turner's contributions in 
his department were numerous and valuable. He was a very- 
industrious student, and published, during his long service as 
professor in the Seminary, Notes on the Epistle to the Romans 
(1824); Planck's Introduction to Sacred Philology and Inter- 
pretation, translated from the German, with notes (1834); 
Companion to the Book of Genesis (1841) ; Essay on our Lord's 
Discourse at Capernaum, recorded in the sixth chapter of St. 
John, with Strictures on Cardinal Wiseman s Lectures on the 
Real Presence, etc. (185 1) ; Thoughts on the Origin, Character, 
and Interpretation of Scripture Prophecy (1852) ; St. Pauls 
Epistle to the Hebrews, Greek and English, tvith a Commentary 
(1852) ; Spiritual Things Compared with Spiritual ; or, The 
Gospels and Acts Illustrated by the use of Parallel References 
(1859). His latest work was an Autobiography, which con- 
tains curious and interesting matter (published in 1863, after 
his death). The Rev. Dr. William Berrian, rector of Trinity 
Church, New York (d. 1862), during his long incumbency of 
over thirty years published a number of volumes, viz. : 
Travels in France and Italy in 18 17 (1820); Devotions for the 
Sick Room, Family and Private Prayers, Sailors Manual, 
Historical Sketch of Trinity Church, New York (1847) > Recol- 
lections of Departed Friends (1850). 

The Rev. Francis L. Hawks, D.D., LL.D., aptly char- 
acterized by Dr. Seabury as "the Chrysostom of the Ameri- 
can Church," was a native of North Carolina (born in 1798, 
died in 1866). Bred to the law he nevertheless entered the 
ministry in 1827; became rector of St. Stephen's Church, 
New York, 1831 ; rector of St. Thomas' Church, 1832; 
rector of Calvary Church, 1849-1862 ; and from 1865 to his 
death, rector of the new Chapel of the Holy Saviour. Dr. 
Hawks was several times elected bishop, but he declined 
elevation to the episcopate. In 1835 he was appointed by 
the General Convention " historiographer " of the American 
Episcopal Church, and was zealous in discharge of the im- 


portant duties attached to that post. His publications were 
very numerous, and covered a wide field of literature and re- 
search. Among his works, we name here ; Contributions to 
the Ecclesiastical History of the United States, embracing 
Virginia and Maryland (2 vols., 1836-1841); also, as part of 
the same contributions, Commentary on the Constitution and 
Canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States 
(i 841 ); A uricular Confession in the Protestant Episcopal Church 
(1850); History of North Carolina (1857). Dr. Hawks 
was translator and editor of several valuable works, viz. : 
Rivero and Tschudi's Antiquities of Peru (1854) ; The 
Official and other State Papers of the late Maj'.-Gen. Alexander 
Hamilton (1842); Narrative of Commodore Perry s Expe- 
dition to the China Seas and Japan, in 1852-54 (1856), com- 
piled from Perry's original notes and journals ; The Romance 
of Biography (12 vols). Dr. Hawks, in conjunction with 
Dr. C. S. Henry, established The New York Review (1837- 
43), in which several of the ablest papers were the product of 
his pen. He was also a frequent contributor to other re- 
views, to magazines, journals, etc. His latest publication was 
Documentary History of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
containing documents concerning the Church in Connecticut, 
edited in conjunction with W. S. Perry (2 vols., 1863). The 
Rev. John McVickar, D.D. (d. 1868), who, for forty years 
filled the chair of Moral Philosophy, Rhetoric, and Belles- 
Lettres in Columbia College, New York, was a valuable con- 
tributor to Church literature in his day and generation. In 
addition to numerous pamphlets and essays. Dr. McVickar 
published a Narrative of the Life of Dr. Samuel Bard 
(1822); Outlines of Political Economy (1825); Memoir of 
the Rev. Edmund D. Griffin (1831); Early Years of Bishop 
Hobart (1834); and Professional Years of Bishop Hob art 
(1836). The Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D. (d. 1872), grandson 
of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Seabury, of Connecticut, received 
orders in 1826. In 1831 he removed to New York, and a few 
years later became editor of The Churchman. This posi- 
tion he held for some fifteen years, and rendered that journal 
one of the most efficient and powerful in the Church in its ad- 


vocacy of the true position and rightful claims of the Ameri- 
can branch of the Catholic Church. Dr. Seabury was rector 
of the Church of the Anunciation, New York, from 1838 to 
1868, and in 1862 was appointed Dr. Turner's successor in the 
chair of Biblical Learning in the General Theological Sem- 
inary. His chief publications were : The Continuity of the 
Church of England in the Sixteenth Century (1853); Dis- 
courses on the Supremacy and Obligation of Conscience (i860) ; 
American Slavery distinguished from the Slavery of English 
Theorists, and justified by the Law of Nature (1861) ; The 
Theory and Use of the Church Calendar (1872). Discourses 
Illustrative of the N attire and Work of the Holy Spirit^ and 
other papers, edited by his son, Dr. W. J. Seabury, were 
published in 1874. The Rev. Dr. Francis Vinton (d. 1872) 
was trained at first for the military service, graduating at 
West Point in 1830, and serving during the Creole War in 
Georgia in 1836. He studied law at Harvard, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1834. He next studied theology, in 
the General Theological Seminary, and was admitted to 
orders in 1838. He was rector of Emanuel Church, Brook- 
lyn, in 1844, and of Grace Church, Brooklyn, in 1847. He 
became an assistant minister of Trinity Church, New York, 
1855, which position he retained until his death. In 1869 he 
was appointed to the new professorship in the Seminary of 
Ecclesiastical Polity and Law, and discharged its duties with 
zeal and diligence. Besides single sermons, orations, lec- 
tures, etc., Dr. Vinton published Arthur Tremaine ; or, 
Cadet Life (1830); Lectures on the Evidences of Christian- 
ity (1855); and a Manual Commentary on the General 
Canon Law of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States (1870). The Rev. Dr. William A. Muhlenberg (d. 1877) 
was a native of Pennsylvania, entered the ministry in 1817, 
and founded St. Paul's College, Flushing, Long Island, in 
1828. For nearly twenty years he was at its head, and 
exerted through it marked influences on education. In 1846 
he became rector of the Church of the Holy Communion, 
New York, the earliest among free-seat churches in the city. 
St. Luke's Hospital, New York, was founded through his 


efforts; it was opened in 1858, and Dr. Muhlenberg was for 
many years its pastor. He organized the first Protestant 
sisterhood in the United States, and established the institu- 
tion at St. Johnland, on Long Island, an industrial Christian 
settlement and community. Dr. Muhlenberg originated in 
1853 the " memorial " movement, as it is called in the Church, 
which bore fruit in subsequent years.* He made valuable 
contributions to the hymnology and music of the Church. 
Church Poetry, selected and arranged from Various Authors, 
was published in 1823 ; and Music of the Church, in con- 
junction with Dr. J, M. Wainwright, appeared in 1852; also 
The People's Psalter {wq-w dind revised edition, 1858). Since 
his decease has been published Evangelical Catholic Papers, 
edited by Anne Ayres, First series: a collection of essays, 
letters, and tractates, from his writings during the past forty 
years (1875). Second series : comprising addresses, lectures, 
and sermons, from his writings during the past fifty years 
(1877). The Rev. Edward A. Washburn, D.D., (d. 1881) was 
a native of Boston, and graduated from Harvard in 1838. 
He received orders in 1844; went abroad for two years in 
1851 ; became rector of Calvary Church, New York, in 1865. 
This position he filled to the close of his life. Dr. Washburn 
was a diligent student and a scholar of large and liberal cul- 
ture. In conjunction with Rev. Dr. E. Harwood he trans- 
lated and supplemented the Pastoral Epistles in Lange's 
Commentary. He contributed a valuable note to Dr. 
Schaff's Creeds of Christendom on the doctrinal position of 
the English Church ; was a member of the American company 
of New Testament revisers of the authorized version of the 
Bible, and read papers before the Evangelical Alliance (1873- 
1879) on " Reason and Faith " and on " Socialism." He wrote 
freely for the reviews ; but published only a single volume, 
viz. : The Social Law of God : Sermons on the Ten Conunand- 
ments{$\.\ied., 1881). There has been printed also a tractate 
of his, entitled Relation of the Episcopal Church to other 

*See Bishop Perry's History of the American Episcopal Church, on "The 
Memorial Discussion and its Practical Results," vol. ii., pp. 292-310. 


Christian Bodies, which clearly sets forth his matured con- 
victions on this subject. 

Passing by, for lack of room, several honorable names, 
such as the Rev. Dr. J. C. Rudd (d. 1848), the Rev. Dr. C. F. 
Cruse (d. 1865), the Rev. Dr. Milo Mahan (d. 1870), the Rev. 
Dr. John Cotton Smith (d. 1882), the Rev. Dr. F. C. Ewer 
(d. 1883), the Rev. Dr. C. S. Henry (d. 1884), the Rev. Dr. T. 
W. Coit (d. 1885), the Rev. Dr. S. H. Tyng (d. 1885) and 
others, only brief space can be given to some of those who 
are still living and serving the Church in New York. The 
venerable Rev. William Staunton, D.D., a generation ago 
prepared a work which has stood the test of time, and is the 
standard work on the subject. It was originally called 
the Dictionary of the Church, but its present title is. An 
Ecclesiastical Dictionary, containing Definitions of Terms 
and Explanations and Illustrations of Subjects pertaining to 
the History, Ritual, Discipline, Worship, Ceremonies, and 
Usages of the Christian Church ; with brief Notices of An- 
cient and Modern Sects, and Biographical Sketches of the 
Early Fathers and Writers of the Church (4th ed., with ad- 
ditions, 1875). Dr. Staunton has also been a frequent con- 
tributor to reviews, magazines, and journals in the Church. 
He holds a facile and pointed pen, and is always forcible and 
instructive. The Rev. Morgan Dix, S.T.D., although rector 
(since 1862) of the largest parish in the American Church, 
and burdened with grave responsibilities, has found time to 
make numerous contributions to Church literature. Among 
these we note A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, 
Lectures on the Pantheistic Idea of an Impersonal-Substance 
Deity, Essay on Christian Art, Lectures on the Two Estates, 
that of the Wedded in the Lord and that of the Single 
for the Kingdom of Heaven s Sake ; The Gospel and Philos- 
ophy : Six Lectures. Dr. Dix's style is clear and incisive, 
and he rarely, if ever, fails to make his meaning plain to 
intelligent readers. The Rev. J. H. Rylance, D.D., rector 
of St. Mark's Church in the Bowery, New York, has given 
much thought to the "burning" questions of the day, 
in regard to the foundations of social life and order, the 


mutual relations of classes in the community, and the like. 
His publications have thus far been (ew, but yet effective 
for good. The Rev. William R. Huntington, D.D., rector of 
Grace Church, New York, as successor of Bishop H. C. 
Potter, holds a position of high importance. Besides his 
well-known labors in connection with the revision of the 
Book of Common Prayer, he has published T/ie Church Idea, 
a valuable contribution to Church unity, also a volume 
on Conditional Immortality. Dr. Huntington is by right a 
poet, and has proven his right to the name, but he has not 
published a volume of poetry as yet. The Rev. Chas. H. 
Hall, D.D., though in the Diocese of Long Island, may prop- 
erly here be included as belonging to New York before the 
new diocese was formed. Dr. H. has published Notes on the 
Gospels, which are marked by excellent judgment in the use 
of his material, and by sound and sober exegesis. His 
more recent contribution is entitled Shadows of the Valley, 
being a discussion of the question much mooted in our 
day, that of future punishment. Principal Fairbairn, of St. 
Stephen's College, is a well-furnished scholar, and has 
published a volume of Sermons, which are admirable speci- 
mens of academic preaching. Dr. W. W. Olssen, a professor 
in the same college, has published two volumes. Personality, 
Human and Divine, and Revelation, Universal and Special, 
which show not only ability and scholarship, but also sound 
conservative Church teaching. Others of the clergy have 
contributed in some degree to Church literature, but neces- 
sity compels us to pass them by at this time.* 

* Jesse Ames Spencer, S.T.D., the writer of this article, is a native of New 
York; graduated at Columbia College, 1837, and from the General Theological 
Seminary, 1840 ; was admitted to orders in 1840; served two or three years in a 
parish, but was compelled to go abroad in search of health; traveled in Europe 
and the East; was professor of Latin and Oriental Languages in Burlington Col- 
lege, N. J., in 1849-1850; editor and secretary of the General Protestant Epis- 
copal Sunday-school Union and Church Book Society, 1851-1857 ; professor of 
Greek Language and Literature in College of the City of New York, i86g-l88i. 
Dr. Spencer has published The New Testament in Greek, with notes on the 
historical books (1847); Casar's Commentaries, with notes, lexicon, etc. (1848); 
Egypt and the Holy Land (1849); History of the United States (4 vols., 1856- 


The laity of the Church in New York are entitled to 
special mention as contributing to its literature. Among 
those were, the eminent civilian and president of Columbia 
College, William Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (d. 18 19); the gen- 
erous benefactor of the General Theological Seminary, the 
faithful teacher in that institution, the poet of no mean 
renown, Clement C. Moore, LL.D, (d. 1863); the wise and 
learned jurist and author, also a professor in the General 
Theological Seminary, Gulian C. Verplanck, LL.D. (d. 1870); 
the well-read scholar and magister bibliothecarum, J. G. 
Cogswell, LL.D. (d. 1871) ; the able expositor of Church law, 
Murray Hoffman, LL.D. (d. 1878) ; the genial men of letters 
and authors, the brothers Evert and George L. Duyckinck 
(d. 1878, 1863) ; and others among the departed as well as 
the living. 

The present paper, such as it is, confessedly imperfect, here 
comes to its close. It is hoped that it will, in some degree, 
help those who come after to appreciate the full force of the 

0^i^.<?^ •^i^e^ OPVt 


l86g) ; Greek Praxis (1870) ; The Young Ruler, and Other Discourses (1871) ; 
A Course of English Reading {!%•] 2)- He edited Archbishop Trench's Poems {i%^(i), 
and Xenophon's Anabasis, from Professor A. Crosby's manuscripts. Dr. Spencer 
has also contributed freely to current literature in the leading reviews and 
magazines of the day. — [Editor.] 


Page 171, line 7 from bottom, " the Dioceses of Albany and Long Island," omit- 
ting " Central New York." 

" 192, "3 " " new Dioceses of Long Island and Albany," 

omitting " and Central New York." 

" 193, " 7, " long ago councils, representing," etc. 

" 221, " 13 from bottom, Coit, noi Cook. 

" 245, " 21, 1885, noi 1855. 

" 254, " 7, 1822, noi 18S2. 



Adams, John, American Minister to 
England, 135 ; Vice-President of 
United States, 136. 

Aged and Infirm Clergy Fund, N. Y., 


Albany, Bishop of, and delegates present 
at Convention, 6; created a diocese, 
81, 82. 

All Angels' Church, N. Y., 325, 326. 

All Saints' Church, Rosendale, 361. 
" " Briarcliff, 341. 

" " New York, 265, 266. 

" " Milton, 310. 

All Souls' Church, N. Y., 329. 

Alumni of Gen. Theol. Seminary en- 
dow a professorship, 383. 

Alsop, J., 371. 

Andrews, J, W., " Church Law of," 99. 

Auchmuty, Rev. Dr., rector of Trinity 
Ch., N. Y., 64, 143 ; death of, 67. 


Babcock, Rev. Dr. T., 7, 

Barclay, Rev. Dr. H. , rector of Trinity 
Ch., New York, 62 ; death of, 64. 

Bard, John, generosity of, to St. Ste- 
phen's College, 402-408. 

Bass, Rev. Edward, 77 ; Bishop of 
Massachusetts, 78. 

Beach, Rev. Abraham, 68, 69, 139. 

Beardsley, Rev. John, 130, 214, 226. 

Bedinger, Rev. H., 5. 

Berrian, Rev. Dr. W., rector of Trinity 
Ch., N. Y., quoted, 143, 170 ; ordi- 
nation of, 146 ; publications of, 438. 

Betts, William, 372. 

Bible and Prayer Book Society, New 
York, 373. 

Blind, Destitute, Society for Relief of, 

Bloomer, Rev. Joshua, 69, 127. 

Bogart, W. H., 7. 

Bowden, Rev. Dr. John, assistant min- 
ister of Trinity Church, N. Y., 66, 
143 ; death of, 150 ; contributions 
to Church literature, 436. 

Brodhead, History of State of N. York, 

value and defects of, 87-89, 91. 
Brown, Rev. Dr. John, rector of St. 

George's Ch., Newburgh, 215, 216. 
Brownell, Rev. Dr. T. C., assistant 

minister of Trinity Ch., N. Y., 178 ; 

Bishop of Connecticut, 178, 192. 
Buel, Rev. Dr. S., professor in Gen. 

Theol. Seminary, 389. 
Burhans, Rev. Daniel, 140. 

Calvary Church, New York, 277-279. 
Calvary Chapel, N. Y., 277, 278. 
Central N. Y., letter of Bishop of, to 
Dr. Dix, 3,4; delegates from, pres- 
ent at Convention, 7 ; diocese of, 
when created, 80, 81. 
Chandler, Rev. Dr. T. B., 372. 
Chapel of St. Stephen's College, Annan- 
dale, 361, 362. 
Children's Fold, N. Y., 424. 
Christ's Church, Marlborough, 280,281. 
" " New Brighton, 311. 

" " New York, 237, 238. 

" " Paterson, 256. 

" " Pelham, 287. 

" " Piermont, 303. 

" " Poughkeepsie, 214,215. 

" " Red Hook, 320. 

" " Riverdale, N. Y., 332. 

" " Rye, 222-24. 

" " Tarrytown, 279, 280. 

" " Warwick, 335. 

" " Yonkers, 359. 

Church, the, in N.Y., low state of, when 

Bp. Hobart was consecrated, 151. 
Church of the Annunciation, New York, 

281, 282. 
Church of the Ascension, N.Y., 266, 267. 
" " " Esopus, 284. 

" " " Rhinecliff, 324. 

" W. New Brigh- 

ton, 342. 
Church of the Beloved Disciple, N. Y., 

355. 356- 
Church of the Divine Love, Montrose, 



Church of the Epiphany, N.Y., 292-294. 

Church of the Heavenly Rest, N.Y., 341, 

Church of the Holy Apostles, N. Y., 

Church of the Holy Comforter, Pough- 
keepsie, 334, 335. 

Church of the Holy Comforter, South- 
field, 334. 

Church of the Holy Comforter, N. Y., 

Church of the Holy Communion, N. Y., 

Church of the Holy Cross, 349. 

Church of the Holy Faith, 357. 

Church of the Holy Innocents, High- 
land Falls, 388, 389. 

Church of the Holy Innocents, Harlem, 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre, N. Y., 
332, 333- 

Church of the Holy Spirit, Rondout, 
309, 3ro. 

Church of the Holy Spirit, N. Y., 353. 

Church of the Holy Trinity, Highland, 
351, 352. 

Church of the Holy Trinity, N. Y., 331, 

Church of the Incarnation, N. Y., 312, 

Church of the Intercession, N. Y., 304, 
Church of the Mediator, South Yonkers, 

Church of the Messiah, Rhinebeck, 311, 

Church of the Nativity, N, Y., 285. 
Church of the Reconciliation, N. Y., 

Church of the Regeneration, Pine Plains, 

Church of the Redeemer, N. Y., 315. 
Church of the Redeemer, Pelhamville, 

Church of the Reformation, N. Y., 337- 


Church of St. Augustine, Croton, 361. 

Church of St. Edward the Martyr, N. 
Y., 358. 

Church of St. George the Martyr, 296. 

Church of St. John the Baptist, Glen- 
ham, 350. 

Church of St. John the Baptist, N. Y., 

Church of St. John the Evangelist, N. 
Y., 316. 

Church of St. Ignatius, N. Y., 345, 346. 

Church of St. Mary the Virgin, N, Y., 

Church of the Transfiguration, N. Y., 

Church Literature of the Century, 431- 

Claggett, Rt. Rev. Bishop, consecration 
of, 17, 136. 

Cogswell, J. G., LL.D., 444. 

Coit, Rev. Dr. T. W., 181, 221, 441. ! 

Columbia College, chartered in 1754,63. ' 

" Concordate," agreement of Bp. Sea^ \ 
bury with Scotch Church, 74-76. 

Congress (1776), appoint a day of fast- 
ing and prayer, 130. 

Convention of Diocese of N. Y., the 
hundred and second, commemora- 
tion of centenary, 3 ; public service 
in Trinity Church, N. Y., 5, 6 ; 
delegates from other New York 
dioceses present, 6 ; sermon by Dr. 
W. J. Seabury, 7-36. 

Cooper, Rev. Dr., president of King's 
College, N. Y., 65. 

Corporation for Relief of Widows and 
Children of Clergymen in New 
York, historical sketch of, 371, 372 ; 
officers of (1885), 373. 

Coxe, Rt. Rev. A. C., present at Con- 
vention and assisting, 6 ; address of, 
delivered in St. Thomas' Ch., N. 
Y., 105-I12 ; sketch by, of life and 
episcopate of Bp. Hobart, third 
Bishop of N. York, 148-170 ; rector 
of Calvary Ch., N. Y., 277 ; vice- 
president of Corporation for Relief, 
etc., 373 ; contributions to Church 
literature, 435. 

Creighton, Rev. Dr. W., elected provi- 
sional Bishop of N. York, 81 ; de- 
clined, 81. 

Cruse, Rev. C. F., 226, 441. 


Deaf Mutes, Church mission to, 426. 

De Costa, Rev. Dr., historical essay of, 
on origin and progress of Church 
in New York, 46-86; sketch of the 
early history of the Colonial Church 
in N, Y., 87-103. 

Dehon, Rt. Rev. Bishop, 374, 

De Lancey, James (l 753), Governor of 
N. York, 63. 

De Lancey, Rev. Dr. W. H., elected 
and consecrated Bishop of Western 
N. Y., 80; great work of, in W.N . 
York, III. 

Dix," Rev. Dr., rector of Trinity Ch., 
N. Y., letter of Bp. Huntington to, 
3, 4; rector of Trinity parish, 204; 
contributions to Ch. literature, 442. 



Doane, Rt. Rev. G. W., of N. Jersey, 
memoir of Bp. Wainwright, 176, 


Doane, Rt. Rev. W. C, present at Con- 
vention and assisting, 6; address of, 
delivered in St. Thomas' Church, 
N. Y., 113-118; sketch by, of life 
and episcopate of Bp. Wainwright, 
fifth Bishop of N. Y., 176-186; 
vice-president of Corporation for 
Relief, etc., 373. 

Dodge, A. G. P., gift of to the Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 384. 

Dorr, Rev. Dr., 375. 

Douglas, Rev. Dr. G. W., 5. 

Douglas. \V. B., 6. 

D'Oyly and M ant's Family Bible, re- 
published by Bp. Hobart, 160, 161. 

Drisler, Henry, LL.D., 373. 

Duke of York (James II.), code of laws 
of, for Protestant religion in New 
York, 94-96. 

Dunnell, Rev. W. N., 266, 372. 

Dutch, share of, in settling N.Y., 88-94. 

Duyckinck, Evert and George L. , 444. 

Dyer, Rev. Dr. H., 381. 


Eaton, Rev. Dr., anecdote of, 176, 177. 

Edson, Rev. Dr., 380. 

Edson, T. R. , gifts of family of, to Gen. 

Theol. Seminary, 384. 
Eigenbrodt, Rev. Dr., professor in Gen. 

Theol. Seminary, 389. 
Ely, Alfred, 6. 
Evans, Rev. B., 425. 
Evarts, Hon. W. M., 197. 
Ewer, Rev. Dr. F. C, 441. 


Fairbairn, Rev, Dr. R. B., warden of 
St. Stephen's College, 413; ser- 
mons of, 443. 

Fletcher, Governor, of N. York, 99. 

Forbes, Rev. Dr. J. M., dean of Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 389. 

Forsyth, Hon. James, 6. 

Free Church of the Holy Martyrs, N. 
York, 299. 

French Church du St. Esprit, 239, 240. 

French Huguenots, early colonists in 
N. York, 88-90. 

Gardner, George J., 7. 
Gay, Rev. E., Jr., 418, 419. 
General Convention, in its origination, 

General Theological Seminary, histori- 
cal .sketch of, 374-389. 
Gleig, chaplain general of British Army, 

letter from, 135. 
Gordon, Rev. Dr. John, 50. 
Grace Church, City Island, 356. 

" " New York, 242-245. 

" " Nyack, 329, 330. 

ii6thSt.,N.Y., 353,354. 

" " Port Jervis, 319. 

" " S. Middletown, 297. 

" " Stony Point, 347. 

" " West Farms, 301, 302. 

" " White Plains, 265. 

Grace Parish, Stony Point, 342, 343. 
Green Bay Mission, 159. 
Griffin, Rev. E. D., literary remains 

of, 434. 
Griffith, Rev. Dr. David, bishop-elect 

of Virginia, 134. 
Griswold, Rev. Dr A. V., consecrated 

bishop of the Eastern diocese, 137. 


Haight, Rev. Dr. B. I., professor in 
Gen, Theol. Seminary, 379, 387, 3S8. 

Haight, Charles C, 372. 

Hall, Rev. Dr. Charles H., 6; contribu- 
tions to Ch. literature, 441, 443. 

Hall, Rev. Dr. R. C, professor in Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 389. 

Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 247. 

Harison, R. M., treasurer of Corpora- 
tion for Relief, etc., 372, 373. 

Harris, Rev. William, 138. 

Hawks, Rev. Dr. F. L., 32, 241 ; 
"Chrysostom of American Church," 
37i 38 ; speech in convention at 
Utica, 80; eloquent in debate, 
no ; rector of St. Thomas' Church, 
New York, 259 ; rector of Calvary 
Ch., 277 ; contributions to Church 
literature, 437, 439. 

Heathcote, Col. Caleb, 56, 102, 

Henry, Rev. Dr. C. S., 216, 441 ; rec- 
torof St. Clement's Ch,, N. Y., 26S. 

Hill, Rev. J. W., 5. 

Hobart, Rt. Rev. Bp., eloquence and 
energy of, 30 ; consecrated Bp. of 
New York, 78, 137 ; high and 
noble character, 79 ; death of, 79 ; 
sketch of life and episcopate of the 
third Bp. of New York, 148-170; 
founder of N. Y. Bible and Prayer 
Book Society and of Tract Society, 
373. 3741 services for Gen. Theol. 
Seminary, 374-377, 387 ; contribu- 
tions to Church literature, 432, 433. 



Hobart, Rev. Dr. J. H., 225, 227, 252, 


Hodges, Dr. Edward. 388. 

Hoffman, Rev. Dr. E. A., dean of Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 389. 

Hoffman, Murray, 29 ; expositor of 
Church la«r, 444. 

Hoffman, S. V., endows professorship 
in Gen. Theol. Seminary, 382 ; gift 
of widow and children of, to endow 
office of dean, 384. 

Holden, Rev. R., rector of Trinity 
School, 371. 

Holy Trinity Ch., Harlem, 343-345- 

Home for Incurables, 420. 

Home for Old Men and Aged Couples, 
N. Y., 424-426. 

Hopson, Rev. G. B.,. 413. 

Houghton, Rev. Geo. H., instructor in 
Gen. Theol. Seminary, 388 ; rector 
of Ch. of Transfiguration, 305. 

House of the Good Shepherd, Tomkins 
Cove, 418-420. 

House of the Holy Comforter, N. Y., 
427, 428. 

House of Mercy, N. Y., 399. 

House of Rest for Consumptives, 423. 

Huntington, Rt. Rev. F. D., letter of, 
to Dr. Dix, 3, 4 ; elected and conse- 
crated Bishop of Central N. York, 
80, 81, III ; vice-president of Cor- 
poration for Relief, etc., 373. 

Huntington, Rev. Dr. W, R., 243 ; 
rector of Grace Church, N. Y., 
243 ; contributions to Church liter- 
ature, 442. 

Inglis, Rev. Dr. Charles, assistant min- 
ister of Trinity Church, N. Y., 
66, 67, 128 ; retires to Nova Sco- 
tia, 67, 73, 143. 

Institutions of Learning and Charity in 
N. York, 367-429. 

Italian Mission, 360. 

Jarvis, Rev. Dr. Abraham, 70 ; Bp. of 

Connecticut, 137 ; death of, 178. 
Jarvis, George A., gift to Gen. Theol. 

Seminary, 384. 
Jarvis, Rev. Dr. S. F., 242, 246, 261; 

professor in Gen. Theol. Seminaiy, 

375. 387- 
Jay, Hon, John, 197. 
Jay, Peter A., 372. 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, president of 

King's (now Columbia) College, N. 

Y., 63; letter of, to Archbishop 
Seeker, 63 ; presides in Conven- 
tion, 64. 
Johnson, Rev. Dr. S. R., 175, 375 ; 
professor in Gen. Theol. Sem'y, 

379, 388. 
Johnson, William Samuel, president of 

Columbia College, 443. 
Jones, Rev. Alexander, 52. 
Jones, Samuel, 29. 


Keith, Rev. George, 58. 
Kent, Chancellor, 376. 
King, Hon. J. A., 6. 
King, Rufus, 376. 

Kohne, Frederic, legacy of, to Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 378, 383. 

Learning, Rev. Jeremiah, 70. 

Littlejohn, Rt. Rev. Bp., present at 
Convention and assisting, 6 ; ad- 
dress of, delivered in St. Thomas' 
Church, N. Y., 1 19-124 ; vice- 
president of Corporation for Relief, 
etc., 373 ; contribution to Church 
literature, 435. 

Long Island, Bishop of, and delegates 
present at Convention, 6 ; created 
a diocese, 82. 

Lorillard, Geo., legacy of, to Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 383. 

Low, Hon. Seth, 6. 

Ludlow, Miss E., gift of, to Gen. Theol. 
Seminary, to endow professorship, 

383, 384 ; legacy of, to Seminary, 

384, 411- 

Lyman, Rev. Dr. T. B., elected dean 
of Gen. Theol. Seminary, 389. 


McVickar, Rev. Dr. John, 32, 37 ; Bp. 
Coxe's praise of, 112, 155, 170 ; 
favors founding St. Stephen's Col- 
lege, 399-404 ; contributions to 
Church literature, 439. 

Madison, Rt. Rev. Bp., 17, 78, 136. 

Magna Charta, and Church of England 
in America, 54, 99 ; Presbyterian 
attempts to set aside in N. York, 

Mahan, Rev. Dr. M., professor in Gen. 
Theol. Seminaiy, 379, 388, 441. 

Mason, Rev. Dr. J. M., provost of Co- 
lumbia College, N. Y., 151, 155, 



Midnight Mission, N. V., 420, 421. 

Milnor, Rev. Dr. J., rector of St. 
George's Ch., N. Y., 249, 436. 

Missionary Society, Church, for Seamen, 
historical sketch of, 393-395. 

Moore, Rev. Benjamin, assistant min- 
ister of Trinity Church, New 
York, 66-69, 72. 74. 77. ^43 ; ser- 
mon at oi'dination, 77 ; elected 
rector of Trinity Ch., 78, 145 ; 
consecrated Bishop of New York, 
78 ; death of, 78 ; sketch of life 
and episcopate of second Bishop of 
New York, 142-147 ; secretary of 
Corporation for Relief, etc., 371, 
372 ; discourses of, 432. 

Moore, Clement C, LL. D., professor 
in Gen. Theol. Seminary, 144, 158, 
388 ; gift of, to Seminary, 375, 443. 

Moore, Rev. Dr. R. C, ordained, 76 ; 
rector of Grace Ch., Rye, 223, 265 ; 
of St. Stephen's, N.Y., 241 ; bishop 
of Virginia, 223, 241, 374. 

Moore, Rev. Dr. W. H., 6. 

Muhlenberg, Rev. Dr. \V. A.. 33, 38 ; 
rector of Church of Holy Com- 
munion, N. Y. , 288 ; founder of 
St. Luke's Hospital, 396 ; contribu- 
tions to Church literature, 440, 441. 


New Jersey, Bp. of, present at conven- 
tion in New York, and assisting, 6. 
New Netherland, taken by the English, 

93. 94- 
New York (Manhattan Island), original 
settlers of, 88, 89 ; the Dutch in, 


New York, centennial of the Diocese 
of, 46-86 ; diocese organized, 67 ; 
Church and State in, during co- 
lonial period, 87-103 ; sketch 
of first Bishop of, 127-141 ; of 
second Bishop of, 142-147 ; of 
third Bishop of, 148-170 ; of fourth 
Bishop of, 171-175 ; of fifth Bishop 
of, 176-186 ; of sixth Bishop of, 
187-198 ; of assistant Bishop of, 
199, 200. 

New York Prot. Epis. City Mission So- 
ciety, historical sketch of, 389-392. 

Noble, Rev. L. L., professor in St. 
Stephen's College, 414. 


Ogden, C. C, 373. 

Ogilby, Rev. Dr. J. D., professor in 

Gen. Theol. Seminary, 379, 388; 
publications of, 436, 437 

Ogilvie, Rev. John, assistant minister 
of Trinity Church, N. Y., 12S, 

Oliver, Rev. Dr. A., professor in Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 3S9, 413. 

Olmstead, Rev. C. F., 7, 413. 

Olssen, Rev. Dr. W., professor in St. 
Stephen's College, 413, 414 ; publi- 
cations of, 443. 

Onderdonk, Rt. Rev. B. T., episco- 
pate of, 30, 31 ; consecrated bishop, 
79, 171 ; administration of diocese, 
80; death of, 81 ; sketch of life 
and episcopate of, 171-175 ; pro- 
fessor in Gen. Theol. Seminar)', 

Orphans' Home and Asylum of the 
Prot. Epis. Ch., N. Y., 397, 398, 


Parish Histories of the Diocese of New 
York, 203-365. 

Parochial Fund of Diocese of N. Y., 

Payne, Rev. Dr. W., 6. 

Pendleton, Mrs. M., gifts of, to Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 383. 

Peters, Rev. Dr. T. M., 373. 

Pierson, Henry R., 6. 

Potter, Rev. Dr. E. N., 6. 

Potter, Rt. Rev. Henry C, letter of 
Bp. Stevens to, 4, 5 ; at St. Thomas' 
Ch. opens proceedings, 45 ; con- 
secrated assistant Bp. of N.Y., 82; 
introduces Bp. Coxe to tell the 
story of Western and Central N.Y., 
103, 104 ; introduces Bp. Doane, 
to speak of Albany, 112, 113 ; intro- 
duces Bp. Littlejohn to speak of 
Long Island, 118, 119; sketch of 
life and services of, 199, 200 ; pre- 
fatory note to Institutions of 
Learning, etc., 369, 370 ; publica- 
tions of, 433, 434. 

Potter, Rt. Rev. Horatio, eulogy on, 31, 
32 ; consecrated provisional Bishop 
of N. York, 81, 192 ; Bishop of N. 
Y. on the death of Bishop Onder- 
donk, 81, 192 ; assistant to, chosen, 
82, 200; sketch of life and episco- 
pate of, 187-198 ; president of Cor- 
poration for Relief, etc., 373. 

Pott, James, 373, 374. 

Powel, Samuel, 371. 

Presbyterians, views of, on Church 
matters in N. York, 57, 100. 



Price, Rev. Dr. J. H., rector of St. 
Stephen's Ch., N. Y., 241 ; vice- 
president of Corporation for Relief, 
etc., 373, 407. 

Propagation of Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
Society for, founded, 58 ; work in 
America. 58 ; founds Trinity 
School, N. Y., 370. 

Provoost, Rt. Rev. Bp., 10, 17, 67 ; 
goes to England for consecra- 
tion, 69, 70 ; sketch of life and 
episcopate of, first Bishop of N. 
York, 127-141 ; president of Cor- 
poration for Relief, etc., 371 ; 
literaiy position, 432. 

Pruyn, Hon. J. Y. L., 408, 412. 


Religion and Learning, Society for Pro- 
moting, gift of, to Gen. Theol. 
Seminary, 383 ; historical sketch of, 

392, 393- 

Richey, Rev. Dr. T., professor in Gen. 
Theol. Seminary, 389. 

Rudd, Rev. Dr. J. C, 441. 

Rutherford, Walter, 372. 

Rylance, Rev. Dr. J. H., rector of St. 
Mark's Ch., N. Y., 234; publica- 
tions of, 442. 

St. Ambrose's Ch., N. Y., 336. 

St. Andrew's Ch., Brewsters, 357, 358. 

" N. Y., 267. 
" " " Richmond Co., 213, 

" " " Walden, 217-220. 

St. Ann's Ch., Morrisania, 284. 

" " New York, 317, 318. 
Barnabas' Ch., Irvington, 326, 327. 
Bartholomew's Ch., N. Y., 276. 
Clement's Ch., N. Y., 268. 269. 
Esprit, I'Eglise du, N. Y., 239, 240. 
George's Ch., Newburgh, 215-217. 
" " N. York, 249, 250. 

James' Ch,, Callicoon Depot, 352. 
" " Fordham, 320. 
" " Goshen, 238, 239. 
" " Hyde Park, 250-252. 
" " New York, 245-247. 
" " North Salem, 233. 
James the Less, Scarsdale, 308. 
John's Ch., Canterbury, 323, 324. 
" " Clarkstown, 336. 

" " Clifton, 285, 286. 

" " Greenwood, 340. 

St. John's Ch., Kingston, 270. 

" " Monticello, 336, 337. 

" " Pleasantville, 314. 

" " Rosendale, 363. 

" " St. John, 362, 363. 

" " Tuckahoe, 314. 

" " Westchester, 363-365. 

" " Wilmot, 329. 

" " Yonkers, 229-231. 

St. John Baptist Foundation, 426, 427. 
St. Luke's Ch., Haverstraw, 300. 

" " Matteavvan, 343. 

" " New York, 256-259. 

" " Rossville, 286, 287. 

" " Somers, 282, 283. 

St. Luke's Home for Indigent Christian 

Females, 398, 
St. Luke's Hospital, N. Y., historical 

sketch of, 396, 397. 
St. Margaret's Ch., Staatsburg, 357. 
St. Mark's Ch, in the Bowery, N. Y., 


" " Carthage Landing, 339. 

" " Katoonah, 361. 

" " Mount Pleasant, 330. 

" " Newcastle, 311, 

St. Mary's Ch., Beech wood, 359, 360, 

" " in the Highlands, 283. 

" " Manhattanville, 261-265. 

" " Mott Haven, 322, 323. 

" " W. New Brighton, 310. 

" " Yorktown, 345. 

St, Mary's Free Hospital, N. Y., 423. 

St. Matthew's Ch., Bedford, 229. 
St. Michael's Ch., N. Y., 242. 
St. Paul's Ch., Castleton, 270, 271. 

" " East Chester, 224, 225. 

" " Morrisania, 315, 316. 

" " Newburgh, 328. 

" *' I'leasant Valley, 280. 

" " Poughkeepsie, 275, 276. 

" " Sing Sing, 274. 

" " Spring Valley, 340, 341. 

" " Tivoli, 252, 253. 

" " Yonkers, 325. 
St. Paul's Mission, 345. 
St. Peter's Ch., High Falls, 297, 298. 

" " Lithgow, 271, 272. 

" N, Y., 269. 

" " Peekskill, 232, 233. 

" " Portchester, 313, 314. 

" " Westchester, 231, 232. 

St. Philip's Ch. in the Highlands, 2S3. 

" " New York, 316, 317. 

St, Stephen's Ch., New York, 240-242. 
" " Northcastle, 287, 288. 

St. Stephen's College, Annandale, his- 
torical sketch of, 399-414. 



St. Thomas' Ch., Amenia, 303, 304. 
" " Mamaroneck, 254. 

" " New Windsor, 255. 

" " New York, proceed- 

ings at opening services, 45 ; Dr. 
De Costa's historical essay, 46- 
86 ; address of Bp. Coxe, 105-112 ; 
address of Bp. Doane, 113-118 ; 
address of Bp. Littlejohn, 119-124 ; 
sketch of parish history, 259-261. 

St. Timothy's Free Ch., N. Y., 318, 319. 

Santiago, New York, 339. 

Sands, A. B., and Sands Fund, 415. 

Seabury, Rev. Charles, 16. 

" Rev. Samuel (1730), 16. 
" Rev. Samuel, D.D. , of New 
York, 16, 38 ; sermon at funeral of 
Bp. Onderdonk, 171 ; rector of Ch. 
of the Annunciation, N. Y., 281 ; 
professor in Gen. Theo. Seminary, 
379, 388 ; literary labors of, 439. 

Seabury, Rt. Rev. Samuel, and family, 
16, 39 ; Dr. S., secretary of Con- 
vention of Clergy (1766), 64, 65 ; 
goes to England, 73 ; consecrated 
in Scotland, 74, 135 ; works with 
Bp. White, 76. 

Seabury, Rev. Dr. W. J., centennial 
sermon of the Ch. in N. York, 
preached in Trinity Ch., 7-36 ; 
sketch by, of life and episcopate of 
Bp.B. T. Onderdonk, fourth Bishop 
of N. Y., 171-175 ; rector of Ch. 
of the Annunciation, N. Y., 281 ; 
professor in Gen. Theol. Seminary, 

Seymour, Rev, Dr. G. F., professor in 
Gen. Theol. Seminary, and dean, 

379. 389- 
Sheltering Arms, N. Y., sketch of, 416, 

Shepherd's Fold, N. Y., 422. 
Sherred, Jacob, legacy of, to Gen. 

Theol. Seminary, 376, 383, 386. 
Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd, N. Y., 

Sisterhood of the Holy Communion, 

N. Y.. 398. 
Sisterhood of St. Mary, 417, 418. 
Sketches of the first six Bishops of New 

York, 127-198. 
Smith, Rev. C. B., sketch by, of the life 

and episcopate of Bp. Moore, second 

Bishop of N. Y., 142-147 ; rector 

of St. James' Ch., N. Y., 246. 
Smith, Professor H., 6. 
Smith, Rev. Dr. J. C., rector of Church 

of the Ascension, N. Y., 266, 441. 
Smith, Rev. Dr. William, 67, 371. 

Society of St. Martha, 428, 429. 
Spencer, Rev. Dr. J. A., secretary of 

Corporation for Relief, etc., 373, 

443 (note). 
Spencer, John C, American jurist, 80, 

no, 376. 
Staunton, Rev. Dr. W., contributions to 

Church literature, 441, 442. 
Stevens, Rt. Rev. Bp., letter to Bp. H. 

C. Potter, 4, 5. 
Stuyvesant, Peter G., gift of, to Gen. 

Theol. Seminary, 383. 


Talman, Miss C, gifts to a church, 

355 ; to the Seminary, 384. 
Taylor, Rev. Dr. T. H., 243. 
Tennessee, Bishop of, present at Con- 
vention and assisting, 6. 
Tract Society, Prot. Episcopal, 374. 
Trinity Church, Fishkill, 225-228. 
" " Haverstraw, 299. 

" " Madalin, 333. 

" " Morrisania, 345. 

" " Mount Vernon, 321. 

" " New York, opening 

services of Convention held in, 
proceedings, etc, 3-41 ; charter 
of, 56, 60. 
Trinity Church, New Rochelle, 220-222. 
" " Saugerties, 269, 270. 

" " Sing Sing, 341. 

Trinity Parish, N. Y., history of, 203- 
219 ; rectors of, 203 ; assistant 
ministers of, 204 ; seven churches 
in, 206-209 ; aid given by to other 
churches, 209-211 ; what the ves- 
try do with the income, 211-213. 
Trinity School, N. Y., historical sketch 

of, 370-671. 
Tucker, Rev. Dr. J. I., 6. 
Turner, Rev. Dr S. H., professor in 
Gen. Theol. Seminary, 379, 388 ; 
contributions to Church literature, 

437, 438. 
Tuttle, Rev. Dr. I. H., rector of St. 

Luke's Ch., N. Y., 256, 398. 
Tyler, Mrs. A., 421. 
Tyng, Rev. Dr. S. H., rector of St. 

George's Ch., N. Y., 249, 441. 


Vanderbilt, W. H., legacy of, to Gen. 

Theol. Seminary, 384. 
Van Dyck, Rev. L. B., 6. 
Van Wagenen, G. G., 372. 
Van Winkle, Rev. I., 413. 



Verplanck, Gulian C., 29, 227, 228, 
376; professor in Gen. Theol. 
Seminary, 388, 443; jurist and 
author, 443. 

Vesey, Rev. William, 55; not a dis- 
senter, 56, 57; ordination and la- 
bors of, in N. Y. City, 56-62 ; com- 
missary, 62 ; death of, 62 ; rector 
of Trinity Parish, '203. 

Vinton, Rev. Dr. F., 175; professor in 
Gen. Theol. Seminary, 389; pub- 
lications of, 440. 


Wainwright, Rev. Dr. J. M., conse- 
crated provisional Bishop of N. Y., 
81; death of, 81; sketch of life and 
episcopate of fifth Bishop of N. Y., 
176-186; desirous of a training col- 
lege, 399; contributions to Ch. lit- 
erature, 433. 

Wallace, J. M., 371. 

Walton, Rev. Dr. W., instructor and 
professor in Gen. Theol. Seminary, 


Ward, Rev. J. H., 432. 

Wardill, Rev. John, 66. 

Washburn, Rev. Dr. E. A., rector of 
Calvary Ch., N. Y., 277, 439; con- 
tributions to Ch. literature, 441. 

Washington, George, inauguration of, 
in N. Y. as President of the United 
States, 136; death of, and mourning 
for, 137. 

Western N. York, Bishop of, and dele- 
gates present at Convention, 6 ; 
created a diocese, 80. 

White, Rev. Dr. W., 17 ; goes to Eng- 
land for consecration, 70 ; plan for 
temporary Church organization in 
America, 70, 71 ; president of Cor- 
poration for Relief, etc., 371 ; serv- 
ices for Gen. Theol. Seminary, 

Whittingham, Rt. Rev. Bp., 39, 109; 

rector of St. Luke's Ch., N. Y., 

256, 258 ; professor in Gen. Theol. 

Seminary, 379, 388 ; contiibutions 

to Church literature, 434. 
Williams, Rev. Eleazar, 159. 
Willink, Mrs. C. A., 411. 
Williston, Rev. Ralph, ordination of, 1 46. 
Wilson, Rev. Dr. Bird, professor in 

Gen. Theol, Seminary, 379, 387 ; 

Life of Bishop White, 438. 
Wilson, Gen. J. G., sketch by, of life 

and episcopate of Bp. Provoost,i27- 

141 ; sketch of Assistant Bp., 199 ; 

gifts to St. James' Ch., N. Y., 247. 
Windsor, Rev. Dr. Lloyd, 6. 
Wolfe, Miss C. L., generous aid given 

by, 243, 420. 
WoUey, Rev. Charles, 49. 

Yonkers Nursery and Home, 429. 

Ziegenfuss, Rev. H. L., 68. 
Zimmerman, Mrs. M. E., generous 

gift of, 419, 420. 
Zion Church, Greenburg, 273, 274. 

" " N. Y., 247-249. 

" " Wappinger's Falls, 272. 


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